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JtllustrateTi to numerous Snsrabutfls. 





Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1831, by Charles 
A. Goodrich, in the Clerk's office of the District Court of Connecticut. 

Part First contains 240 page*. 

Part Second contain* - 228 page* 

Whole number of pages, - - - - 468 


The First Edition of the following work, having met with a more 
flattering reception among its Patrons, than the most sanguine hopes 
of the Editor allowed him to anticipate, he has been encouraged to 
attempt several improvements in this edition. 

In making these improvements, the Editor has endeavored to ren- 
der the plan of the work more simple — has erased such portions as 
appeared devoid of interest, or utility, and substituted therefor more 
than sixty pages, original matter, on topics, which, it is believed, 
will be found important in the view of those for whose benefit the 
work is designed. 

It has been the object of the Editor from the first to proceed upon 
the principle of selection and utility — to embrace so lew subjects, 
as to enable him to enlarge upon them, according to their relative 
importance ; arid to treat of them in so 'plain and practical a man- 
ner, as to render the work intelligible and useful. By this means, 
he has been enabled, he trusts, in a measure to avoid a serious ob- 
jection, which has sometimes been made to the portable Encyclope- 
dias extant, that they embrace so great a variety of articles, as to 
render them little more than Dictionaries. A ditferent course has 
been here adopted ; and it gives the Editor pleasure to know that it 
has the sanction of a large portion of his patrons. 

To the friends, who have aided him, and lightened his task, he 
takes occasion to renew the expression of his thanks, especially to 
the author of the article on Horticulture. In respect to that article, 
the Editor is requested to say, that it is chiefly an abridgement of 
Cobbett's excellent system of gardening. And in relation to several 
other parts of the work, he can claim no other merit, than that of 
presenting to his readers a condensed and faithful compilation. 

The nature of the work has precluded him, in many instances, 
from giving credit to the several authors of whose labors, he has 
availed himself. 

It belongs to this place, therefore, to express his obligation to 
Guy's Pocket Encyclopedia, Edinburgh Encyclopedia, Mitchel's 
Pocket Encyclopedia, Library of Useful Knowledge, Library of 
Entertaining Knowledge, Godman's Natural History, Goldsmith's 
Natural History, Hooper's Medical Dictionary, Family Physician, 
American Farmer, New England Farmer, Complete Grazier, 
Loudon's Encyclopedia of Agriculture, Clater's, Hind's and Ma- 
son's Farming, White on the Diseases of Cattle, Bigelow's Tech- 
nology, Allen's Mechanics, Tegg's Book of Utility, American 
Almanac, &c. &c. 





Section I. 


Varieties of the Human Species — Intellectual capacity — Difference of Form, 
Stature, and Complexion — Origin of the North American Indians — Human Struc- 
ture, viz. Bones — Teeth — Muscles — Flesh — Skin — Absorbents — Cartilages — Mem- 
brane — Gland — The Brain — Cerebrum — Cerebellum — The Spinal Marrow — The 
Thorax, or Chest — Respiration — The Windpipe — The Lungs — The Heart — An Ar- 
tery—A Vein— Air— The Blood — Thoracic Duct— The Abdomen— The Liver— The 
Bile— The Spleen, or Milt— The Stomach— Of Digestion— The Gastric Juice — The 
Intestines — The Kidneys — The Senses, viz. — The Eye — Feeling — The Nose— The 
Taste — The Sexes. 

Section ii. 

of the mind and its faculties, p. 29 — 35. 

The Mind— Sensation — Memory — Imagination — Genius — Reason — The Will — 
Ghost— Knowledge— The Passions. 



Section I. 

of artificial aliments, p. 47—53. 

Bread— Starch— Sugar— Tea— Coffee— Chocolate — Rice— The Yam— The Plan- 
tain — Bread Fruit, &c. — Cheese, Butter, &c. See Agriculture. 

Section II. 

of fruits, p. 53—63. 

Oranges — The Citron— The Lemon — Olive— The Almond— Tamarinds — Prunes 
—The Cacao Nut — The Cocoa Nut— The Pomegranate — The Fig— The Banian, or 
Indian Fig Tree— Raisins — Dates— Pine Apple — Apple — Plum— Peach— Nectarine 
— Apricot— Cherry — Quince. 



Section III. 

OF DRINKS, p. 63—73. 

Water — Wine — Method of Making and Fining Wine — Currant Wine — Method 
of making Currant Wine — Cider — Method of making Cider — Vinegar — Method of 
making Vinegar — Alcohol — Rum — Brandy — Geneva, or Gin — Arrack — Ale — Malt 
Method of making Malt— Brewing— Hops. 

Section IV. 

of condiments, p. 73—81. 

Ginger— Nutmeg— Clove — Pepper— Cassia— Cinnamon— Salt— Method of ma- 
king Salt— Mustard— Ketchup. 

Section V. 

OF ANIMALS, p. 81 — 111. 

Domestic Animals, See Agriculture — The Lion — The Tiger — The Puma, or Cou- 
gar—Domestic Cat— The Dog— The Camel— Llama— The Giraffe — Rein Deer- 
Moose — American Elk — Elephant — Method of taking the Elephant— Gigantic, 
Mastodon, or Mammoth — Bear — Seal — Beaver. 

Section VI. 

OF FISH. p. 111—117. 

The Salmon Fishery — Cod Fishery — Herring Fishery — Mackerel Fishery— Shad 
The Lobster — Oysters— Tortoise— Whale— Method of taking Whales. 

Section VII. 

OF FOWL. p. 117—125. 

The Cock— The Hen— The Turkey- The Guinea Hen— The Goose— Duck- 

Wild Pigeon— Carrier Pigeon. 



Section I. 


Rules of Sir R. Philios — Of Dr. Boerhaave— Experience of Howard— Hints to 
Students — Quantity of Food — Abstinence — Exercise — Friction — Air — Sleep — Sleep- 
ing Apartments— Beds — Cleanliness — Bathing — Contagion — Purifying and Disin- 
fecting Agents— Tobacco— Dr. Rush's View of the Effects of certain Liquors upon 
the body and minds of men — Of Opium and Laudanum — Of Wounds cut with 
sharp Instruments — Of Poisoned Wounds — Mode of Treatment — Strains or Sprains 
— Treatment of Frozen Limbs — Burns and Scalds— Dress of Children — Diet of 

Children— Sleep— Exercise— Washing and Bathing of Children— Teething 

Summer Complaint— Hooping Cough— Croup — Measles. 



Section II. 


Different kinds of Poisons — Symptoms, and Remedies — Stomach Pump— Poison 
from the fumes of Burning Charcoal, Gas from Wells. Caverns, &c. and the neces- 
sary Treatment — Drowning — Symptoms of apparent Death by Drowning — Treat- 
ment — Choking — Treatment — Lightning, and its Remedy. 

Section III. 

FAMILY DISPENSATORY, p. 164: — 163. 

Weights and Measures used by Apothecaries, and the signs by which they are 
denoted — Recipes for the making of Laxative Pills — Pills of Aloes, and Fetida— 
Hull's Colic Pills— Purging Pills— Sir H. Halford's Aperient Pills— Strengthening 
Pills— To Excite Perspiration — Adhesive Plaster— Anodyne Plaster — Strengthening 
Plaster — Picra — Sweating Powder, or Dover's Powder — Elixir Proprietatus — Tinc- 
ture of Bark, or Huxham's Tincture — Tincture of Guaiac — Laudanum — Elixir 
Asthmatic— Linseed Meal Poultice — Bread and Water Poultice—Mustard Poultice — 
Yeast Poultice— Simple Ointment— Golden Ointment — Sulphur Ointment— Pile 
Ointment— Basilican Oii.trnent — Simple Sirup — Sirup of Ginger — Sirup of Lemons 
—volatile Liniment— Liniment of Oil and Lime — Camphorated Oil — Opodeldoc. 



Cotton ; Manner of raising Cotton ; Process of Manufacturing Cotton into Cloth 
Silk Manufacture ; Satin ; Velvet ; Taffety ; Gauze ; Tabby ; Brocade ; Stockings 
History of Silk ; Mulberry Tree ; Mode of Cultivation ; Eggs of Silk Worms 
Hatching the Eggs ; Rearing Silk Worms ; Rising of the Silk Worms ; Picking of 
the Cocoons ; Cocoons kept for Use ; Cocoons intended for Sale ; Manufacture of 
Linen; Of Cambric; Of Lace ; Culture of Flax; Culture of Hemp;. An of 
Tanning; Of Curryim ; Mtnufacture of Parchment; Of Morocco ; Of Glue ; 
Of Hats ; Of Buttons , M?thod of Refining Gold ; Art of Gilding : Of Silvering ; 
Of Coining; Process of Making Tin and Tin plate ; Solder ; Melting and casting 
of Metals ; Art of Casting in Sand ; Of casting Statues ; Of Casting Cannon ; Of 
Casting Bells ; Of Casting Printing Letters ; Printing : History of Printing ; Art 
of Common, or Letter-press Printing ; of Rolling press Printing ; of Calico Print- 
ing ; and Stereotype Printing ; Method of "Making Varnish ; Art of Japanning ; 
Method of making Bricks ; Manufacture of Tiles : Pipes ; Pottery ; Delft-ware ; 
Of Porcelain, or China ; Of Glass ; Ingredients of Glass ; Method of making 
Bottles, Phials, Drinking G — 3, Window Glass. Plate Glass, for Looking Glasses, 
&c. ; Manufacture of Putty ; Pins ; Needles ; Art of Bleaching ; Manufacture of 
Woollen Cloths; Of Camblet; Of Carpets; Arf of Dyeing ; Materials for Dyeing 
different Colors : General Rules fjr Dyeinsr all Colors ; Soap ; Candles ; Wax ; 
Manufacture of Sealing:- Wax ; Of Paper ; Architecture ; General History and De- 
scription of the different Styles of ancient and modern Architecture, <£e. <£c. &c. 





Section I. 

ON NEAT CATTLE, &C. p. 3 — 42. 

Different Breeds of Neat Cattle in Great Britain and the United States ; Wild 
Cattle ; Devonshire Breed ; Sussex Breed ; Hereford ; Short Horned Cattle ; Long 
Horned ; Galloway Breed ; Highland Breed ; Welsh Breed ; Alderney Breed ; Va- 
rieties in the United States ; Coke Devon Bull Holkam ; Wye Comet ; On buying 
and stocking a farm with Cattle ; Of the Bull ; Method of managing mischievous 
Bulls ; Of the Cow ; Description of a Perfect Cow ; On the Treatment and Rear- 
ing of Calves ; Of Steers and Draught Oxen ; Easy method of accustoming animals 
to draw ; Mode of yoking in France ; Of Grazing ; Soiling and Stall Feeding 
Neat Cattle. 

Section II. 

on the dairy, &c. p. 42—52. 

Of Milch Kine, and of the Pasture and other Food best calculated for Cows, as it 
respects their Milk ; Of the Management of Milk and Cream ; and the Making and 
Preserving of Butter ; Of the Making and Preserving of Cheese. 

Section III. 


Brief History of the Horse ; Different Breeds of Horses, viz. Barb ; Dongola 
Horse ; Arabian ; East India Horse ; Chinese ; Persian ; Toorkoman ; Tartar and 
Kalmuck ; Turkish ; German ; Swedish, Finland and Norwegian ; Iceland ; 
Flemish and Dutch ; Spanish ; Italian ; English ; Roadster or Hackney ; Farmer's 
Horse; Coach Horse ; Heavy Draught Horses ; Cleveland Bays; Suffolk Punch ; 
Clydesdale ; Heavy Black Horses ; Dray ; Cavalry ; Race Horse ; Darley Arabi- 
an ; Flying Childers ; Eclipse ; Wellesley ; Arabian ; Hunter ; Galloways and 
Ponies ; Welsh Poney ; Highland Poney ; Shetland Poney ; Irish Horse ; Ameri- 
can ; Wild Horse; Canadian; Conestoga ; English Horse in the United States; 
Rules for judging of the Age, Action, Hardihood, and Spirit of Horses ; Nicking ; 
Pricking; Foxing; Docking; Fattening; Excessive Fatigue; Treatment on a 
journey ; On the management and Training of Colts ; Castration. 

Section IV. 


History of the Sheep ; Synopsis of the different Breeds of Sheep in Great Bri- 
tain ; Heath, Linton Short, or Forest Sheep ; Exmoor and Dartmoor ; Norfolk ; 
Wiltshire ; Dorset ; Leicester ; Lincolnshire ; Teeswater ; Romney Marsh ; De* 
vonshire ; South Down ; Cannock ; Ryeland ; Cheviot ; Merino ; Sheep in the 
United States ; Essential Requisites to a good Ram ; Signs of a Healthy Sheep .; 
Signs of Age ; Time of purchasing ; Breeding Ewes ; Owning of Lambs ; Wean* 
ing ; Winter Management ; Quantity of Food ; Manner of Feeding ; Salt ; Fold, 
ing; Marking. 



Section V. 


Different Breeds of Swine ; Chinese Breed ; Berkshire ; Essex Half Black ; 
Sussex ; Dishley ; Woburn ; Hampshire ; Northampton ; Shropshire ; Yorkshire ; 
Lincolnshire ; Cheshire ; Swine in the United States ; Management of Sows with 
Pig ; Pigs ; Store Pigs ; Fatting Hogs. 

Section VI. 


1. Horses. Botts ; Colic ; Inflammation of the Bowels ; Lampas ; Bridle-sores ; 
Pole evil ; Stranguary or suppression of nine ; Of Mange ; Glanders : Treat- 
ment ; Of Shoulder Strains ; Treatment ; Of Galls ; Of Wind Galls ; Of Ring 
Bone; Of Broken Wind; Of Founder ; Symptoms of a Founder ; Remedy. 

2. Of Cattle. Of Colic, or Gripes ; Remedy ; Of Jaundice, or Yellows ; 
Of Foul in the Foot, or Hoof- Ail ; Of Grain Sickness ; Of Warts, or Horny Ex- 
crescences ; Of Mange ; Of the Horn Distemper ; Its Treatment ; Of Udder ; 111 j 
Of Sore Teats ; Of Lice. 

3. Of Sheep. Of Scab : Its remedy ; Of Staggers, or Dizziness ; Treatment ; 
Pinning or Scouring ; Of Tick ; Cold and its consequences ; Foot Rot ; Bowel 
Sickness > Catarrhal Affections ; Of Poisons ; Of Wounds. 

4. Of Swine. Measles : Of Mange ; Of Murrain ; Of Diseases of the 
Lungs : Of Fever, or rising of the Lights ; Of Gargut ; Of Issues. 

5. Veterinary Pharmacopeia. 


art of gardening, or horticulture, p. 138 — 1T6. 

Of the proper Situation of Gardens ; Soil ; Fencing ; Laying out ; Hot beds ; 
Of making the bed ; Of the management of a hot-bed ; Propagation and Cultiva- 
tion ; Sort of Seeds : True-Seed ; Soundness of Seed : Saving and Preserving 
Of Sowing ; Of Transplanting ; Of Cultivation ; Alphabetical List of the 
several sorts of Plants, and the proper treatment of each. 

Propagation of Fruits ; By Cuttings ; By Slips ; By Layers ; By Suckers ; Bv 
Budding ; By Grafting ; Of Storks ; Of Planting ; Of the Cultivation of Fruit 
Trees ; List of the different kinds of Fruits, and the proper treatment of each : Di- 
rections for the Culture of Grape Vines. 

Management of Bees. Bee ; Female or Queen Bee ; Males or Drones ; 
Working Bees or Neuters; Swarming; Hiving; Wax; Propolis; Building of 
Cells ; Honey ; Bee Bread ; Hives ; Bee-moth. 



Motion of Animals; Human Strength; Aids to Locomotion; Wheels: Broad 
Wheels ; Form of Wheels : Mode of Attaching a Horse ; Rail Roads. 

Of Steam Engines ; Of Canals ; Canals of Egypt ; China ; Italy ; Russia : 
Sweden ; Denmark ; Holland ; Germany ; Spain ; France ; Great Britain ; 
American Canals ; Fuel; Chimneys; Telegraph; Deaf and Dumb Alphabet 




OP GOVERNMENT, p. 201—217. 

Origin and History of Government ; Of the different Forms of Government j 
Synopsis of the Constitution of Maine ; New Hampshire ; Massachusetts ; Ver- 
mont ; Connecticut ; Rhode Island j New York ; New Jersey ; Pennsylvania ; 
Delaware ; Maryland ; Virginia ; North Carolina ; South Carolina ; Georgia ; 
Alabama ; Louisiana ; Mississippi ; Tennessee ; Kentucky ; Ohio ; Illinois ; In- 
diana ; Missouri ; United States. 


statistics, p. 218—228. 

Population of the American Colonies in 1701 and 1749 ; Settlements of the'several 
Colonies ; Expense of the Revolutionary War ; Amount of Continental Money is- 
sued ; Loans and Grants of Money from France ; Number of Troops employed 
during the Revolution ; Naval Force of the United States ; Adoption of the Consti- 
tution by the several States ; Amount of money expended by the United States upon 
Works of Internal Improvements ; Amount of Public Debt ; Bank of the United 
States ; Value of Exports and Imports of the United States in 1829 ; Domestic 
Exports of the United States ; Troops furnished by each State during the Revolution ; 
Total "Population of the Earth ; Inhabitants of the Earth divided according to their 
Religious Belief. 





A knowledge of the various objects of nature and art is doubtless 
worthy the attainment of every one. An acquaintance with these ob- 
jects contributes to enlarge the mind — to gratify a rational curiosity — 
to excite admiring views of the Great Author of all things, and to pre- 
pare for a wider sphere of usefulness. Yet, it cannot be denied, that a 
knowledge of oneself is of higher importance still. Without self-know- 
ledge, man must be ignorant of the true dignity of his nature, and lost 
to just views of the Divine wisdom and goodness, displayed in his com- 

Man, it has been well observed, is a compound existence, made up of 
two great parts ; the Body, and the Mind, or Soul. The body was form- 
ed of the dust ; but it is a frame of a most wonderful nature. The 
parts of which it is composed — their number — their various uses — de- 
pendencies and operations, — the arrangement, by which they are formed 
into a system — the faculties attached to it, of seeing, hearing, smelling, 
tasting, and feeling — its capacity of pleasure and pain — the warnings 
which it is fitted to give of approaching or commencing evil — and the 
power which it so variously possesses of self restoration, are atl wonder- 
ful, mysterious, and strongly declaratory of the skill, and benevolence 
of the Creator. 

But the Mind or Soul is of a still more wonderful nature. It is this, 
which emphatically gives man his pre-eminence over other beings, by 
which he is surrounded ; and entitles him to be considered as " the lord 
of the creation." To the faculties of the body there is a limit ; but to 
the immortal mind God has never said, " Thus far shalt thou go, but no 
further." Much as man knows, in any stage of his progress, he may 
know still more ; and may become still more exalted and lovely. Not 
confined to the present system, as are other animals, he is destined to an 
existence, which, in point of duration, will run parallel with that of bis 




It will, therefore, naturally belong to the first part of our work, to 
take a view of man, considered as to his animal and intellectual nature. 



VARIETIES. — The human family is divided into different nations, 
which are scattered abroad upon the face of the earth, and exhibit sev- 
eral varieties of form and color. These divisions are Jice in number : — 
The European, or while race — the Tartar, or Mongul — the Malay —the 
African, or Negro race — and the Americ :n, or Copper-colored race. 

1st. The European race is distinguished by the elegance of its form, 
and by a forehead more or less broad and prominent; indicative of a 
considerable portion of brain, in the front part of the skull ; the skin is, 
however fairer ; the hair and eyes lighter in color, in the more temper- 
ate climates, than towards the south. This race includes all the in- 
habitants of Europe, (except the Laplanders and Finns,) and the 
descendants of Europeans in America, and other portions of the world. 
It also embraces the inhabitants of the western temperate parts of Asia, 
as far as the river Oby, the Caspian Sea, and the Ganges, and those of 
the northern parts of Africa, viz. the people of Barbary, Egypt, and 
Abyssinia, and the Moors of Northern Africa. 

2d. The Tartar or Mongul race, is characterized by a yellow skin ; 
straight black hair ; square heads ; large and flat face ; small and flat 
nose ; round and prominent cheeks ; and pointed chin. This variety 
includes all the nations in Asia, east of the Oby, Caspian, and Ganges, 
excepting Malacca. It embraces, also, the tribes which inhabit the 
frigid zones in both the eastern and western continents, including the 
Laplanders, Samoiedes, Ostiacs, Tunguses, Yakuts, Tschutskis, and 
Kamschadales of Siberia, and the Esquimaux and Greenlanders. 

3d. The Malay, comprehends the inhabitants of the peninsula of 
Malacca, Ceylon, the Asiatic Islands, New Zealand, and Polynesia, 
with the exception of New Holland, New Guinea, New Caledonia, and 
Van Dieman's land. This variety is characterized by a tawny color ; 
black curled hair, which is soft, thick, and abundant ; a prominent 
forehead : thick, wide, and flattened nose ; and moderately projecting 
upper jaws. 

4th. The African or Negro variety, is spread over western and 
southern Africa. It is found, also, upon the coasts of Madagascar, and 
occupies New Holland, Van Dieman's Land, New Caledonia, and New 
Guinea. This variety is characterized by a black color ; black and 
woolly hair; thick lips ; projecting cheek bones ; large and flat nose; 
raised chin ; retreating forehead ; and crooked legs. 

5th. The American or copper-colored race, includes all the aborigi- 
nal inhabitants of both the Americas, except the Esquimaux and 
Greenlanders. This race is of a copper color, resembling that of rusty 
iron, or cinnamon ; coarse, straight black hair ; high cheek bones ; and 


■ ■ ■ 


sunken eyes. The forehead is usually short ; the nose and the whole 
countenance broad ; the nostrils open ; and the lips thick. The beard 
is thin and scanty. Of the Indians it has been affirmed, that they are 
destitute of beards ; but this only occurs, when the beard has been era- 
dicated, at the expense of much industry and suffering. 

INTELLECTUAL CAPACITY.— Of all the varieties of mankind, 
there can be no doubt that the white man exhibits the greatest marks of 
ingenuity and intelligence ; and of this variety, the most intelligent will 
be found to be those who reside in temperate climates. Portions of the 
Mongtil race exhibit also considerable ingenuity, evinced particularly 
in the Hindoo and the Chinese ; but the range of intellect of this portion 
of our race is nevertheless comparatively circumscribed. The third, or 
. x 'alay race, exhibits no small variety of intellectual endowment. 
While none of the tribes, which belong to this race, equal the Chinese 
and some others of the Mongul race, few, perhaps are so sunken as 
some portions of the Negro race. This last race exhibits much animal 
power, yet it is far beneath the white man in intellectual capacity ; we 
see the Negro in the Hottentot at its lowest grade. The copper-colored 
man, we may be certain, is also far beneath the European in his intel- 
lectual capacity, although he is not deficient in many fine traits of cha- 

Three causes, a writer remarks, may be regarded as concurring in the 
production of those varieties which we find attached to the different 
nations of the globe. First, the influence of the climate ; second, food, 
which has a dependance on climate ; and third, manners, on which cli- 
mate has, perhaps, a still greater influence. 

The heat of the climate is the chief cause of blackness among the 
human species. When this heat is excessive, as in Guinea, we find the 
people are perfectly black ; when a little less severe, the blackness is 
not so deep ; when it becomes nearly temperate, as in Barbary, the 
Mogul empire, and Arabia, the men are only brown ; and when it is 
altogether temperate, as in many parts of Europe, Asia, and America, 
the men are white. Some varieties are, indeed, produced by the mode 
of living ; all the Tartars, for example, are tawny, while Europeans, 
who live under the same latitude, are white. This difference may 
safely be ascribed to the Tartars being always exposed to the open air ; 
to their having no cities and fixed habitations ; to their sleeping con- 
stantly on the ground ; and to their rough and savage manner of living. 
These circumstances, are sufficient, at least, to render the Tartars more 
swarthy than the Europeans, who want nothing to make life easy and 
agreeable. — Why are the Chinese fairer than the Tartars, though they 
resemble them in every feature ? Because they are more polished, live 
in towns, and practise every art to guard themselves against the injuries 
of the weather ; while the Tartars are perpetually exposed to the ac- 
tion of the sun and air. 

When the cold becomes extreme, it appears to produce effects similar 
to those of great heat. The Samoiedes, the Laplanders, and the natives 
of Greenland are tawny. Here the two extremes approach each other ; 
great heat and great cold produce similar effects on the skin, because 
each of these causes acts by a quality common to both — the dryness of 



the air, perhaps, is equally great in extreme cold, as in extreme heal. 
Both cold and heat dry the skin, and give it that tawny hue which we 
find in so many different nations. Cold contracts all the productions 
of nature ; the Laplanders, accordingly, who are perpetually exposed 
to the rigors of the frost, are the smallest of the human species. 

The most temperate climates produce the most handsome people, and 
from this climate, the ideas of the genuine color of mankind, and of the 
various degrees of beauty ought to be derived. 

Although the climate may be regarded as the chief cause of the dif- 
ferent colors of men, yet food greatly affects the form of our bodies ; 
that which is unwholesome and ill prepared, makes the human species 
degenerate. All those people who live miserably, are ugly and ill made. 
The air and soil have considerable influence upon the figure of men, 
beasts, and plants. In the same province, the inhabitants of the eleva- 
ted and hilly parts, are more active, nimble, handsome, and ingenious, 
than those who live in plains, where the air is thick and less pure. 

Every circumstance concurs in proving that mankind are not composed 
of species essentially different from each other; that on the contrary, 
there was originally but one species ; who, after multiplying and 
spreading over the whole surface of the earth, have undergone various 
changes by the influence of climate, food, mode of living, epidemic dis- 
eases, and the mixture of dissimilar individuals ; that, at first these 
changes were not so conspicuous, and produced only individual varie- 
ties, which afterwards became specific, because they were rendered 
more general, more strongly marked, and more permanent, by the 
continual action of the same causes ; and that they have been transmit- 
ted from generation to generation, as deformities or diseases pass from 
parents to children. 

which has justly attracted the attention of philosophers, and produced 
many interesting researches. It would obviously be impossible, within 
our narrow limits, to give our readers any correct idea of the various 
theories which have been adopted, to account for the peopling of Ameri- 
ca by the Indians. The received opinion, we believe, and that which 
seems to be supported by facts is, that the aborigines of America emi- 
grated to America from the continent of Asia. 

The principal objections which have been urged against this doc- 
trine, so far as we know, are, the two following ; 1st, that many thou- 
sand years must have elapsed subsequent to the creation, before the 
population of the old world could have been sufficiently numerous, to 
extend to its remote borders, and thence attain the American conitnent. 
Besides, it is thought to reflect upon the wisdom of the Deity, to 
permit so large a part of the globe to remain during u so long a time" 

The second objection is drawn from the number of different langua- 
ges spoken in North and South America, which Mr. Jefferson and others 
have thought incompatible with the idea of so recent an arrival on this 
continent, as even three or four thousand years. 

In respect to the first objection, it were sufficient to reply, that it as- 
sumes a position which needs itself to be proved, and can therefore nev* 



er be the basis of solid argument. On this subject, Dr. Godman, in hU 
Natural History, observes ; wt There is neither extravagance nor impro- 
priety in the opinion, that the two continents were originally one, and 
being continuous, the only difficulty is removed, that could be urged 
against the approach of population from the extremity of Asia. But in 
addition to all the reasons that can be urged in support of the doctrine 
we maintain, it should not be forgotten, that there are strong evidences, 
derived from astronomical and geological observations, proving the 
axis and poles of our globe to be not now precisely where they origin- 
ally stood. It is therefore very unfair to decide against the probability 
of peopling America from the extremity of Asia, if we reason from the 
existing climate of the countries adjacent to East Cape, or Cape Prince 
of Wales, the two nearest points of Asia and America. 

" The greatest difficulty thrown in the way of this opinion, was 
thought to be the striking difference between the Esquimaux and the 
common Indians, seeming to prove that they were derived from differ- 
ent races or kinds. We are informed in Crantz's History of Green- 
land, that the Moravian Missionaries, who visited the countries inhabit- 
ed by the Esquimaux, were much surprised to find that they were in all 
respects similar to the Greenlanders, and made use of the same lan- 
guage ; shewing that the Esquimaux had sprung from the same race, 
and had gradually reached their present residence from the extreme 
northern parts of Europe. This fact, now rendered undeniable by 
more recent researches, entirely invalidates the conclusion, that the Es- 
quimaux were derived from another species. The resemblance exist- 
ing between these people and the Siberians, Kamtschadales, Tunguse, 
&c. is manifest ; and notwithstanding they differ in many respects from 
other inhabitants of the New World, they are undeniably descended 
from the same parent stock, coming from different parts of the globe. 
The copper-colored natives of America, who are the most numerous of 
the aborigines, approach more closety to the Asiatic Tartars in color 
and stature, and this because they are descendants of that race arriving 
in America from the extremity of Asia." 

In respect to the second objection, the same writer observes ; " Grant- 
ing, as we are perfectly willing to do, the great lapse of time which 
would be requisite for the production of such radical changes, we do not 
think the objection derived from the languages more solid than those 
heretofore mentioned. As far as the researches of philologers have ex- 
tended, we do not find that there is so much difference in the dialects 
of our aborigines, as the arguments of these objectors would seem to 
imply. Throughout a large mass of this native population, a very per- 
ceptible connexion of language is apparent, and the relation to a parent 
stock is fairly evident. Even allowing that the amount of difference 
is as great, as could be desired by our opponents, the comparison of the 
aboriginal dialects with those of European nations, is by no means a 
correct mode of deciding the point. If, according to our idea, people 
reached this country at different times, from the extreme north of Eu- 
rope, or the northeast of Asia, the immense extent of country they were 
gradually to fre scattered over, the new objects by which they were sur- 
rounded, and the new modes of life they assumed, would all conspire to 
produce a change in their language in a much shorter time than could 
take place on the old continent, where their wanderings must have been, 



not only comparatively circumscribed, but their modes of living subject 
to very few variations. 

" But in the present condition of our knowledge, we have no right to 
state that the traces of affinity between the American dialects are en- 
tirely obliterated ; it would be far more correct to say, that we do not 
possess the means of making the necessary inquiries and decisions; our 
knowledge of their language is confined to a few meagre vocabularies, 
frequently derived from persons, whose statements cannot be relied on, 
however correct their intentions may have been, to say nothing of the 
almost insuperable difficulty of writing such languages from the hearer's 
idea of their pronunciation. 

M But whatever apparent difficulties may be suggested to the Asiatic 
origin of the aboriginals of America, the circumstance of but one spe- 
cies of the human race existing throughout the world is sufficient to re- 
duce us to the necessity of acknowledging that mankind have descend- 
ed from one parent stock, however their external appearance may have 
been modified by accident, disease, or situation. We are aware that 
some persons talk of the possibility of there having been various centres 
of creation to the human race, as among inferior animals ; but we con- 
sider it very unphilosophical to suppose the existence of various centres 
of creation for the same species." To the believer in Divine Revela- 
tion, this last idea, whatever may bethought of it in a philosophical 
view, will doubtless appear repugnant to the Scripture account of the 
origin of the human species, and is therefore to be rejected. 

HUMAN STRUCTURE.— The animal frame is composed of bones, 
muscles, brain, nerves, arteries, veins, cartilages, membranes, glands, — 
also of chyle, blood, milk, &c. 

BONES are white, hard, brittle, and almost insensible ; they support 
and form the stature of the body, defend its viscera, and give power to 
the various muscles. The number of bones in the human body is gen- 
erally 240 ; but in some individuals, who have two additional bones in 
each thumb and great ioe,they amount to 248. 

TEETH, a set of bones, situated in the upper and lower jaws, for 
the purpose of mastication. In adults, they are 32 in number, or 16 in 
each jaw-bone, consisting of 4 cutting, 2 canine, and 10 grinders. 

The teeth are of various sizes, being arranged in the following or- 
der ; four in front, termed cutting teeth, on each side of which is a sharp 
pointed canine or eye-tooth ; adjoining to these are Jive grinders on each 
side, the last of which is denominated the tooth of wisdom, because it 
seldom appears before the 25th year. The front and eye teeth are fur- 
nished with only one root each ; the two first grinders with two ; and 
the hindmost generally with three or four ; which may in most persons 
be ascertained by the number of small tubercles on the crowns. The 
tooth is divided into two principal parts ; viz. the crown, which projects 
above the gums ; and the root, that is enclosed within the sockets. 
The crown is a hard, fine, glossy white enamel, serving to defend the 
substance against external injury. The root is open ?.t the bottom, 
where it is connected with vessels and nerves, by which it receives 
nourishment, life and sensation. 



MUSCLES, of which, it is said, there are 446 in the human body, 
dissectible and describable, are parts of the animal body destined to 
move some other parts, and hence are termed the organs or instruments 
of motion. They are composed of flesh and tendinous fibres, and con- 
tain vessels of all kinds. 

FLESH is the fibrous or muscular part of the animal body : mus- 
cular flesh is composed of a great number of fibres or threads ; it is 
commonly of a reddish or whitish color. The ancients distinguished 
live different kinds of flesh ; but the moderns admit one only, fleshy 
and muscular parts being with them the same. 

SKIN is the general covering of the body. Though apparently a 
simple membrane, it consists of several parts. The outermost is the 
scarf-skin : it has no nerves, and is extended over every part of the 
true skin, except where the nails are ; it is this skin which is raised by 
the application of a blister ; it is thickest in those parts accustomed to 
labor or pressure, as the hand and foot. The rete mucosum is a web-like 
mucous substance lying between the scarf and true skin, which chiefly 
gives the color to the exterior of the human body. It is black in the 
negro ; white, brown, or yellowish in the European. The true skin is 
a very sensible membrane extended over all parts of the body, and has 
nerves terminating so plentifully on its surface, that the finest needle 
cannot prick it without touching some of them. 

ABSORBENTS are a set of small colorless vessels, which pervade 
the whole surface of the body both externally and internally. Their 
office is to take up whatever fluids are effused into the different cavities, 
and to pour out their contents for particular uses. For the purpose of 
absorption they are highly irritable at their extremities, and are very 
replete with valves to prevent the escape or return of their contents. 
Their number, when compared with other vessels, is four times greater ; 
and they are divided into lymphatics and lacteals, according to their re- 
spective offices, the former conveying lymph, the latter chyle. 

CARTILAGES, or gristles, are smooth, solid, flexible, elastic parts, 
softer than bone, and seem to be of the same nature : some even be- 
come bones by time ; some again are much softer, and partake of the 
nature of ligaments. They terminate those bones that form moveable 
joints, and in some instances serve to connect bones together. In the 
nose, ears, and eyelids are cartilages. 

A MEMBR.ANE is a thin, white, flexible, expanded skin, formed of 
several sorts of fibres interwoven together. The use of membranes is 
to cover and wrap up the parts of the body ; to strengthen them, and 
save them from external injuries ; to preserve the natural heat ; to 
join one part to another ; to sustain small vessels, &c. 

A GLAND is an organic part of the body, destined for the secretion 
or alteration of some peculiar fluid, and composed of blood-vessels, 
nerves, and absorbents. The glands are designated either according to 
the particular fluids which they contain, as mucous, sebaceous, lym- 
phatic, salival, and lachrymal glands ; or their structure, as simple, 
compound, conglobate, and conglomerate glands. The vessels and 
nerves of glands always come from the neighboring parts, and the ar- 



teries appear to possess a higher degree of irritability. Glands appear 
to the eye as whitish membranous masses. 

The BRAIN consists of the whole of that mass which, with its sur- 
rounding membranes and vessels, fills the greater part of the skull. It 
is said to be larger in man, in proportion to the nerves belonging to it, 
than in any other animal. It consists of the cerebrum, cerebellum, tuber 
annulare, and medulla oblongata ; the whole weighs usually about 
forty-eight or fifty ounces ; but its weight varies in different subjects. 

The CEREBRUM, which is by far the largest portion, is contained 
in all the J upper part of the skull ; it is divided into a right and left 
hemisphere by a membrane termed falx. Each hemisphere is also 
again subdivided into three lobes, the two lying in the front portion of 
the skull being the largest. It is surrounded with membranes, and ac- 
companied with blood-vessels. 

The CEREBELLUM, or little brai?i,ls situated in the back part of 
the skull beneath the posterior lobes of the cerebrum, from which it is 
separated by a membrane called the tentorium. It is divided by the 
falx minor into two hemispheres, which are again subdivided into lo- 

The Tuber annulare is of a roundieh form, about an inch in length 
and of the same width. From the tuber annulare arises the medulla 
oblongata, which forms the beginning of the spinal marrow. 

From the Brain arise nine pairs of NERVES ; some in solid cords, 
others in separate threads which afterwards unite into cords. Of these 
some have their origin in the cerebrum, some in the cerebellum, some in 
the tuber annulare, and some in the medulla oblongata. From these 
the nerves supplying the organs of smell, sight 1 taste, hearing, and feel- 
ing, in part, are derived. The nerves are called pairs, not because 
they proceed together from the brain and spinal marrow, but because 
they proceed from the opposite lobes of the brain, or from opposite 
sides of the spinal marrow, and supply similar parts on each side of 
the body with nerves. And hence it often happens in paralysis, or pal- 
sy, that on one side of the body all the nerves perform their office im- 
perfectly, while on the other side no diminution of nervous energy is 
evinced. A nerve is a long white medullary cord. The uses of the 
nerves are to convey impressions to the brain, from all parts of the body, 
over which they are spread, and to impart motion, by exciting the mus- 
cles, to the whole system. It is the opinion of some philosophers, that 
the nerves contain a subtle fluid, by means of which impressions are 
immediately carried to the brain : this fluid has, however, never been 
seen : others think that sensation is produced by what has been termed 
vibration ; but the plain truth is, we are at present ignorant of the 
means by which sensation and muscular motion are produced, further 
than that we know both are the effect of the agency of the nerves. 

The SPINAL MARROW, or medulla spinalis, is a continuation of 
the medulla oblongata from the head through the centre of the spine, 
which consists of a series of bones called vertebrce, supporting the body. 
From the spinal marrow are given out thirty pairs of nerves : these, 
in conjunction with those arising from the brain, communicate energy 
and feeling to the whole body ; and also by their extreme sensibility 



convey to the brain, the mind, or soul, the slightest as well as the 
strongest impressions made upon the different organs ; hence our 
pleasures and our pains, our hopes, out fears, and our affection. 

That the Brain, as a whole, is the organ of thought, the seat of the 
understanding, and the place where the emotions of the mind or soul 
arise, we cannot doubt ; it is also the centre of sensation and muscular 
motion, and to which all the nerves of the body appear subservient. 
But to what other particular uses the different parts of the brain are 
applied, does not yet appear accurately known. 

Phrenologists have pretended to throw some light on this curious and 
interesting subject. We shall confer a favor on our readers, we trust, 
by making them acquainted with some of the results of their investiga- 

The founder of the system of phrenology — by which is meant, " the 
science which treats of the faculties of the human mind, and of the 
organs by which they manifest themselves," — is Dr. Gall, a physician 
of Vienna, who, about the year 1796, first began to deliver lectures on 
the subject. In 1804, Dr. J. G. Spurzheim" became associated with 
him. Under the auspices, and captivating eloquence of these gentle- 
men, the system has acquired some credit, in several parts of Europe. 

For ourselves, we give little credit to it. Its tendency is obviously 
towards the gloomy and foolish doctrine of materialism. In one re- 
spect — in regard to the position, and size of the brain— there is truth 
in phrenology ; but, of the particular mapping of the skull, as adopted 
by the phrenologists, we think it behooves us, at present, to remain in 
modest doubt. 

Still, as a subject of curiosity, it is not without interest. And in or- 
der that our readers may judge, in respect to themselves, what is the 
strength of their intellectual powers, or to what propensities they are 
most inclined, we have engaged our engraver to execute the outlines 
of a human head, skilfully and scientifically divided up, or mapped out, 
in the language of the science. The reader will notice that in each 
division is supposed to lie some faculty, or propensity of the mind. 
By an inspection of the brain itself, or the living man's head, the phre- 
nologists affect to determine what faculty or propensity predominates 
— whether a man is gifted with the love of study, or inclined to idle- 
ness—whether he is peaceful or quarrelsome — timid or courageous — a 
wise man, or a foo}. We leave our readers to apply the subjoined 
rules for themselves. 

The numbers which follow, refer to the numbers to be found in the 
maps of the heads below. 

1. Here lies the propensity of amativeness or physical love. 2. Here, 
the propensity of philo progenitiveness, or love of children. 3. Coacern- 
traveness, or power of close study, (not represented.) 4. Adhesiveness, 
or disposition to friendship. 5. Combativtness or quarrelsomeness. 6. 
Destructiveness, or desire to destroy, and murder. 7. Construclneness, 
or mechanical skill. 8. Acquisitiveness, disposition to avarice, theft, &c. 
9. Secret iveness, cunning, deceit. 10. Self-esteem, on the top of the 
head, (not represented.) 11. Love of approbation, in the same vicinitv. 
12. Cautiousness. 13. Benevolence. 14. Fmerat'on. 15. Hope. 16. 
Ideality, or love of the sublime. Fine arts. 17. Wonder. 18. Const i- 




e^tiousness. 19. Firmness. 20. Individual'ty,\ove of philosophy, 2 1* 
Form, or power of imitating. 22. Sise, ability to judge of it. 23* 
Weight of resistance, power to judge of the momentum of bodies. 24. 
Coloring, ability to distinguish between nice shades. 25. Locality, de- 
sire for travelling. 26. Order, desire to see every thing in its place. 
27. Time, recollection of dates. 28. Number, the conception ofnum- 
ber, and its relations. 29. Tune, the perception of melody, (not repre- 
sented.) 30. Language, faculty of acquiring language easily. 31. 
Comparison, power of perceiving resemblances. 32. Causality, genius 
for metaphysics. 33. Wit, disposition to view objects in a ludicrous light. 

The THORAX or Chest consists of the upper portion of the trunk of 
the human body ; it is inclosed by the ribs, having the sternum or breast 
bone in the front, and a portion of the bones of the back behind. It is 
separated from the liver, stomach, intestines, &c, by the diaphragm, or 
midriff. The thorax contains the lungs, heart, &c, and numerous 
biood vessels, nerves, and absorbents. It is also separated, by a mem- 
brane called mediastinum, into a rignt and left portion. 

The RESPIRATION is that action of the lungs and diaphragm con- 
sisting of the processes of inspiration and expiration, by which air is 
received into, and expelled from the thorax or chest. The quantity of 
air taken into the lungs at each natural inspiration is supposed to be 
about 15 or 16 cubic inches; the number of respirations made in a min- 
ute is about 20. 



The V\ INDPIPE is a cartilaginous and membranous canal, througfi 
which the air passes into and from the lungs. It is divided by anato- 
mists into three parts, — the larynx, the trachea, and the bronchia. 

The larynx is a hollow cartilaginous organ at the top of the trachea. 
The air which passes through it during respiration produces the voice. 

The trachea, is that portion of the wind-pipe which extends from the 
larynx to the bronchia. 

The bronchia is a term given tc the trachea after it has entered the 
thorax, or chest ; here it separates into two branches, one of which com- 
municates with the right and the other with the left lung. 

The LUNGS are two viscera situated in the thorax, by means of 
which we breathe. The lung in the right cavity of the chest, is divided 
into three, that in the left cavity into two lobes. They hang in the 
chest, attached at their superior part by means of the trachea, and are- 
separated by a membrane called mediastinum. They are furnished with 
innumerable cells which are formed by a continuation of the trachea, 
the bronchial tubes of which communicate with each other ; the whole 
appears not unlike a honey-comb. 

The most important use of the lungs is for the process of respiration, 
by which the circulation of the blood appears to be immediately sup- 
ported ; and, doubtless, by their alternate inflation and collapsing, they 
contribute with the diaphragm to promote the various functions of the 
abdominal viscera, such as digestion, &c. For the change which the 
blood undergoes in its passage through the lungs, see the following ar- 

The HEART is a hollow, strong, muscular viscus, having the shape 
of a cone or pyramid reversed. Its size varies in different subjects ; it 
is generally about six inches long, and, at the base, four or five wide. 
The younger the subject, the larger is the heart, in proportion to the 
body. It is often smaller in tall and strong men than in others. It is 
situated on the left side of the thorax, and is surrounded by a membrane 
called pericardium or heart purse ; it is also imbedded, as it were, in 
the left lung. Its weight, with the pericardium, is usually from ten. to 
fifteen ounces. It is the centre of the circulation of the blood : of course 
from it all the arteries arise, and in it ail the veins terminate. It is divi- 
ded internally into a right and left ventricle ; these are divided by a 
fleshy septum. Each ventricle has two orifices; one auricular, through 
which the blood enters, the other arterious, through which the blood 
passes out. These four orifices are supplied with valves. There are 
also two cavities adhering to the base of the heart called auricles. The 
heart has, in the living subject, an alternate motion consisting of con- 
traction and dilatation, called systole and diastole, by means of which 
the blood is circulated throughout the body. The heart is said to con- 
tract 4000 times in an hour ; hence, as each ventricle contains one ounce 
of blood, there passes through the heart every hour 4"00 ounces, or 
350 pounds of blood. The whole mass of blood is about twenty-ei^ht 
pounds, so that this quantity of blood passes through the heart thirteen 
or fourteen times in an hour, or about once in every four or five mini 
In the whale, ten or twelve galloi.s of blood are thrown out of the heart 



at a stroke, with an immense velocity, through a tube of a foot diame- 

An ARTERY, or a pulsating blood-vessel, is a cylindrical canal con- 
veying the blood immediately from the heart to all parts of the body for 
the purposes of nutrition, preservation of life, generation of heat, and 
the secretion of different fluids. The motion of the blood in the arte- 
ries is called the pulse ; it corresponds with that of the heart. The 
pulse may be felt in various parts of the body, but the most usual place 
of feeling it is at the wrist. From seventy to eighty pulsations in a min- 
ute are commonly that number which in the adult subject is considered, 
as far as the pulse is concerned, to constitute health. In children, how- 
ever, the pulse is much quicker than this ; and in old persons slower. 
Wounds in arteries are always dangerous, and very frequently mortal ; 
hence the wisdom evinced in the structure of man : all the arteries are 
deeply imbedded in flesh, or other surrounding media, while the veins, 
a wound in which is comparatively unimportant, are plentifully scat- 
tered on the surface of the body. The blood in the arteries is of a flo- 
rid red color. 

A VEIN is a blood-vessel which returns the blood from the various 
parts of the body to the heart. The veins do not pulsate; the blood 
flows through them very slowly, and is conveyed to the heart by the 
contractility of their coats, the pressure of the blood from the arteries, 
the action of the muscles, and respiration ; and it is prevented from 
going 1 backwards in the veins by valves, of which there are a great nunu 
ber. The blood in the veins is of a much darker red than that in the 

Before we treat of the blood itself, it may be useful to know the com- 
ponent parts of atmospheric air, so essential as it is to the life of all 
warm blooded animals. 

AIR was for many ages considered as a simple homogeneous fluid ; 
and it was not till towards the end of the last century that it was found 
to be a compound body. Common air is composed chiefly of two gases, 
of which one, oxygen, forms of it 24 parts by weight, and the other, ni- 
trogen, forms of it 76 parts ; or about 21 parts of the former, and 79 of 
the latter by bulk. These proportions are found the same, in whatever 
part of the* world the experiments are made, or from whatever height 
in the atmosphere the air is obtained. It ought however to be mention- 
ed, that besides these ingredients, common air contains a very minute 
portion of carbonic acid gas, but that portion is in general so small as 
not indeed to be considered of any moment. Of the two portions of 
atmospheric air, the oxygen only supports animal life or combustion. 
Thus, if an animal be inclosed under a bell glass containing atmospher- 
ical air, it will live in it till all the oxygen is absorbed by its breathing, 
and then it instantly dies; the same takes place when a lighted candle 
is inclosed under similar circumstances ; hence the necessity and impor- 
tance of this fluid to animal existence. But although only about one- 
fourth of atmospheric air can support life, it yet appears that such a 
mixture is more advantageous for animal life than oxygen alone ; thus 
evincing the wisdom of that mixture found every where as atmospher- 
ic air. In what state of combination the two gases are, which consti- 
tute common air, is not exactly known ; but we well know that a more 



intimate union of the same materials produces most powerful agents, 
namely, the nitrous and the nitric acids. 

The BLOOD is a red fluid of a saltish taste, of a somewhat urinous 
smell, and glutinous consistence, which circulates in the heart, arteries, 
and veins, conveying nutrition, heat, and excitement to the whole body. 
The quantity of blood in the human body is estimated to be about twen- 
ty-eight pounds in an adult. Of this, four parts are contained in the 
veins, and a fifth in the arteries. The blood being returned by the veins 
of a dark red color to the heart, it is sent from that viscus into the lungs, 
to undergo some material change by coming in contact with atmospher- 
ic air in the air-cells of the lungs : after which, as has been stated, it is 
returned to the heart again of a much more florid color, and then im- 
pelled into the arteries, to be distributed over the body. The heat of 
the blood is usually about 98 degrees. 

THORACIC DUCT, an important vessel called the trunk of the ab- 
sorbents. It is of a serpentine form, and about the diameter of a crow- 
quill. It is attached to the bones of the back, and extends from the low- 
er opening of the midriff or diaprahgm (a membrane which separates 
the heart and lungs from the stomach, bowels, and other abdominal vis- 
cera,) to the angle formed by the union of the left subclavian and jugu- 
lar veins, into which it opens and evacuates its contents, there to be 
mixed with the blood. These contents consist chiefly of chyle, a whi- 
tish or milky fluid, separated from the food by the process of digestion, 
and taken up by the absorbents thickly spread over the intestines, and 
by them conveyed to the thoracic duct. 

Such are the offices of respiration and the blood. We shall now pro- 
ceed to consider some of the most important of the abdominal viscera. 

The ABDOMEN consists of all that portion of the trunk of the hu- 
man body situated below the thorax. It contains the liver, its gall- 
bladder, the stomach, the spleen, the pancreas, the intestines, the me- 
sentery, the kidneys, the urinary bladder, the omentum, &c. It has al- 
so numerous blood vessels, nerves, and absorbents. 

The LIVER, which is the largest and most ponderous viscus in the 
abdomen, it weighing, in adults, about three pounds, is of a deep red 
color. It consists of a glandulous mass, interspersed with numerous 
blood-vessels. It is situated under the diaphragm, inclining to the right 
side of the body, having the stomach beneath it; between which and 
the liver itself, lies the gall-bladder, with which it is of course intimate- 
ly connected. It is divided into two principal lobes, the right of which 
is by far the largest. Its shape approaches that of a circle ; it is attach- 
ed to the diaphragm by the suspensary and other ligaments. It is lar- 
ger in young animals than in old ones. 

The BILE is of a yellow-green color, about the consistence of thin 
oil ; when much agitated it froths like soap and water. Its smell is 
somewhat like musk ; its taste is bitter. It is, in fact, a species of soap ; 
and like other soap, is successfully employed to remore grease from 
clothes, &c. The gall-bladder in the human body is shaped like a pear, 
and is generally capable of containing about an ounce. It is firmly con- 
nected to the liver. In the elephant, stag, all insects and worms, this 




reservoir is wanting, the bile which they secrete, passing at once into 
the intestinal canal. The real use of the bile does not even now seem 
to be accurately ascertained. It appears, however, to assist in separa- 
ting the chyle from the chyme, to excite the intestines to action, and to 
produce the healthy appearance of the intestine evacuations. 

The SPLEEN, or Milt, is a spongy viscus of a livid color, in form 
somewhat resembling a tongue, but its shape, situation and size vary 
very much. It is, in a healthy subject, always on the left side between 
the false ribs and the stomach. Its general length is six inches, breadth 
three, and one thick. It is connected, by the blood vessels, to the sto- 
mach and the left kidney. It is larger when the stomach is empty, and 
smaller when compressed or evacuated by a full stomach. The uses of 
the spleen have, till lately, been considered as unknown ; but by a pa- 
per of Sir E. Home, in the Philosophical Transactions, it appears pro- 
bable that this viscus is a reservoir for the superabundant serum, lymph, 
globules, soluble mucus, and coloring matter carried into the circula- 
tion immediately after digestion is completed. 

The STOMACH is a large receptacle, varying in its capacity from 
about five to eleven pints. It is situated under the left side of the dia- 
phragm, its left side touching the spleen, and its right covered by the 
thin edge of the liver ; its figure nearly resembling the pouch of a bag 
pipe, its left end being most capacious. The upper side is concave, the 
lower is convex. It has two orifices, both on its upper part ; the left, 
through which the aliment passes from the mouth through the gullet or 
(Esophagus to the stomach, is named cardia; the right, through which 
it is conveyed out of the stomach into the duodenum, is named pylorus, 
where there is a circular valve which hinders the return of the aliment 
from the gut, but does not at all times hinder the bile from flowing into 
the stomach. The stomach, like the intestinal canal, is composed of 
three coats or membranes. 

The uses of the stomach are to excite hunger, and, partly, thirst; to 
receive the food from the oesophagus, and to retain it, till, by the motion 
of the stomach and the admixture of various fluids, and by many other 
changes not exactly understood, it is rendered fit to pass the right ori- 
fice of the stomach, and afford chyle to the intestines for the nutrition 
of the body ; or, in other words, till the important process 

Of DIGESTION is completed. The chief agent in this process is? 
beyond question, the gastric juice ; a fluid that is secreted from certain 
glands in the stomach, and which possesses great solvent powers in re- 
gard to numerous animal and vegetable substances. The food being duly 
masticated, and blended with a considerable portion of saliva, is propel- 
led into the stomach, where it soon undergoes a remarkable change, be- 
ing converted into a pulpy mass, termed chyme ; the chyme afterwards 
passes from the stomach into the small intestines ; here, it is mixed 
with bile, and separated into two portions, one of which is as white as 
milk, and called chyle; the other passes on to the larger intestines, and 
is voided as excrementitious matter. The chyle is absorbed by the lac- 
teals, which terminate in the trunk or tube called thoracic duct; it is 
there mixed with variable proportions of lymph, and, lastly, with the* 
blood, as stated under that article. 



The GASTRIC JUICE is said to be of so powerful a nature, that 
after death the s-omach is occasionally eaten into holes by its action. 
And it is also said, that if exposed to a proper temperature, it will di- 
gest food in metal tubes. 

The PANCREAS, or Sw t eet-bread, is a large gland of the salivary 
kind, of a long figure, compared to a dog's tongue. It lies across the 
upper and back part of the abdomen, under the stomach. Its use is to 
secrete a juice called the pancreatic juice, which appears to be similar 
in its properties to saliva, and together with the bile helps to complete 
the digestion of the aliment. It communicates with the duodenum. 

The INTESTINES consist of that convoluted tube beginning at the 
right orifice of the stomach called pylorus, and ending with the sphinc- 
terrecti. The length of this canal is generally six times the length of 
the whole human subject. It is divided by nature into two parts. The 
small intestines begin from the stomach, and fill the middle or fore part 
of the abdomen; the large intestines occupy the sides, and both the up- 
per and lower parts of the same cavity. 

The KIDNEYS are shaped like a kidney-bean. They are situated 
on the lower part of the back, one on each side. They are generally 
surrounded with more or less fat. 

The SENSES are those faculties or powers by which external ob- 
jects are perceived. The sight, touch or feeling, hearing, smell and taste, 
are called the senses. The organs through which they operate are the 
following : — 

The EYE is the organ of seeing. The eye-lids, the eye-lashes, and 
the eye brows, require no particular description. The eye-ball is of a 
globular figure; it is composed of various membranes; but those pwts 
of the eye deserving the most notice, are the iris* the pupil, and the re- 
tina. The iris is that colored circular ring situated beneath the crys- 
talline lens, which surrounds the central or dark part called the pupil. 
It is capable of expanding or contracting, which it constantly does, ac- 
cording to the quantity of light which is thrown upon the eye. In a 
very bright light the pupil is reduced by the contraction of the iris to a 
very narrow hole ; in a'dark place the pupil is so much enlarged, as to 
render the iris scarcely visible. The pupil is the dark round opening 
in the middle of the eye, surrounded by the iris, and through which the 
rays of light pass to the retina, which is the true organ of vision, and 
is formed by an expansion of the pulp of the optic nerve. Externally 
the globe of the eye and the transparent cornea are moistened by a fluid 
called the tears, which are secreted in the lachrymal glands, one of 
which is situated above each inner corner of the eye. In proportion as 
the eye is more or less round, is the sight of a person longer or shorter. 
Persons of short sight are called myopes, of long sight, presbyopes. 

TOUCH, or Feelivg, resides in every part of the body that is sup- 
plied with nerves. The sense of touch is most exquisite in the lips, the 
tops of the fingers, the tongue, and a few other places. 

The EAR is the organ of hearing. In man it consists of an external 
ear, or auricula, and an internal bony cavity with numerous circular 
and winding passages, by which the vibrations of the air are collected 



and concentrated, and by a peculiar mechanism conveyed to the audi- 
tory nerves. The ear is supplied with peculiar glands, which secrete 
an unctuous substance, called the wax of the ear. The external au- 
ditory passage proceeds in a spiral direction to the tympanum or drum 
of the ear, which forms a complete partition between this passage and 
the internal cavities. Beyond the tympanum is a hemispherical cavi- 
ty which leads to the fauces, or opening at the back of the mouth : this 
opening is of a trumpet form. The inner cavity, including the wind- 
ing passage, is aptly called the labyrinth of the ear. The sense of hear- 
ing is perhaps still more important than that of seeing ; but as we can 
have no just conception of the real state of social existence without 
either of these senses, it is idle to speculate on such comparisons. 

The NOSE is in man, and most of the superior animals, the organ 
of smelling. The structure of the nose has nothing in it so very pecu- 
liar that can convey any idea of a mechanical organization to aid the 
sense of smelling. It is true, the nerves of the nose are considerably 
expanded over the nostrils, and are defended from external injuries by 
a peculiar mucus ; but it is very difficult to ascertain what are the es- 
sential organs of smelling. The nostrils are two passages of the nose 
which communicate interiorly with the upper part of the mouth. The 
use of the nostrils is for smelling, respiration, and speech. The nose 
is an important part of the human countenance ; it is considered in 
almost all countries as one of the features to which peculiar merit is 

The TASTE resides chiefly in the tongue, in conjunction with the 
palate, lips, and other parts of the mouth. The tongue is however des- 
tined to perform much more varied and important functions than that 
of conveying to the mind the taste of sapid bodies. It is the tongue, 
in conjunction with the lips, teeth, palate, and throat, which produces 
the sounds of language. The tongue is partly muscular, and partly 
composed of membranes and cellular substance. Its upper side is 
covered with papilloz, in which the taste more immediately resides. The 
impression of sapid bodies on the organs of taste is modified by age^ 
size, habit, and the more or less frequent application of strong stimu- 
lants. The state of the stomach, as well as general health, is often in- 
dicated by the state and color of the tongue. In health the tongue is 
always of a red color; in disease it varies from white to yellow, and 
sometimes is almost black. In health the tongue is always more or 
less moist ; in disease frequently parched and dry ; this last condition 
is, however, produced in health by the mere absence of moisture, evin- 
ced by the sensation we call thirst. 

The SEXES differ by obvious indications ; but there are some not 
so universally recognized, which we may mention. The male is gen- 
erally of a larger size than the female, and more robust ; the male be- 
comes frequently bald on the top of the head, the female rarely or nev- 
er ; the male has always more or less beard, the female rarely any, ex- 
cept as old age approaches, and then it is chiefly confined to the upper 
lip. The anatomical differences, besides the obvious ones, are, in the 
female, a larger pelvis than in the male, more delicate muscles and 
smaller bones ; and the phrenologists say, that the female skull is more 
elongated than the male, from the protuberance in the middle of th* 



back part of the skull, (which they denominate philoprngeniiiveness, or 
love of children,) being more prominent. The mental differences of 
the two sexes are also important ; women appear to possess more ima- 
gination and less judgment than men ; these differences are unfortu- 
nately too often widened by mistakes in the education of the female 



The term MIND has been lately applied by philosophers to the intel- 
lectual portion of man, as being a more correct term than either soul or 
understanding. It implies that part of our being which is occupied in 
thought. The seat of the mind is manifestly the brain : but in what 
part of it, whether the whole, or in the pineal gland, as Des Cartes main- 
tains, where he says all the nerves terminate ; or whether, as Soemmer- 
ing states, the fluid contained in the ventricles of the brain be its seat, 
is unknown : all such opinions being mere conjectures. 

The mind, or soul, has been usually divided into a certain number of 
faculties. We shall consider it from its more simple to its more com- 
plex state. The commonest and simplest impression made upon the 
mind being conveyed to it by either of the senses, is called 

SENSATION. Sensation is either pleasurable or painful ; in pro- 
portion to the degree of pleasure or of pain produced by a sensation, 
will be the vividness of its apprehension by the mind. An apprehend- 
ed sensation is termed perception : that is, when the mind itself per- 
ceives, recognizes the sensation, — when it becomes the subject of 
thought in the mind, it is then called perception. An idea is a resem- 
blance or image of any thing, which, though not seen, is conceived, — 
apprehended by the mind ; — an idea appears to be, therefore, nothing 
more than a well-defined and apprehended perception. An idea may 
be simple or complex, true or false. Simple ideas are those which arise 
in the mind from sensation; as those of color by the eye, of sounds by 
the ear, heat by the touch, &c. ; some ideas are formed by sensation 
and reflection jointly, as pleasure, pain, power, existence. Complex 
ideas are infinite ; some are not supposed to exist by themselves, but 
are considered as dependencies on, or affections of substantives, as, 
triangle, gratitude, murder, &c. Combinations of simple ideas are 
such as, a dozen, a score, beauty, theft, &c. The association of ideas, 
and consequently of affections, is one of the most important charac- 
ters of the human mind, and the great source of our happiness or misery. 

In tracing the process of the human mind in acquiring knowledge, 
we observe the following curious analogies or gradations ; it commen- 
ces with a simple idea or thought impressed, which is connected with 
simple perception. This solicits attention, which, according to its de- 
grees of importance, disposes to observation, consideration, investiga- 




tion, contemplation, meditation, reflection. These voluntary operations 
of the mind are necessary to the formation of clear conceptions, right 
understanding, an enlarged comprehension of some subjects, nice dis- 
cernment, and accurate discriminations concerning others: these acqui- 
sitions enable us to abstract essential qualities in our minds from the 
subjects in which they are seated, to assemble others in new combina- 
tions, to reason, to draw inferences, and, finally, to judge or decide on 
their merits or defects. 

MEMORY is that quality of the mind by which it is enabled to call 
up, generally at will, and upon suitable occasions, ideas,trains of thought 
which have been previously impressed upon it. No intellectual pro- 
cess can be carried on without memory : where the memory is weak, 
there the intellect will be found weak ; where the memory is good, 
there, in general, will the intellect be powerful. In nothing, however, 
do individuals differ more from each other, than in their memories. 
Some remember one kind of facts and things well, while others remem- 
ber them very indifferently. This has been attributed by the phrenol- 
ogists to the activity and size of particular organs in the brain ; and it 
seems to us probable that there may be some truth in this, — indeed the 
phrenologists assign to the memory many organs of the brain, such as 
those of form, size, weight, color, space, order, time, number, tune, lan- 
guage. But whatever truth there may be in this, we believe that more 
depends upon the exercise of (he mind in any given course, than on the 
original conformation ; that, in order to make the memory efficient, it 
must be often exercised on any given subject ; and that the most im- 
portant knowledge, if not occasionally revived by repetition, will fre- 
quently vanish from the mind. The notion of the mind being a store- 
house, and that ideas once deposited there, will always there remain, is 
extremely fallacious. It is true they frequently do so, especially those 
received in youth ; but many of these, without repetition, become in 
time obliterated. Hence, therefore, the necessity of not only the pro- 
cesses of education to improve the memory, but of an occasional repe- 
tition of them, in order that they may be efficient and useful to us lb 
after life. 

Recollection is that part of the memory, which consists in calling up 
in the mind the knowledge, which has been previously impressed upon 
it. Attention and repetition help much to fix ideas in the memory; the 
ideas which make the most lasting impressions are those accompanied 
by pleasure or pain. 

The powers of memory of some persons for particular subjects are 
astonishingly great. Seneca says that he was able, by the mere effort 
of his natural memory, to repeat two thousand words upon once hear- 
in cr them, each in its order, though theyliad no connexion with each 
other. He also mentions that Portius Latro reta-ned in his memory all 
the declamations which he had ever spoken, and never found his mem- 
ory fail in a single word. Cyneas, ambassador to the Romans from 
king Pyrrhus, had, in one day, so well learned the names of his specta- 
tors, that on the next he saluted the whole senate and all the populace 
assembled, each by his name. Pliny says, Cyrus knew every soldier in 
his army by name, and L. Scipio all the people of Rome. Carneades. 
would repeat any volume found in the libraries as readily as if he wert 



reading". Many modern instances of the great powers of memory might 
be also adduced, but they do not appear necessary. 

IMAGINATION is that particular state or disposition of the mind by 
which it is enabled to form numberless new and extraordinary ideas 
which are not the immediate result of external impressions or of recol- 
lection, and hence is obviously distinguished from perception and mem- 
ory. By the imagination an indtridual creates thoughts entirely his 
own, and which never might have existed had they not occurred to the 
individual mind. The exercise of most of the other qualities of the 
mind requires calmness and composure. The imagination delights in 
the most heterogeneous and incoherent combinations and most extra- 
vagant circumstances. The^e visions or phantoms are nevertheless 
sometimes impressed upon the memory, and during: imperfect or dis- 
turbed sleep present themselves and produce those absurd combinations 
which occur in dreaming. Although the flights of imagination are bold, 
yet they conform in some degree to the impressions which real objects 
have made upon the sensorhun. And hence all the ideas which it calta 
up have some relation to prior received facts, and to the knowledge ac- 
quired by the mind. 

Fancy, conceits, and phantoms, are merely species of which the imagi- 
nation is the genus. Poets and pn inters are notoriously the subjects in 
which a powerful imagination is essential to the effectual developernents 
of their respective arts. 

GENIUS is, in numerous instances, allied to the imagination. It 
consists in that natural talent, disposition, or aptitude, which one man 
possesses of performing something in preference to another, with pecu- 
liar facility and excellence. Thus men are said to have a genius for 
painting, poetry, music, ^cc; meaning, that the powers of their minds 
enable them to excel in those particular departments. Although, per- 
haps, minute attention to the genius of each individual is not, in a so- 
cial and moral view, necessary in the education of youth, we believe, 
nevertheless, that some attention to this subject is absolutely necessary 
in order to effectuate the best deveiopement of the character. And 
while we cannot avoid admiring genius, we ought never to forget that 
its best exemplification is when combined with moral, useful, and vir- 
tuous actions: that true genius, real science,and rational religion, ought 
to be inseparable companions. 

REASON ; that process of the mind by which different ideas or 
things are compared, their fitness or unfitness perceived, and conclu- 
sions drawn from such comparisons and perceptions. Judgment is a 
similar operation of the mind ; but, as its name imports, it is that act 
of the mir.d by which it concludes and determines upon certain finai 
results. Thus we compare the sun and the moon, and finding the sun 
greater than the moon, we determine or judge accordingly. 

The WILL is a <tate or disposition of the mind, consisting in be- 
ing disposed, icilling, to do or avoid any act, or to obtain or avoid anv 
thing. The state or disposition of the mind called the will, is produced 
by innumerable agencies. Some of these arise from the internal feel- 
in? of the mind itself; others from external objects, as heat, light, cold, 
human society ; our affections, our hopes, our fears, our pleasures and 



our pains; others from an association of internal feeling with external 
objects ; and hence the incalculable varieties of human actions. 

GHOST ; a spirit or apparition of some deceased person. The an- 
cients supposed every man had three different ghosts, which, after the 
dissolution of the body, were variously disposed of. They were dis- 
tinguished into man-s, spiritus, umbra ; the manes they supposed went 
to the infernal regions; the spiritus ascended to the skies; and the 
umbra hovered about the tomb, as unwilling to quit its old connections. 
The superstitious notions of ghosts, spirits, &c. are rapidly declining ; 
and notwithstanding all the solemn tales which have been propagated, 
there is no reason to believe that any real spirits or celestial agents 
have held intercourse with man since the establishment of Christiani- 
ty. The history, therefore, of modern miracles, appearances of the 
dead, &c. will be always found, when thoroughly examined, merely 
the phantoms of a disordered imagination. 

In quitting this subject it may be observed, that when the mind 
turns inward, If linking m the first operation that occurs; and in this we 
may observe a great variety of modifications, and whence it frames to 
itself distinct ideas. Thus, the perception annexed to any impression 
on the body by an external object is called sensation. When an idea 
occurs without the presence of the object, it is called remembrance ; 
when sought for by the mind, and brought again to review this pro. 
cess, it is called recollection ; when the ideas are attempted to be regis- 
tered in the memory, it is attention; and when the mind considers any 
subject in a variety of views, successively dwelling upon each, it is cal- 
led study. 

KNOWLEDGE, therefore, from this short view of the mind, it will 
be seen, arises from those impressions and ideas which we receive by 
the medium of the senses. We can have no knowledge further than 
we have ideas. A man may be said to know all those truths which 
are lodged in his memory by a previous, clear and full perception. In 
intuitive knowledge, the mind perceives the truth as the eye does light; 
thus the mind perceives that white is not black, and that three are more 
than two. This part of knowledge is irresistible, and on intuition de- 
pends all the certainty of our other knowledge. When the mind is 
obliged to discover the agreement or disagreement of our ideas by the 
intervention of other ideas, this is what is called reasoning. 

Again. Knowledge includes, ^f course, all which we can know. 
It has been also divided into useful and luxurious knowledge. The 
best knowledge is that which enables us to act most virtuously, because 
virtue is the foundation of genuine happiness. Learning, properly so 
called, is not essential to a virtuous life, although considerable know- 
ledge most undoubtedly is so ; for ignorance is, in innumerable instan- 
ces, the parent of error and of crime. A prudent choice in our pursuit 
of knowledge is however necessary, in order that we may avoid an idle 
and useless or pernicious waste of time. 

The PASSIONS. In the proper management of the Passions con- 
sists mostly human wisdom. As every effort of the memory or im- 
agination arouses some associate passion or affection, the mind rarely 
continues long in a quiescent state ; that is, entirely divested of every 



thing" sensible, and unconscious of any particular feeling. It is by ob- 
serving such associate feelings, that we are enabled to ascertain the na- 
ture and operation of the passions (or suffering) of the mind, and dis- 
cover three distinct modes or states of passion, wh'ch differ from sim- 
ple feeling only in duration and intensity, but not in quality. The 
state called vassion is violent and transitory ; emotion is less so ; and 
affection is the least violent and most permanent. Hence we distin- 
guish between the lowest and highest degree of feeling by the terms 
passion, emotion, and affection, which are always employed to express 
the sensible effects of objects or ideas concerning them on the mind. 
The word passion, therefore, is strictly and properly used to designate 
the first feeling, impression, or percussion, as it were, of which the 
mind is conscious from some impulsive cause ; by which it is wholly 
acted on without any efforts of its own, either to solicit or escape the 
impression. This passion or state of absolute passiveness, in conse- 
quence of any sudden percussion of mind, is necessarily of short dura- 
tion. The strong impression immediately produces a reaction corres- 
pondent to its nature, either to appropriate and enjoy, or avoid and re- 
pel the exciting cause. This reaction is very significantly denominated 
emotion, which is applicable to the sensible effects produced on the 
mind in consequence of a particular agitation. Emotions, then, al- 
though often erroneously used as synonymous with, are only the effects 
of passions. 

The term Affection always implies a less violent, and generally 
more durable influence, which persons and things have on the mind. 
It is usually associated with ideas of good, but there exists^^) necessa- 
ry connexion. Hence we find that the term passion is applicable to 
all the violent impressions made on our minds by the perception of 
something very striking and apparently interesting ; emotion, to the 
external marks or visible changes produced by. the force or- the passion 
on the corporeal system ; and affection, to the less violent, more delib- 
erate, and more permanent impressions, by causes which appear suffi- 
ciently interesting. The range of affection may extend from those 
stronger feelings, which border upon emotions, to the mildest sensa- 
tions of pleasure or displeasure, which we can possibly perceive. In 
like manner the desire of any thing under the appearance of its good- 
ness, suitableness, or necessity to our happiness, constitutes the passion 
of l<.ve ; the desire of avoiding any thing hurtful or destructive consti- 
tutes hatred or aversion; the desire of a good which appears probable, 
and in our power, constitutes hope ; but, if the good appear impro- 
bable or impossible, it constitutes fear or despair. The unexpected 
gratification of desire is joy ; the desire of happiness to another under 
pain or suffering is compassion ; and the desire of another's punish- 
ment, according to this hypothesis, is revenge or malice. 

The desire of happiness is, then, it appears, the spring or motive of 
all our passions. Some wise and reasonable motive seems certainly 
necessary to all wise and reasonable actions. To act without a motive, 
would be the same as not to act at all ; that is, such an action would 
answer no further or better end than not acting; but whatever wise 
ends are intended by the passions, if they are not kept under due regu- 
lation and restraint, they soon become the sources of our misery. Au- 
thors have arranged the passions into grateful and ungrateful, primU 



tive and derivative, &c. ; but the simplest classification is into the selfish. 
and the social, according to the exciting cause : in the former, the idea 
of good predominates; in the latter, that of evil. The only emotions, 
which cannot be considered as connected either with the selfish or so- 
cial feeling, with self-love or apprehension, are surprise, astonishment, 
an d wonder : these are excited by something novel, embarrassing, or 
vast and incomprehensible in the object, without any reference to its 
peculiar nature ; and, exerting their influence indiscriminately in pas- 
sions of the most opposite characters, are aptly denominated introduc- 
tory emotions. The passions and affections founded on self-love, and 
excited by the idea of good, are joy, cheerfulness, mirth, contentment ; 
pride, vanity, haughtiness, arrogance, &c. ; desires inordinate, as glut- 
tony, drunkenness, lust, &c, avarice, rapaciousness, emulation, ambi- 
tion, and hope. The passions and affections operating on the principle 
of self-love, in which the idea of evil is immediately present to the mind, 
are sorrow, grief, melancholy, discontent, vexation, &c. The virtuous 
affections inspired by sorrow, are patience, resignation, humility ; and 
fear, terror, despair, remorse, cowardice, doubt, shame, &c. Fortitude, 
courage, intrepidity, are virtuous affections, excited only by exposure 
to those evils, which are usually productive of fear, to which they 
are diametrically opposite. To this class also belong anger, resent- 
ment, indignation, and peevishness ; fortitude, courage, and intrepidity, 
are likewise influenced by anger, with which they are always more or 
less blended. 

The passions and affections derived from the social feeling, which 
extends its regards to the state, conduct, and character of others, and 
their relative circumstances, deportment, merit, and dispositions, as 
contrasted with ourselves, may be classed under the cardinal affections 
of love and hatred, in which the idea of good or evil is predominant. 
The benevolent desires and dispositions appear in the parental, filial, 
fraternal, conjugal, and friendly affections. 

Sympathy is that inward feeling, which is excited by the situation of 
another, or which harmonizes with the condition and feelings of its 
object ; in this manner it may become a passion, an affection, or a dis- 
position. Sympathy indicates a susceptible mind, and impels men to 
plunge into water, or rush into flames, to succour a fellow creature. 
The sympathetic affections are very numerous, and discriminated by 
various appellations. They may be considered as they respect distress, 
such as compassion, mercy, commiseration, condolence, pity, generosi- 
ty, liberality, charit}', and condescension : as they relate to prosperity, 
in the sensations of joy, gladness, happiness, &c. at the good fortune 
of others ; and as they proceed from sympathetic imitation, or affec- 
tions derived from good opinion, such as gratitude, thankfulness, ad- 
miration, esteem, respect, veneration, awe, reverence, with the devia- 
tions of fondness and partiality. The passions occasioned by displa- 
cency, in which evil is the predominant idea, are of two kinds ; those 
in which malevolent dispositions are indicated, and those of simple dis- 
approbation, without any mixture of malevolence. Those arising from 
malevolent dispositions are hatred, envy, rancour, cruelty, &c. ; anger, 
rage, revenge, resentment, and jealousy. The displacency occasioned 
by unfavorable opinions gives rise to horror, indignation, contempt, dis- 
dain, and irrision. The five grateful passions, as they have been call- 



ed, of love, desire, hope, joy, and pleasing recollection, enhance each 
other ; so do the five ungrateful ones of hatred, aversion, fear, grief, 
and displeasure. 

As happiness and misery, virtue and vice, depend almost entirely on 
the proper exercise of the passions gnd affections, the study of their 
nature and influence should become a distinct and primary branch of 
education. Virtue, therefore, consists not only in an exemplary desire 
of regulating all our thoughts and pursuits by right principles, but also 
by so acting as to produce beneficial results to others as well as to our- 
selves. Vic? is distinguished by unhappy effects, by conduct and pro- 
pensities opposed to those of virtue, and consists in depraved affections 
and ungoverned passions. Religion is evinced by a laudable desire 
of rectitude, of yielding obedience to the divine command, and habitu- 
al solicitude to obtain the divine favor. Devotion is the religious tem- 
per or disposition applied to prayers and meditations which deeply in- 
terest the affections. Superstition is a consecrated self-interest, without 
either love or regard to the supposed duties it enjoins, or to its object. 
He who imagines that the divine favor is to be gained by a strict atten- 
tion to frivolous ceremonies is superstitious. A tenacious reverence 
for unimportant sentiments, with a disposition towards those whose 
opinions are opposite, constitutes bigotry. An incessant desire to pro- 
pagate some particular sentiment, or principle, to make proselytes, from 
whatever motive, is called zeal. The decided ascendancy of some partic- 
ular object in the mind is denominated ^passion, as a passion for music, 
Sic. When this predilection occupies all our thoughts, and incites us to the 
most vigorous exertions with such an ardor and constancy as to brave 
all difficulties, it is termed enthusiasm. Even our motives form va- 
rious species of desire, which characterize the prevailing disposition ; 
such as integrity, fidelity, loyalty, honesty, industry, honor, &c. ; or 
treachery, treason, fraud, artifice, deceit, cruelty, Sic. ; according as 
they are influenced by worthy or unworthy dispositions. An invinci- 
ble predilection to some one thing, opinion, or sentiment, extreme con- 
tempt for all other kinds of knowledge, and an obstinate opposition of 
private opinion as the only counterpoise to public sentiment, without 
any regard to the weight of evidence on either side, are the invariable, 
features of fanaticism. 



Aliments are those materials, from which the different orders of 
created beings derive their nourishment. To most animals, nature has 
assigned but a limited range of aliment ; but to man an extensive 
choice has been allotted. The vegetable and animal kingdoms, fruits, 
grains, roots, and herbs, flesh, fisli, and fowl, all contribute to his suste- 



It is an interesting inquiry, How aliments so diversified in structure, 
and sensible qualities, become assimilated in one system, and contribute 
to our support? To this question, it may be answered, that all organi- 
zed beings, animal as well as vegetable, are composed principally of 
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, Itme, sulphur, and phosphorus. 
Different combinations of these elements make up the whole of their 
material systems. 

Now, then, as the human frame is composed of the above materials, 
its daily waste must be supplied, by substances which yield these ma- 
terials. These are to be found in various animal and vegetable sub- 
stances, used by man as food. This food, when masticated, is received 
into the stomach, where it is exposed to the action of the gastric fluid, 
a powerful solvent of animal and vegetable matters. Here, it soon un- 
dergoes an important change, being reduced to a soft and similar mass 
called chyme. From the stomach, the digested chyme passes into the 
intestines ; w y here, subjected-to the action of the bile, the pancreatic and 
mucous secretions, it undergoes still further changes ; the result of all 
which is the formation and separation of a bland, white, milky fluid, 
called chyle. The chyle is sucked up by numerous vessels, called ab- 
sorbent lacteals, to whose orifice it is every where exposed, in passing 
through the intestinal canal. These absorbents after numerous com- 
munications, terminate in one common trunk, by' which the chyle is 
mixed with the blood, and subjected to the action of the heart and ar- 
teries. Circulated now through the lungs, it undergoes new changes, 
from the respiration of the atmosphere ; — it is incorporated with the 
common circulating mass, and becomes itself blood, the fountain from 
which all the other constituent parts of the body are formed, and re- 

Such is a concise account of the manner, by which animal and vege- 
table substances contribute to the support of the human frame — a pro- 
cess, though complex, taken in all its parts, yet easily understood ; and 
when understood, eminently calculated to draw forth admiration, in 
view of the wisdom of God. 

The gastric fluid of man is capable of digesting a great variety of 
animal and vegetable matters. And the structure of his body, his in- 
stinct and experience, clearly indicate, that his Maker designed him to 
derive his aliment, from both the animal and vegetable kingdoms. 

We say from both, for it is obvious that neither is suited to form the 
whole of our daily aliment. Animal food is more nutricious ; but, 
from its heating and stimulating nature, when exclusively used, it ex- 
hausts and debilitates the system, which it at first invigorates and sup- 
ports. And it is matter of observation and experience, that those per- 
sons, who confine themselves to animal diet, become heavy and indo- 
lent ; the tone and excitability of their frame are impaired ; they are 
afflicted with indigestion, and numerous other infirmities. 

On the other hand, vegetables are ascescent, and less stimulating; 
they are, also, less nourishing, and of more difficult assimilation, than 
food derived from the animal kingdom. A pure vegetable diet seems 
insufficient to raise the human system to all the strength and vigor of 
which it is capable. 

Some eastern nations, indeed, and thousands of individuals of every 



nation, live almost entirely on vegetable aliment. But these, it is re- 
marked, are seldom so robust, so active, so brave, as men who live on 
a mixed diet of animal and vegetable food. 

In truth, a mixed diet of animal and vegetable food, it is believed. 
is the best suited to the nature and condition of man. The propor- 
tions, in which these should be used, we shall not attempt to settle. 
But generally the quantity of vegetable food should exceed. Indeed, 
it is doubtful whether sedentary men should ever use animal food, 
more than once a day. Inhabitants of warmer climates require less 
than those of higher latitudes, and the sedentary of every climate less 
than those who labor. 

All the products of vegetation are far from being equally nutritious. 
Some, indeed, instead of being alimentary, are highly noxious to ani- 
mal life. The wax, resins, and balsams, the astringent, bitter, and nar- 
cotic principles are often used medicinally ; but never as food, and 
those vegetables which abound in these cannot, with safety, be used as 

The alimentary principles of vegetation are gum, or mucilage, starch, 
gluten, jelly, fixed oil, sugar, and ac ds ; and the different vege tables, 
and parts of vegetables, are nutritious, wholesome, and digestible, ac- 
cording to the nature and proportion of these principles, contained in 

The lightest kind of nourishment is afforded by the mucilage, jelly 
and acids of vegetables. The sugar and fixed oils are more nutritive ; 
but not so digestible. The starch and gluten are the most nutritive ; 
and together with mucilage, are at the same time, the most abundant 
principles contained in those vegetables, from which man derives his 
sustenance. Of these, the gluten approaches nearest the nature of 
animal substances. Wheat, barley, oats, rye, rice, millet, and Indian 
corn, abound in farinaceous matter, a compound of the most nutritive 
alimentary principles of vegetables. 

Wheat flour contains by much the largest quantity of gluten ; the 
flour of other nutritive grains, but very little of it. It is this large 
proportion of gluten, which gives the superiority to wheat, over all 
other grains. Starch and mucilage, are the chief alimentary princi- 
ples of other grains ; and hence, the bread formed from them is inferi- 
or to that made of wheat. 

Rice is the chief sustenance of some nations ; and, when boiled, 
affords an agreeable and nourishing food of easy digestion, and not so 
apt to sour on the stomach, as some other grains. Barley bread is vis- 
cid and not very digestible. Rye bread is ascescent, and not so easily 
digested ; but useful in costive habits, from its tendency to open the 
bowels. Oat bread is nutritive and wholesome, and easy to be digest- 
ed. The flour of millet forms but indifferent bread, but excellent, 
wholesome, and nourishing pottages and puddings. Indian corn is nu- 
tritive and laxative. 

The seeds of leguminous plants, such as peas, and beans, afford a 
great quantity of alimentary matter ; though less than the grains we 
have noticed. The nutritious matter is a compound of starch and 
mucilage. Their flour is sometimes formed into bread ; but it is coarse 




and indifferent, and not easily digestible. These seeds are not more 
nutritive, but generally more palatable, and wholesome, when green, 
young, and tender, and simply boiled, than when fully ripened and ba- 
ked. Yet, with some constitutions, they are apt to produce flatulency, 
and disorder of the stomach and bowels. 

The potatoe, either boiled or roasted, as it is one of the most useful, 
is, perhaps, after the grains, one of the most wholesome, and most nu- 
tritive vegetables, in common use. Its alimentary properties are great 
as is proved by general experience, and especially by that of the Irish 
peasantry, a robust and hardy race, who derive their principal suste- 
nance from this invaluable root. When mixed with wheat, it forms a 
wholesome and nutritive bread. The sweet, or Spanish potatoe, yam, 
and artichoke, come near to the potatoe in their nutritive properties ; 
but do not equal it. The roots of parsnips, turnips, and carrots, con- 
tain a considerable quantity of mucilage, and a small portion of saccha- 
rine matter. When boiled, they are considerably nutritive ; and by 
most stomachs easily digested. 

The beet, both white and red, contain a large proportion of sugar. 
They are fine for cattle ; but cannot be safely used in great quantities 
by man, as they are apt to induce flatulence and indigestion. 

In some roots, as in the onion, leek and garlic, the nutritive principle 
is found combined with an acrid principle, which renders them less lit 
for the purposes of aliment. This principle, however, is lessened by 
boiling, and then they are lightly nutritive and mucilaginous. The 
radish, too, is an acrid root ; and, though much used, affords little nu- 
triment, while it is apt to produce flatulence, and disorder of the stom- 

In some seeds, called kernels, as in the hardnut and filbert, walnut, 
almond, cocoa nut, cashew nut, chocolate nut, we find oil combined 
with their farina. This renders them nutritious ; but, at the same time, 
indigestible. When freely used they are sure to produce flatulence, 
thirst, nausea, pain of the stomach, and headache ; more especially, if 
from age they have become rancid. Hence, they shouldbe used sparing- 
ly, at any time. 

Chocolate, which is prepared from the chocolate nut, forms a well 
known, wholesome, nutritious aliment, employed in many cases as a 
restorative. Cocoa, which is prepared from the same nut, is, however, 
less oily ; and, on this account, decidedly preferable for weak stomachs 
to the chocolate. 

Fixed oil is contained in many vegetables, and is sometimes obtained 
by expression, and is highly nutritive. Olive oil is much used in seve- 
ral parts of the world, particularly in Italy, and the south of France. 
In these countries, it is used in lieu of butter. In other countries, it is 
used chiefly as a sauce, or condiment to sallads and fish. With many 
stomachs it disagrees, being too heavy and indigestible. 

The leaves, stalks and flowers of vegetables contain much less nu- 
tritious matter than the seeds and roots, already noticed. They are 
cooling and aperient, however, and sure to correct the stimulant, and 
binding effects of animal food. The vegetables to which these remarks 
apply are cabbage, colewort, cauliflower, brocoli, sea-kale, endive, 
lettuce, purslane, spinage, and asparagus. Of these, there is none 



more tender, or more wholesome than spinage. Of the varieties of 
cabbage, the brocoli and cauliflower are the most easily digested, and 
least flatulent. The asparagus is an excellent vegetagle, agreeable and 
wholesome, tolerably nutritious, and besides, is diuretic. The endive 
and lettuce are chiefly used as sallads. Lettuce has, also, some de- 
gree of narcotic and soporific effect, a quality, which depends on the 
bitter, milky juice contained in the leaf stalks. Parsley is slightly 
aromatic, little nutritive, and chiefly used to season broths, sallads, &c. 
Celery is highly relished by many people, as a sallad ; but, raw, is not 
easily digested. 

Of fruits, such as the peach, apricot, plum, cherry, date, fig, pear, 
apple, mulberry, orange, lemon, it may be observed, that they do not 
abound in nutritive qualities. Their nourishment depends upon the 
mucilage, and sugar, they contain. Together with these principles, and 
water, many of them, also, contain the different vegetable acids, the 
malic, citric, tartaric, &c. ; and it is this combination, which renders 
them so agreeable to the taste, and so generally relished by man. 

From this combination of principles, too, may be estimated the ad- 
vantages and disadvantages they possess, as aliments. They are nour- 
ishing, in proportion to the mucilage, jelly and sugar, which they con- 
tain ; cooling, and aperient, and antisceptic, in proportion as they are 
watery and acidulous. They are not of themselves capable of long 
supporting the strength, and renewing the waste of the system ; but, 
conjoined with other more nutritious aliments, ripe fruits are, in their 
season, safe, useful, and often highly beneficial adjuvants to our diet. 
They obviate and correct the stimulant, and sceptic effect, of animal 
food ; open the body, and cool and refresh the system. Hence, they 
are found so emenintly useful in febrile, inflammatory and scorbutic 
affections. Indeed, in the sea scurvy, a disease arising from the too 
exclusive use of a stimulating animal diet, the sub-acid fruits are sov- 
ereign remedies. By the same properties, however, they are hurtful, 
in cases of gravel, stone, and diabetes. Intemperately eaten, fruits 
have in all constitutions, and particularly in the nervous, dyspeptic, 
and hysteric, produced great disorder of the stomach, and bowels, chol- 
ic, diarrhoea, and cholera. Upon the whole, as a, pari of our daily diet, 
fruits are safe, and useful ; but, excepting under particular circumstan- 
ces, they ought not to form the whole of any one meal, and should 
never be indulged into satiety. 

The pulpy fruits, such as the fig, and apple tribe, are more nutritive 
than the more watery, acidulous fruits, as the orange, grape and berry. 
The former, too, when conserved, boiled or baked, afford a light and 
wholesome nourishment. The sub-acid fruits, as goose berries, and 
currants, are advantageously made into tarts, jellies, &c. The nour- 
ishment derived from them is not great ; but they are wholesome, an- 
tisceptic and cooling. 

We shall next speak of animal substances. The alimentary princi- 
ples of which, are gelatin, albumen, Jib rinc and oil, or fat. 

Gelatin, or animal jelly, is a colorless, transparent, tremulous sub- 
stance, found in calves' feet, in the skin, tendons, and bones of all ani- 
mals. Glue and isinglass are specimens of dried gelatin. Animal jel- 
ly, when properly prepared, is very nutritious, and well adapted to per 
*ous in a convp-lescent state. 



Albumen is distinguished from gelatin, by its coagulating on the ap- 
plication of heat. The white of an egg presents us with the best and 
most familiar example of albumen. It exists in the serum of blood, 
and the curd of milk ; and forms a principal part of the cartilages, 
membrane, hoofs, horns, feathers, quills, and hair of animaJs. As an 
aliment, it is highly nutritive ; it is not used as a separate article of diet, 
except as it exists in the white of an egg. 

Fibrin is the chief constituent of muscular flesh. It is a white, 
tough, elastic, fibrous substance, insoluble in water, and contains more 
nitrogen than any of the other principles. It is readily dissolved by 
the gastric fluid, and may be regarded as the strongest, and most stim- 
ulant of aliments. 

Animal oil, or fat, is a nutritious, component part of animal substan- 
ces ; but less easily digested, than the other alimentary principles. 

Animal aliment, may be distinguished into fluids and solids. The 
only fluids, which can be regarded as alimentary, are the blood and 
milk of animals. 

The blood is composed of the three alimentary principles, fibrin, albu- 
men, and gelatin ; it contains, besides, water, the red globules, and 
some saline matters. Blood is a heavy and indigestible aliment, in 
whatever way prepared. 

Milk is the fluid secreted by the female of the mammalia class, for the 
nourishment of their young. It consists of oil, albuminous and saccha- 
rine matter, water, and some saline matters. Hence, it will be seen, 
that as it contains both animal and vegetable principles, it is a sort of 
mixed aliment. It is nutritious and wholesome ; but not equally 
well digested by every stomach. It sometimes offends in two ways ; 
first, coagulating very firmly in the stomach, it occasions sickness, and 
is afterwards rejected by vomiting ; secondly, becoming acid, it gives 
rise to flatulence, heart burn, gripings and diarrhoea. Still, most peo- 
ple bear milk well ; but, when it sits too heavily on the stomach, it is 
advantageously diluted with water. Sometimes, again, it agrees bet- 
ter, after having been boiled, though it is then more apt to produce cos- 

Butter, the oily part of milk, is nutritious ; and, when moderately 
used, is wholesome. Like the other animal oils, however, it is too 
heavy to be used by itself. Curd, separated from the whey, is an 
agreeable and nutritive aliment, differing, however, but little from 
uncoagulated milk. Cheese, which is curd subjected to strong pres- 
sure, is highly nutritious ; but, as an aliment, is difficult of digestion, 
especially when new. Buttermilk is moderately nutritious. It is, 
moreover, somewhat acid, and thus affords a wholesome, cooling beve- 
rage, grateful and very useful in a heated, or feverish state of the body. 
Whey contains in solution, the saccharine and saline parts of the milk, 
with a small portion of the animal principles. Its nutritive powers are 
not great. 

Eggs come next to be considered. Those of the common domestic 
fowl are the best. Though eggs of different fowls differ less in alimen- 
tary properties than might, at first, be expected. The chief difference 
consists in some variety of flavor. The white of an egg consists al- 
most entirely of albumen. The yolk contains albuminous matter, oil,. 



gelatin and water. Thus the egg is formed of the most nutritive ali- 
mentary principles. It is a remark of Dr. Cullen, u that a smaller bulk 
of this, than of any other food, will satisfy and occupy the digestive 
powers of most men." 

Of the solid parts of animals, almost all are alimentary ; and accord- 
ing to the nature, proportion and state of combination of the principles 
of which they are formed, they are more or less nourishing, and more 
or less easy of digestion. 

The white parts, comprehending the skin, cellular texture, the mem- 
branes, ligaments, cartilages and tendons, which consist almost entirely 
of gelatin, and condensed albumen, unless they have been much soft- 
ened and dissolved into jelly, by long boiling, are more difficult of di- 
gestion, and afford, even then, a nutriment of a lighter and less stimu- 
lating nature, than that derived from other parts, containing a due ad- 
mixture of the ether alimentary principles. 

Cow-heel, calf -head, sheep-head, and trotters, afford examples of this 
kind of aliment, which, unless extremely well boiled, is far from being 
easily digested. 

The gelatin of bones is digestible, and alimentary, only after it has 
been extracted and dissolved in water. 

Tripe, the stomach of ruminating quadrupeds, is nearly allied to the 
white membranous parts, in composition and alimentary properties. 
The stomach, however, circulates more red blood, contains besides a 
certain portion of muscular fibre, is more animalised, and furnishes ac- 
cordingly a more savoury aliment, perhaps a more nourishing one, than 
those parts entirely formed of gelatine. 

We find it more difficult to estimate the alimentary qualities of the 
glandular parts of animals. The spleen and kidneys are enumerated 
by Celsus, with those aliments, which afford a bad, and the liver with 
those which yield a good juice. All that we can venture to say on this 
subject is, that the glandular parts of young animals, if freed from the 
odour of their peculiar secretions, are agreeable, and sufficiently nu- 
tritive aliments. The pancreas, or sweet bread, is the most delicate, 
the least stimulating, and perhaps the most digestible. The spleen is 
a coarse, and not very digestible aliment. The brain, too, is heavy, 
and apt to disagree with some stomachs. The liver, especially that 
of young animals, and of some birds, is by many esteemed a great de- 
licacy, and appears to be very wholesome. The liver of many fishes 
abounds in oil. 

The muscular flesh, which constitutes, indeed, the chief part of our 
food, derived from the animal kingdom, appears to be, upon the whole, 
the most nourishing, the most wholesome, and the most easily digested 
of any. 

Its advantages in these respects may well be attributed to its peculiar 
composition — a just assemblage of all the alimentary principles. For 
the flesh, besides containing the largest quantity of fibrin, has, also, a 
due proportion of gelatin, albumen, and fat. And, indeed, the alimen- 
tary properties of different kinds ©f flesh, appear to depend, in a great 
measure, on the proportions and aggregation of these principles. Thus 
the flesh of young animals contains more gelatin, and less fibrin, than 




that of the full grown and older ; and yields, at the same time, a light- 
er nutriment, and of less easy digestion. Very old, hard, tough flesh, 
contains, again, too little gelatin, and fat ; the fibrin has become firm- 
er and less soluble ; and, therefore, such meat is less succulent, less di- 
gestible, and less nutritive, than the same kind of flesh, in its prime. 
By boiling, the gelatin and a portion of albumen are extracted; and 
hence, perhaps, it is, that boiled meat is less nourishing and digestible 
than roasted flesh, which retains all its principles. 

Muscular flesh contains a larger quantity of red blood, from which, 
indeed, it derives its color, than any of the other parts of animals, com- 
monly employed as aliment. Whether or not any of its alimentary 
qualities may depend on this circumstance, we cannot confidently say. 
But red-colored flesh, is certainly a stronger, and more nourishing food, 
than the white-colored muscle — the flesh of the ox, for example, than 
that of the rabbit. 

Chemists have detected another principle in muscular flesh, to which 
they have given the name of extractive. This principle is soluble in 
alcohol, of a brownish red color, an aromatic odor, and strong acrid 

The particular flavors of flesh have been attributed to this principle, 
which may probably add, also, to its stimulant properties, if not to its 

The flesh of quadrupeds is more largely consumed than that of any 
other class of animals. But, as might be supposed, they differ consid- 
erably in their alimentary properties. 

Bull-beef is tou^h, dry, of a disagreeable flavor; and is, therefore, sel- 
dom eaten. This affords us one example of the great amelioration of 
the alimentary qualities of the flesh of animals by castration ; for ox 
beef is at once agreeable, nourishing, wholesome, and tenderer, even 
than the flesh of the cow. Veal, the flesh of the young animal, is more 
delicate, and more gelatinous, than beef; but, at the same time, less 
nourishing, less stimulant, and, In general, not so easily digested. It 
is less animalized, and therefore less putrescent, than almost any other 
flesh. Indeed, the jelly and broth of very young veal is disposed to 
become even acescent. 

Mutton is esteemed one of the best aliments; it is, also, one of the 
most common. The flesh of the uncastrated animal is hardly eatable. 
YVedder mutton, not under two years old, is agreeable, tender, and suc- 
culent ; at Ave years, it has probably attained its highest perfection. 
Ewe mutton is much inferior to it. Lamb bears the same relation, in 
its alimentary properties, to mutton, that veal does to beef. It is less 
stimulant, and less nutritive than mutton. But if the lamb have been 
properly nursed for six months, or a little more, and not weaned, as is 
too often done, at two months old, it affoids a most agreeable, suffi- 
ciently nourishing, and digestible aliment. 

Goat's flesh is coarser, and in every respect inferior to that of the 
sheep. The flesh of the kid is sufficiently tender and delicate. 

Venison is an aliment in great estimation. It is very nutritive, and 
easily digested. The flesh of the young fawn is tender, succulent and 
gelatinous ; but the most nutritive and best flavored is that of the full 
grown animal, of four years old, or more. The best season for killing 



it, is in the month of August ; for in the rutting season, September and 
October, the animal becomes lean, and its flesh rank, tough, and ill-fla- 
vored. The flesh of the female is at all times inferior to that of the 
male. The fallow deer is commonly better fattened than the stag, and 
its flesh, upon the whole is tenderer. That of the roe-buck is also ve- 
ry tender ; but it is inferior in flavor, and other qualities, to the fallow 

Pork is an aliment, without doubt, highly nutritious ; but, on ac- 
count of the fat, with which it abounds, not so digestible. It is stimu- 
lant, and savory, though its particular flavor is not agreeable to every 
one. It yields, however, to those with whom it agrees, much nourish- 
ment. By the ancients, it was regarded as the strongest of all aliments ; 
and was, therefore, much employed in the diet of the athletae, or persons 
who engaged in the public games. The flesh of the boar is strong, 
coarse, and ill-flavored ; that of the sow, which has farrowed, is also 
disagreeable. The flesh of the castrated animal is freed from this ill- 
flavor ; it is also fatter, tenderer, and more digestible. The flesh 
of the sucking pig, like that of other young animals, abounds in gelatin, 
and affords a more delicate, lighter, and less stimulant aliment, than 
that of the full grown animal. 

The hare and rabbit afford agreeable and wholesome food. The 
former is more dense, higher flavored, and more stimulant than the lat- 
ter ; the flesh of which is white and delicate, and, of the young rabbit, 
very tender, and easily digestible. 

The aliment obtained from birds is, in general, less nourishing than 
that derived from the mammiferous quadrupeds. The flesh of those 
birds which feed on grain and fruits, is the most delicate, and most easi- 
ly digested. 

The flesh of water-fowl, and such as devour fish, insects, and the 
like, is commonly very alkalescent, oily, strong flavored, highly nour- 
ishing, but heavy, and of more difficult digestion. 

The birds in most common use, and yielding, at the same time, the 
best aliment, belong to the gallinaceous family. Their flesh is white, 
of the most agreeable and delicate flavor, little heating; and, when not 
too old, succulent, nutritive, and easily digested. To this order belong 
the Dunghill fowl, Pheasant, Turkey, Peacock, Guinea hen, Partridge, 
and Quail. The flesh of the goose, domestic and wild, of the duck, 
widgeon and teal, is_.very nourishing ; but considerably heating, and 
strong flavored. They are not, therefore, so well suited to the weak 
and delicate, as the fowls above named ; nor are they, in general, so 
easily digested. The woodcock, snipe, plover, and some other of this 
family, (Gralice,) are savory and well flavored aliments, moderately 
stimulant, wholesome and sufficiently digestible. Pigeons afford a very 
rich and stimulant food. The different species of the lark furnish a 
delicate and lighter aliment. 

Of amphibious animals, the sea turtle, land turtle, frog and viper on- 
ly, are used as aliment. The flesh of the turtle is white, tender and 
nourishing. The rich fat, with which it abounds, is not so easily digest- 
ed. But if plainly dressed, the turtle, upon the whole, affords a whole- 
some and nutritious aliment, not very different from the flesh of young 
quadrupeds. The frog is not known, it is believed, as an aliment in the 



United States. The hinder legs alone are served up in France, and 
some other countries ; but, though the flesh has a white and delicate 
appearance, it is insipid and not very nourishing. In Italy, the viper 
broth is still used. But there is no good reason to suppose that it pos- 
sesses any peculiar properties as a restorative. 

We shall next speak of fish. Fishes circulate but little red blood ; 
and their temperature hardly exceeds that of the element in which they 
live. Their muscular parts have little color, and their texture is soft. 
These abound most in a watery, gelatinous, and albuminous matter, and 
their fibrin possesses less elasticity and cohesion, than that of the flesh 
of terrestrial animals. Their oil, too, is thinner, and not concressable, 
like that of quadrupeds and birds. They afford a less nourishing ali- 
ment than flesh, weight for weight ; and are of more difficult digestion 
and assimilation. In some particular constitutions, fish not only disa- 
grees with the stomach, producing flatulence, sickness and vomiting, 
but occasions more general and lasting disorder, if continued. Yet, 
many fish afford an aliment, abundantly wholesome to most people. 
And from being less stimulant, they are, in some cases, better adapted 
to the sick and convalescent, than the richer aliment of flesh. 

The red-blooded fish, and those which abound with oil, are more 
stimulant, and more nutritive, than the white-blooded. But they are, 
also, heavier, and more apt to disagree with the stomach, especially of 
the delicate and dyspeptic. The cod and whiting, for example, afford 
a much lighter aliment, than the salmon, the eel, the mackerel, and the 
herring. Sea fish are, also, upon the whole, more nourishing and more 
palatable, than those which inhabit the rivers and fresh water. 

A very great variety offish is, in different parts of the world, used as 
aliment. But it is enough to have marked the general qualities of this 
kind of food. And, indeed, there seems so little real difference in the 
alimentary properties of those genera and species, commonly employ- 
ed, that to be more particular than we have been, would be an useless 
and unprofitable labor, even could we do this with any tolerable degree 
of certainty. 

The flesh of the Crab, Lobster, Craw fish, Prawn, Shrimp, White 
Shrimp, bear a close resemblance in flavor, color, and texture to fish ; 
from which, indeed, they do not greatly differ in alimentary properties. 
There is little or no oil in their composition ; and they are said to yield 
less ammonia, during their decomposition, than flesh or fish do. They 
are in general of more difficult digestion, and are allowed to afford less 
nourishment. The meat contained in the body of the crab is rich, high 
flavored, more stimulant, and probably more nutritive ; but extremely 
heavy, and apt to disagree with the stomach and bowels. The flesh 
within the claws is lighter and more wholesome. The lobster is es- 
teemed more delicate and palatable than the crab. It is also moderate- 
ly nourishing, but not very digestible. Both, indeed, are apt in some 
constitutions to occasion great disorder, cholic, fever, itching, and efflo- 
rescence of the skin. The craw fish is, in alimentary properties, simi- 
lar to the lobster. The prawn and shrimp are delicate, and well flavor- 
ed foods of the same kind. The decoction or broth of the three last, is 
much used on the continent, and much extolled, though without any 
sufficient reason, as purifying and restorative. 



Of shell fish not many are used as articles of diet. Those which are 
esteemed the best are the cockle, oyster, mussel, and snail. All these 
abound in soft mucous and albuminous matter, coagulable by heat, on 
which their alimentary powers would seem to depend. They furnish 
us with almost the only example of any animal food, that is ever eaten 
in the raw, and even living state. Of these, the best is unquestionably 
the oyster, which is highly esteemed in the raw and live state ; and 
with the healthy and robust stomach it commonly agrees well. 

But with the weak and dyspeptic, it often occasions considerable dis- 
order, and does not appear to be easily digested. Indeed there are ma- 
ny, whose stomachs do not appear faulty in other respects, who cannot 
digest raw oysters; and yet bear them well enough when roasted, stew- 
ed or boiled. They appear therefore to be, on the whole, more gene- 
rally wholesome and digestible in the last state, than raw. A few raw 
oysters, eaten before dinner, appear sometimes to increase the appetite, 
an effect which is to be attributed rather to the salt, than to the oyster 
itself. The nourishment afforded by this kind of food does not appear 
to be very great. Where they do not disagree with the stomach, oys- 
ters are, therefore, sometimes usefully taken as a light restorative ali- 
ment, by the feeble and consumptive, when more stimulant and nour- 
ishing food would be improper. The other shell fish are similar in ali- 
mentary properties to the oyster, though greatly inferior in delicacy and 
flavor, and much less fitted to be eaten raw. The mussel, in particular 
constitutions, has occasioned distressing, and even dangerous symp- 
toms ; sickness and pain of the stomach, violent retching, fever, heat, 
pain, swelling of the eyes, face, mouth, and throat, and erysipelatous 
inflammation of the skin, especially if eaten in the months of July and 

Scarcely any of the various alimentary substances employed by man 
are used in the raw and crude state, in which they are presented to 
him by nature. Almost all of them are previously subjected to some 
kind of preparation or change. 

The preparatory changes to which our food is usually subjected, are 
produced by the application of heat, and by the admixture of water, and 
of condiments or seasonings. 

By the application of heat to vegetables, the more volatile and wa- 
tery parts are, in some cases, dissipated. The different principles, ac- 
cording to their peculiar properties, are extracted, softened, dissolved, 
or coagulated ; but most commonly, they are forced into new combina- 
tions, so as to be no longer distinguishable, by the forms and proper- 
ties, which they formerly possessed. 

When in the preparation of bread, a baking heat is applied to the 
paste formed of flour and water, a complete change is effected in the 
constituent principles of this mixture, so that in making the analysis 
of bread, the proximate ingredients of flour are not to be found in it. 
A new substance, bread, has been produced, which is more digestible in 
the human stomach, more wholesome, and more nutritive, than the ma- 
terials from which it is formed. 

In like manner, the leguminous seeds, and farinaceous roots, are 
greatly altered by the application of heat. The raw potatoe, for exam- 
ple, is watery, ill flavored, extremely indigestible, and even unwhole- 



some. By roasting, or boiling, it becomes dry, friable, farinaceous, 
sweet, and agreeable to the taste, wholesome, digestible, and highly 
nutritive. Little is lost, and nothing is added to the potatoe by this 
preparation ; yet its properties are greatly changed ; its principles, in 
short, have suffered a derangement and new collocation. 

Other examples of such changes are presented to us, in the boilinsr, 
roasting and baking of many fruits; in which processes, we sometimes 
find acid destroyed, saccharine matter formed, mucilage and jelly ex- 
tracted, and combined anew, so that the product shall be more palata- 
ble, wholesome, and nourishing, than the raw material. 

Even in the simple boiling of the various pot-herbs, and esculent 
roots, the effect does not seem confined to the mere softening of the 
fibres, the solution of some, and coagulation of others of their juices 
and principles ; not their texture only, but their flavor, and other sen- 
sible qualities, have undergone a change, by which their alimentary 
properties have been improved. 

In general, vegetable substances, after having been thus prepared, 
are more wholesome, less flatulent, and more digestible, than in their 
crude state. 

The changes produced in animal substances prepared for our tables, 
by heat, are different according to the manner, in which it is applied, 
in the various processes of roasting, baking, frying, broiling, stewing, 
and boiling. 

In the usual way of roasting meat, there is little loss of the succu- 
lent or nutritive principles of the flesh ; they are not even greatly 
changed, for if the meat have not been overdone, they may still be ob- 
tained from it, by the usual modes of analysis. Some changes, howev- 
er, both of texture and composition, it has certainly suffered. It is more 
tender than before, and much higher flavored. Roasting seems, there- 
fore, the simplest, and, upon the whole, the best mode of preparing the 
flesh of animals. It is wholesome, and highly nourishing ; and, in 
general, more easily digested, than when prepared in any other way. 
It is often found to sit more easily on the stomach, and to be sooner di- 
gested by the dyspeptic and feeble, than boiled meat, or broth. 

By the methods of baking and stewing, the whole of the alimentary 
principles are also preserved ; but not unchanged ; for in these process- 
es, by the longer continuance of heat and moisture, the meat is more 
disorganized, the jelly, oil, and albumen, are separated, dissolved, mixed, 
or combined anew. These preparations are accordingly savory, rich, 
and glutinous, very nourishing, without doubt ; but not near so easily 
digested, as meat simply roasted or boiled. Above all, the whole vari- 
ety of stews, meat pies, and the like, are extremely apt to disagree with 
and disorder the stomachs of the gouty and dyspeptic. 

In boiling, part of the soluble principles is always extracted by the 
water; but, if the process have not been carried too far, the flesh is 
still sufficiently succulent and juicy ; and, at the same time, very ten- 
der, abundantly nourishing, and by most people easily enough digested. 
Boiled meat has less flavor than roasted, and appears to be somewhat 
less stimulant. Over-boiled meat, from which the greater part of the 
soluble principles has been extracted, is dry and insipid, less soluble in 
the stomach, and much less nutritious. 



Boiling is, also, employed with the more immediate intention of ex- 
tracting and dissolving the more soluble parts of animal matters, as in 
the preparation of soups, broths, and jellies. These are necessarily 
lighter, or more nourishing, according to the quality and parts of the 
meat used in their preparation. 

The lighter and less costly broths afford an aliment abundantly 
wholesome. The richer soups are heavy, and liable to all the incon- 
veniences of stewed meats. Though soups are less nourishing than 
the solid meat, from which they are extracted, they do not appear to be 
always so easily digested ; and, indeed, those who are liable to stomach 
complaints, generally find that plain roasted and boiled meat sits easier 
with them, than any kind of soup or broth. 

Under the head of aliment, it is usual to conclude condiments and 
drinks. Of these we shall treat, sufficient for our purpose, in the sub- 
sequent pages of our work. We shall, therefore, next proceed to some 
additional observations upon various aliments of a more detailed and 
miscellaneous character. 



BREAD. At the head of the vegetable class stands bread ; that ar- 
ticle, which, from general use, has received the name of u the staff of 
life." Of the manner of making it, it is unnecessary to speak. 

It is made, as is well known, from different species of irrain ; wheat, 
barley, rye, oats, Sec. ; but of all the articles of which bread is made, 
none is so nutritious as that which is obtained from wheat. This arises 
from the fact, that wheat contains not only more nutritive matter as a 
whole, but it also contains considerably more gluten than any other grain 
with which we are at present acquainted. Of 1000 parts of Middlesex 
wheat, according to Sir Humphrey Davy, the whole quantity of nutri- 
tive matter is 955 parts ; of these, mucilage, or starch, forms 765, and 
gluten 190. An analysis of some Sicilian wheat produced 961 parts of 
nutritive matter, of which 722 parts were mucilage, or starch, and 239 
gluten. In short, it appears from numerous experiments, that wheat 
generally contains at least double the quantity of gluten found in most 
other grain, as well as considerably more starch than either oats, beans, 
or peas. Norfolk barley, however, contains more starch than wheat; 
but as its proportion of gluten is much less than in that grain, it is nei- 
ther so nutritious, nor will it make such good bread as wheat. It ap- 
pears, too, that no grain which does not contain a considerable quanti- 
ty of gluten will make good bread; the gluten being essential to the 
raised or porous appearance of it. Gluten is, besides, a peculiar sub- 
stance, which approaches much nearer to the nature of animal matter 
than any other vegetable production, and hence we may learn why it is 
more likely to assimilate with, and nourish the animal body. Gluten 
yields, by destructive distillation, ammonia, and appears to be, in oth- 
er respects, similar to the substance found in animals called albumen. 




We may just add, that wheat contains, besides the ingredients above 
mentioned, a portion of sugar ; and as unfermented flour, when taken 
into the stomach, almost immediately enters into active fermentation, 
producing flatulence, and other unpleasant consequences, the necessity 
for its being first fermented, and afterwards baked, to complete the pro- 
cess, so as to render the bread suitable for the stomach, is apparent. 

STARCH, as we have seen in the preceding article, forms a large 
portion of the composition of wheat, as well as innumerable other veg- 
etable substances. It is well known as a white powdery substance, in- 
soluble in cold, but readily soluble in hot water, when at a temperature 
between 160° and 180°. Its solution is gelatinous, and, by careful 
evaporation, it yields a substance resembling gum in appearance. It 
appears that in their ultimate elements starch and sugar differ little in 
composition, and hence it often happens that the former is converted 
into the latter. Starch is nevertheless much better calculated for hu- 
man food than sugar, as it does not appear to undergo in the stomach 
that peculiar change which saccharine matter frequently does, produ- 
cing flatulence and other unpleasant symptoms. Besides the use of 
starch as food, in various vegetables, it is used for many purposes in 
the arts and manufactures ; and also occasionally as a medicine. 

SUGAR, or Saccharum, is the general basis of sweetness in all veg- 
etable substances. It is found also in milk, and a few other animal se- 
cretions. It is obtained from various vegetables in considerable quan- 
tity, but more commonly from beet root, and from the juice of the sugar 
maple, a tree growing plentifully in the back settlements of North 
America. But most of the sugar used is obtained from a reed or cane 
growing in the East and West Indies, and southern part of the United 

The Common sugar cane, saccharum 
officinarum, has flat leaves and panicied 
flowers ; it has a jointed reed-root, from 
which ascend four or more shoots (pro- 
portionable to the age and strength of 
the root,) eight or ten feet high, accord- 
ing to the goodness of the ground; in 
some moist soils, the cane has measured 
twenty feet, but such are seldom so pro- 
ductive. This species of the sugar cane 
has three varieties, the white, the red, 
and the elephantine sugar cane. It is a 
native of both the Indies, and also of the 
islands of the South Sea. It may be 
increased by slips or suckers from the 
root, or by cuttings. In its natural climate it is planted by cuttings in 
parallel furrows, where it comes to perfection in about fourteen months ; 
when ripe, the reeds are cut off at a joint near the root, cleared of the 
leaves, tied up in bundles, and sent to the mills, where, being cut in 
short pieces, they are squeezed till all the juice is obtained from them. 
It is then evaporated, with the addition of a small quantity of lime, un- 
til it becomes thick, when it is transferred into wooden coolers, where 
a portion concretes into a crystallized mass, which is drained and ex- 



■ ported to this country, under the name of muscovado, or raw sugar. 
The remaining liquid portion is called molasses or treacle, which in the 
West Indies, with other refuse saccharine matter, is commonly con- 
verted into rum. 

Sugar is refined by boiling it in pans with lime water, mixed with a 
certain portion of bullock's blood. The albumen of the blood mixes 
with the impurities of the sugar, which, rising to the surface, are skim- 
med off. Occasionally, we believe, the whites of eggs and butter are 
also used. When the sugar is sufficiently purified, it is placed in cool- 
ers, where it is violently agitated, till it becomes thick and granulated ; 
it is then poured into conical earthen moulds, previously soaked in wa- 
ter, and again agitated. When sufficiently cold, the moulds, with the 
sugar in them, are set with their broad ends upwards, in earthen pots, 
when the first portion of liquid molasses runs down ; pipe-clay, mixed 
with water, to the consistence of thick cream, is now laid upon the su- 
gar about an inch thick ; the water, leaving the pipe-clay, descends 
through the sugar, washing out the molasses and other colouring mat- 
ter. The process of claying is often repeated. The loaves are after- 
wards dried in a stove. 

TEA, Thea, or, as the Japanese call it, Teah, is the leaf of a tree or 
shrub growing in several provinces of China, Japan, and Siam; an 
infusion of which is in general use as drink, and called also tea. The 
tea plant likes valleys, the feet of mountains, and a stony soil ; it is 
likewise found in mountainous and rocky districts. Its seed is usually 
sown in places exposed to the south ; and bears three years after sown. 
The root resembles that of the peacii tree ; the leaves are green, sharp- 
ish at the point, and pretty narrow, an inch and a half long, and jagged 
all around. The flower is much like that of the wild ro^e. The fruit 
is of different forms, round, long, or triangular ; of the ordinary size of 
a bean, containing two or three peas, including each a kernel. These 
peas are the seeds by which the plant is propagated. Botanists have, 
in fact, distinguished two tea shrubs ; one they call Thea bohea, or the 
Bohea tea plant ; the other Thea viridis, or Green tea plant ; but it is 
probable that more species, or at least more varieties exist than two, as 
the numerous kinds and qualities of teas would seem to indicate. 

The tea tree is a branchy, evergreen sbrub, growing to the height of 
four or five feet, although some have asserted that it reaches thirty. 
The best time to gather the leaves of tea is while they are yet small, 
young and juicy ; when gathered, they are passed over the vapour of 
boiling water to moisten them ; thoy are then laid on porcelain plates, 
which are heated ; and, by thus drying the leaves, they curl up in the 
manner they are brought to us. It is very rare to find tea perfectly 
pure ; the Chinese always mixing other herbs with it to increase the 
quantity, though among them it is sold at a price moderate enough ; 
from three-pence to nine-pence per pound. The seasons for collecting 
the leaves are April, June, and September. 

Much has been said and written about the properties of tea. The 
reason why the gout and stone are unknown in China, is ascribed to 
the use of this plant ; which is further said to cure indigestion, dispel 
wind, &c. From analytical experiments on tea, made some time since 
at the Royal Institution, no deleterious properties were detected in 





either green or black tea ; nor has there been in green tea discovered 
the least particle of copper. The injurious effects of tea, if indeed any 
be produced by it, may be attributed, we presume, to the hot water 
rather than to the tea. 

COFFEE is a seed or berry, brought ori- 
ginally from Arabia Felix, used for making 
a drink of the same nature. By coffee we 
usually mean the drink itself, prepared from 
those berries. Its origin is not well known ; 
some ascribe it to the prior of a monastery, 
who, being informed by a goatherd, that his 
cattle, sometimes browzing on this tree, 
would wake and caper all night, became de- 
sirous of proving its virtue ; accordingly he 
first tried it on his monks, to prevent their 
sleeping at matins. Others refer the inven- 
tion of coffee to the Persians, from whom it 
was learned in the fifteenth century, by a 
mufti of Aden, a city near the mouth of the 
Red Sea ; and who, having tried its virtues 
himself, and found that it dissipated the 
fumes which oppress the head, inspired joy, 
opened the bowels, and prevented sleep with- 
out his being incommoded by it, recommend- 
ed it first to his dervises, with whom he used to spend the night in 
prayer. Their example brought coffee into fashion at Aden : there the 
professors of the law, for study, artisans to work, travellers to walk in 
the night, in short, almost every person drank coffee. Thence it pass- 
ed to Mecca, and from Arabia Felix to Cairo, and from Egypt to Syria 
and Constantinople. Thevenot, the traveller, was the first who brought 
it into France ; and a Greek servant, called Pasqua, brought it into 
England in 1652, and setting up the profession of coffee-man, first in- 
troduced the drink among us ; though some say Dr. Harvey had used 
it before. 

CHOCOLATE, a kind of cake, or confection, prepared from certain 
drugs; the basis or principle whereof is the mraonut, or chocolate nut, 
a nut about the size of an almond, of which from thirty to a hundred 
are contained in a pod shaped like a cucumber, and very different from 
the cocoa nut, with which it is apt to be confounded, from the similari- 
ty of pronunciation. The drink prepared from the cake is also called 
chocolate, and is usually drunk warm, being esteemed not only an ex- 
cellent nourishing food, but also a good medicine ; or at least a diet for 
keeping up the warmth of the stomach, and assisting digestion. The 
Spaniards were the first who brought chocolate into use in Europe. 

The thin shell of the cacao nut, ground like coffee, and boiled in wa- 
ter, yields a beverage resembling chocolate, but less rich, and is used as 
an economical and wholesome breakfast by the name of cacao ; and for 
delicate stomachs is much better adapted than the oleous compound. 

RICE, oryza, a grain or seed. It is frequent in Greece, Italy, Spain, 
the East and West Indies, and America. The grains of rice, which 
grow in clusters are severally inclosed in yellow rough cases. Rice 




grows in marshy places. A weak spirit, termed arrack, is drawn from 
rice. Rice is less nutritious than wheat, and forms a very useful light 
food for patients under the influence of medicine. The best rice comes 
from Carolina ; an inferior sort from the East Indies. The mountain 
rice, the paddy of the Hindoos, grows in mountainous and other dry 
soils of India. 

It is said that America is indebted for this grain to a small bag of it, 
which was formerly given as a present from a Mr. Dubois, treasurer of 
the East India Company, to a Carolina merchant. 

A wet and morassy soil and hot climate appear, in general, necessa- 
ry to the cultivation of rice. The parts of the farms or plantations, in 
which it is grown, are usually so situated, as to admit of being flooded ; 
and, in many places, reservoirs of water are formed for this purpose. 
These reservoirs have sluices, by which the rice fields may be inunda- 
ted at pleasure. In reaping the crop, the laborers generally work knee 
deep in water and mud ; and as the rice is cut, the sheaves are put on 
drays, which follow the reapers, and are thus carried out to be spread 
on the dry ground. The rice thus produced has the name of marsh 
rice, and is that which is chiefly exported to Europe. 

The YAM is a root, the produce of a creeping plant whose stalks pro- 
ceed to a considerable distance, putting out roots from the joints, by 
which it becomes soon multiplied. The roots consist of blue or brown 
round or oblong tubers, each tuber weighing two or three or sometimes, 
twenty pounds. They vary greatly however, in size, shape, and color. 
The inside of the yam is white, and in mealiness resembles the potato. 
When dressed they are somewhat like that root; they are considered 
nutritive, and easy of digestion ; they are the common food of the slaves 
in the West Indies ; and if kept from moisture may be preserved for 
many years. They are ground into flour, and made into bread and 
puddings. The plant is propagated by cuttings, precisely the same as 
tve propagate potatoes, namely, by cutting the root in pieces, preserving 
411 eye in each piece. 

or Banana, (though, 
they are thought by 
some to be distinct 
species,) are generally 
spoken of together, as 
having more points of 
resemblance than of 
dissimilarity. They 
grow in the same re- 
jgions, and are applied 
to the same uses. 

The plantain is of 
considerable size ; it 
rises with a herbace- 
ous stalk, about five 
or six inches in diam- 
eter at the surface of 
the ground, but taper- 
ing upwards to the 
height of fifteen or 



twenty feet. The leaves are in a cluster at the top ; they are very large, 
being about six feet long and two feet broad ; the middle rib is strong, 
but the rest of the leaf is tender, and apt to be torn by the wind. The 
leaves grow with great rapidity after the stalk has attained its proper 
height. The spike of flowers rises from the centre of the leaves to 
the height of about four feet. At first, the flowers are enclosed in a 
sheath, but, as they come to maturity, that drops off. The fruit is 
about an inch in diameter, eight or nine inches long, and bent a little on 
one side. As it ripens, it turns yellow ; and when ripe, it is filled with 
a pulp of a luscious sweet taste. 

The Banana is a shorter and rounder fruit than the plantain : the 
stem is also different, — that of the plantain being wholly green, while 
the banana is spotted with purple. The banana is not so luscious as 
the plantain, but is more agreeable. 

The banana is found in equinoctial Asia and America, in the tropical 
parts of Africa, and of the islands of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans* 
wherever the mean heat of the year exceeds 75° of Farenheit. The 
banana is one of the most important and interesting objects for the cul- 
tivation of man. 

The banana is not known in an uncultivated state. The plant is 
propagated by suckers. It is ten or eleven months after the sucker 
has been planted, before the fruit is ready to gather. The stalk is then 
cut, from which sprouts put forth which bear fruit again in three months. 
They are exceedingly productive. A spot of a little more than a thou- 
sand square feet will contain from thirty to forty banana plants. A 
cluster of bananas produced on a single plant, often contains from one 
hundred and sixty, to one hundred and eighty pounds. But reckoning 
the weight of a cluster only at forty pounds, such a plantation would 
produce more than four thousand pounds of nutritive substance. M. 
Humboldt calculates that as 33 pounds of wheat, and 99 pounds of 
potatoes require the same space as that in which four thousand pounds 
of bananas are grown, the produce of bananas is consequently to that 
of wheat as 133 : 1, and to that of potatoes as 44 : 1. 

The ripe fruit of the banana is preserved like the fig, by being dried 
in the sun. This dried banana is an agreeable and healthy aliments 
Meal is extracted from the fruit, by cutting it in slices, drying it in the 
sun, and then pounding it. 




BREAD-FRUIT Tree, a tree grow- 
ing at Otaheite and other South Sea 
Islands ; it was brought to the notice of 
Europeans by Captain Cook. It has 
the height and proportion of a middle- 
sized oak ; the leaves are often a foot 
and a half long, oblong shaped, and in 
color, consistence, and sinuosity, resem- 
bling those of the fig-tree, and exuding 
a milky juice on fracture. The fruit is 
about the size and shape of a new-born 
child's head, covered with a reticulate 
skin, and containing a core in its centre. 
The eatable part lies between the skin 
and the core, is as white as snow, and 
of the consistence of new bread. It is 
prepared for food in various ways. It 
affords much nourishment, and there- 
fore is esteemed very proper for laboring 
people. Attempts have been latterly 
made to naturalize this tree in the West 
it can only, it is said, be propagated by suckers or layers. 

CHEESE, Butter, See article Agriculture — Management of the 

HONEY, See bees. 

Indies ; 



ORANGES make a considerable article 
of merchandize. Those called China oran- 
ges were first brought into Europe from 
China by the Portuguese ; and it is said, 
that the very tree whence all the European 
orange trees of this sort were produced, is 
still preserved at Lisbon. The China or- 
ange is not so hardy as the Seville, and rare- 
ly produces good fruit in England ; nor are 
the leaves of the tree near so large or beau- 
tiful as those of the Seville orange. There 
is a great variety of sweet oranges both in 
the East and West Indies, some of which 
are much more esteemed than those now in 
Europe : but as they are much tenderer, 
they will not thrive in that country with 
the common culture. There are several va- 
rieties of the orange tree, but they may all 
be referred to the sweet, or China orange, 
and the bitter, or Seville orange, the juice of 
which is sour. Those most esteemed, and 



that are made presents of as rarities in the Indies, are no larger than a 
billiard-ball. The juice is cooling and antiscorbutic. 

The seeds of oranges ought never to be swallowed ; a case of a 
young lady in England has recently occurred, in which her death was 
in all likelihood caused by several orange seeds lodgings for a long time 
in the intestines. 

The CITRON is the produce of a tree, much resembling the lemon 
tree. A citron has the same qualities as the lemon, but it is larger, 
higher colored, and has a brisker smell. It is an agreeable fruit, and 
serves, like that, to cool and quench the thirst. Genoa is the great 
European nursery for this sort of fruit. The Florentine citron, Miller 
says, is in such great esteem, that the single fruits are sold at Florence 
for two shillings each, and are sent as presents to the courts of princes. 
This kind is not to be had in perfection in any other part of Italy ex- 
cept the plain between Pisa and Leghorn, and if transplanted to other 
parts it loses much of its excellence. From citrons 'are produced es- 
sences, oils, confections, waters, &c. 

The LEMON is a variety of the citron tree. There are several 
sub-varieties of this tree, some of which are sour, and others again 
sweet. The lemon grows naturally in that part of India, which is sit- 
uated beyond the Ganges ; but its transmigration to Europe belongs 
to the invasion of the W est by those mighty caliphs, who from the 
heart of Southern Asia, extended their conquests to the foot of the 
Pyrenees, leaving every where traces of their power and of their know- 
ledge. The lemon, thus transported by the Arabs into every part of 
their vast empire, where it would grow, was found by the crusaders in 
Syria and Palestine, towards the end of the twelfth century. By them 
it was introduced into Sicily and Italy ; though it is probable that at 
the same period, it was already multiplied in Africa and Spain. 

Lemon-juice is one of the most cooling and antiseptic vegetable pro- 
ductions : it improves the taste, and corrects the putrid tendency of 
animal food in the summer. Hence, lemonade affords a grateful and 
coolina beverage for febrile patients (but it should be used moderately, 
for all acids have a tendency to produce stone, gravel, and gout, when 
too freely taken.) 

Essence of Lemon is obtained from the exterior rind of the fruit, ei- 
ther by compression or distillation ; it is often an impure essential oil* 
as found in the shops. 

The OLIVE, is an evergreen tree common to the woods of the south 
of France, Spain and Italy. It rarely exceeds twenty feet in height ; 
it has lanceolate, grey, ferruginous leaves, downy or silvery under- 
neath ; the flowers are small and white ; the fruit is a drupe of an 
oblong form, about an inch and a half or two inches long, and black 
when ripe. Of the olive there are several varieties. Abroad it is 
propagated by shoots, which are grafted to produce good sorts. In 
England it is propagated by layers. The most valuable part of this 
tree is the fruit ; from which, when ripe, is obtained the olive oil, so 
well and universally known as food and as a medicine. Olives are 
brought into this country pickled as a condiment ; but they are neither 
good nor wholesome food. 



The growth of olives and the manufacture of the oil furnish a con- 
siderable employment to many of the inhabitants of France and Italy. 
The importation of olive oil into Great Britain amounted, in 1827, to 
about four thousand five hundred tons, paying a duty of eight guineas 
per ton. % 

The ALMOND is a fruit inclosed in a thick stone, and under a thin 
skin. The tree that produces the almond is pretty tall, and resembles 
a peach tree. It is frequent in Germany, France, Spain and the neigh- 
boring countries, and also in Barbary. The flowers of this tree are 
ranged in the rose manner : the pistil becomes a fleshy fruit, contain- 
ing a seed which is the almond, and which drops out when the fruit is 
arrived at maturity. There are two kinds, sweet and bitter ; and it 
has been said that the same tree, by a difference in culture, has yielded 
both. In flavor, bitter almonds resemble water distilled from laurel 
leaves, and contain Prussic acid, which, in a pure state, is extremely 
poisonous. Sweet almonds are of a soft grateful taste ; and are re- 
puted cooling, healing, and nutritive. The oil of almonds is a safe 
emollient in pains arising from the stone or gravel ; in coughs and 
hoarseness ; and for costiveness and gripes in children. The quantity 
of almonds imported annually into Great Britain is estimated at 450 
tons, on which a duty is paid of £18,000. 

TAMARINDS are brought from the East and West Indies. Some 
call them Indian dates, others Indian acacia. The tree which yields 
this fruit is called by the Indians, tamarinds, and by the Portuguese 
tamarindos. It is not unlike our ash ; its leaves resemble those of fe- 
male fern ; its flowers are joined eight or ten together, like those of 
the orange tree. Its fruit is a pod, from two to five inches or more in 
length, covered at first with a green rind, which afterwards becomes 
brown, and contains a blackish acid pulp, among which are found seeds 
resembling lupines. Tamarinds must be chosen large, the pods unbro- 
ken, and of a brisk taste. Those put up in small casks and preserved 
in sugar, not syrup, are the best. They are laxative, cooling, and good 
to quench thirst. These trees grow to a great magnitude in their na- 
tive countries ; but in Europe they are preserved as curiosities by those 
who are lovers of rare plants. 

PRUNES are plumbs dried and baked in an oven, or in the sun. 
The prunes chiefly used among us are black, and are chiefly imported, 
we believe, from France. Great quantities are used by the English 
and Dutch. Prunes are slightly laxative. The prunello brignole, or 
French plum, is less dried than the common prunes, and much more 
grateful to the taste. 

The CACAO nw/, mentioned under chocolate, is the seed or fruit of 
the chocolate tree, which grows in several parts of the West Indies. 
It resembles our cherry tree ; but is so very delicate, and the soil it 
grows in so hot, that to guard it from the sun, it is always planted in 
the shade of another tree, called mother of cacoa. Within the pod of 
the fruit is formed a tissue of white fibres ; in the middle of these fibres 
are contained ten, twelve, or even forty grains or seeds of a violet color, 
and as dry as acorns. Each grain, which is covered with a little rind, 
separates into five or six unequal pieces, in the middle whereof is a 



kernel, having a tender bud, very difficult to preserve. Of this seed, 
with the addition of other ingredients, chocolate is made. Some Span- 
iards have made five thousand pounds per annum from a single garden 
of cacaos. In several parts of America, the cacao grains are used by 
the Indians as money ; twelve or fourteen are esteemed equivalent to 
a Spanish real, or five-pence three farthings sterling. 

The COCOA nut is the fruit of a tree of the family of palms. It is 
of a large size, being sometimes near a foot in length. Like a walnut, 
it has a soft external husk, from the fibres of which cordage may be 
made. This husk, in its early state, is edible, and agreeably acid. The 
hard shell is sometimes mounted with silver, for drinking cups, or sugar 
basins. V\ ithin the shell is a large white kernel, pleasant to the taste, 
inclosing a very grateful fluid, called milk of cocoa. An oil like that 
of almonds, may be obtained from the kernel. 

The POMEGRANATE is a fruit in the form of an apple or quince, 
full of seeds or kernels, inclosed within a reddish pulp, sometimes 
sweet, sometimes acid. It is so called, either from the abundance of its 
grain or kernels, pomum granatum, a kernelled apple, or from the 
country where it was anciently produced, viz. Grenada. The pome- 
granate is, however, a native of the south of Europe, and grows to the 
general height of an apple-tree ; the branches are a little prickly ; the 
leaves resemble those of the great myrtle ; the fruit, which is compo- 
sed of red angular grains, is inclosed in little distinct cells, the whole of 
which are enveloped by a thick and highly astringent outer rind. 
Pomegranates are by some esteemed. Of the kernels are made syrups 
and preserves ; the peel contains a considerable quantity of astringent 

A FIG is a most delicious fruit, the produce of a tree of the same 
name. Figs are of several kinds ; the black and the violet colored are 
the worst; the white are esteemed the best. They are dried either by 
an oven or the sun, and in this state they are used both as medicine 
and food. The best figs are the produce of Italy, Spain, Provence, &c. 
The isiands of the Archipelago yield figs in great abundance, though 
inferior in goodness to those of Europe. The Greeks in those islands 
cultivate them with wonderful care and attention, making them their 
principal food, and a considerable part of the riches of the country. 
Figs are gathered in autumn, and generally laid on a rack or hurdle to 
dry in the sun. They are found to contain mucilage, sugar, and some 
oil. They are very nourishing ; yet when eaten freely, they often pro- 
duce much inconvenience. They are used to make gargarisms against 
disorders of the throat and mouth : they are also applied externally to 
soften and promote the maturation or suppuration of tumors, particu- 
larly when toasted and applied to swelled gums. 

BANIAN, or INDIAN FIG TREE. This tree deserves notice, not 
as a fruit tree, but from its being a sacred tree with the Hindoos in the 
East Indies, from the vast size that it attains, and from the singularity 
of its growth. The fruit does not exceed that of a hazel nut in bigness ; 
but the lateral branches send down shoots which take root, till, in the 
course of time, a single tree extends itself to a considerable grove. This 
remarkuble tree was known to the ancients. Strabo mentions that af- 
ter the branches have extended about twelve feet horizontally, they 




shoot down in the direction of the earth, and there take root themselves ; 
and when they have attained maturity, they propagate onward in the 
same manner, till the whole becomes like a tent supported by many 

Some specimens of the Indian fig-tree are mentioned as being of im- 
mense magnitude. One near Mangee, twenty miles to the westward of 
Patna, in Bengal, spread over a diameter of 370 feet. The entire cir- 
cumference of the shadow at noon was 1116 feet, and it required 929 
feet to surround the fifty or sixty stems by which the tree was support- 
ed. Another covered an area of 1700 square yards ; and many of al- 
most equal dimensions are found in different parts of India and Cochin 
China, where the tree grows in the greatest perfection. 

RAISINS are grapes, prepared by suffering them to remain on the 
vine till they are perfectly ripe, and then drying them in the sun or in 
ovens, to fit them for keeping, and for some medicinal or culinary pur- 
poses. There are various kinds ; as raisins of Damascus, which are 
brought to us flat and seeded, of the size of the thumb, whence we may 
judge of the extraordinary bulk of the grape when fresh. Travellers 
mention bunches that weighed twenty-five pounds. Their taste is 
faintish and disagreeable. Thtie are numerous other sorts, which are 
denominated from the place where they grow, &c. ; as the raisins of 
Calabria, Malaga, Muscadine raisins, &c. 

About 8000 tons of raisins, or dried grapes, are annually imported 
into England, at a duty of about £160,<>00. A considerable quantity 
of undried grapes are also imported, principally from Portugal, in jars, 
among saw-dust. The value of those so imported, is about £10,00)'. 
The currants of commerce, which are so extensiv ly us d in England, 
and of which about 6000 tons are annually import d into that country* 
are small dried grapes, principally from the Ionian islands. 




DATES; the fruit of 
an oblong shape of seve- 
ral kinds of palm trees, 
which are found in the 
Levant, Arabia, Persia, 
and Africa, and parts of 
South America. The 
tree is said to be beauti- 
ful, shooting up to the 
height of fifty or sixty 
feet, without branch or 
division. When it at- 
tains this height, its di- 
ssr^ ameter is from a foot to 
^eighteen inches. The 
-^main stems of the leaves 
" are from eight to twelve 
feet long, firm, shining, and tapering, and each embracing at its inser- 
tion a considerable part of the trunk. Before the fruit is ripe, it is rath- 
er rough and astringent ; but, when perfectly matured, is much of the 
nature of the fig ; has an oblong drupe, or stone, with a deep furrow 
running longitudinally in the middle of the pulp. Some dates are 
black, some white, some brown, some again are round, like apples, and 
very large. They are generally oblong, fleshy, yellow, somewhat lar- 
ger than the thumb's end, and very agreeable to the taste. Some are no 
bigger than a pea, and others as big a pomegranate. 

The medullary part of the date tree has the consistency of sago. 
But the true sago is obtained from another kind of date tree, which is 
a native of the East Indies. It is the Sago palm, a single trunk of which 
in its fifteenth year, sometimes furnishes six hundred pounds of sago. 
A single acre ofland, it is said, will support 435 sago palms, which will 
annually produce 120,500 lbs. of sago. 

There is scarcely any part of the true date tree which is not servicea- 
ble to man, either as a necessary, or a luxury. When fully ripened, the 
fruit yields, by strong pressure, a delicious syrup, which serves for pre- 
serving dates, or other fruits ; or the fruit may be made into jellies and 
tarts. The stalks of the bunches of dates, hard as they are in their 
natural state, as well as the kernels, are softened by boiling, and in that 
condition are used for feeding cattle. By distillation they afford ardent 
spirit. From the sap, or juice of the tree, is made palm wine. The 
fibrous parts of the date tree are made into ropes, baskets, mats, and 
various other articles of domestic use ; and so are the strings or stalk, 
which bear the dates. The cordage of the ships navigating the Red 
Sea is almost exclusively of the inner fibrous bark of the date tree. The 
trunk answers well for posts, railings, and other coarse purposes. Even 
the leaves of the date palm have their uses. Their great length, and 
comparatively small breadth, and their toughness, render them very 
good materials for the construction of coarse ropes, baskets, panniers, 
mats, fans, hats, Szc. Large quantities of these leaves are annually im. 
ported into the United States. It is reported, that no less than one 
million of hats have recently, within a single year, been manufactured 
in the state of Massachusetts alone. 





We shall only add, that the date palm is a very slow growing tree. 
In a soil and climate most congenial to it, old trees do not gain above a 
foot in height in five years, so that supposing the increase uniform, the 
age of a tree sixty feet high, cannot be less than 300 years. In some 
countries in the East, date trees pass from one person to another, in 
the course of trade and are sold by the single tree ; and the price paid 
to a girl's father, on marrying her, often consists of date trees. 


— This fruit is 
justly esteemed 
for the richness 
of its flavor, as 
it surpasses all 
the known fruits 
in the world. — 
The fruit is sup- 
posed to have 
its name, from 
the cones of the 
pine tree, which 
it somewhat re- 
sembles. There 
are many spe- 
cies of pine ap- 
ples, most of 
them natives of 
South America, 
some of Africa. 
and one or two 
of the East In- 
dies ; but that 
most known and 
propagated, is 
the Brointha a 7L- 

ancM, a native of America. Pine-apples have been long cultivated, in 
the hottest islands of the West Indies, where they are plentiful and 
good. They have, also, been introduced into European gardens, so as 
to produce fruit. 

APPLE. The apple is distinguished as the fruit of the colder cli- 
mates. It is at once the most brisk and refreshing of any of the com- 
mon hardy orchard fruits. It remains longest in season, is used in the 
greatest number of ways, and therefore is the most generally cultiva- 
ted, it is cultivated throughout Europe, as far as the 60° of latitude. 
It has been observed, by a distinguished traveller, that the commoner 
fruit trees, such as apples, pears, cherries, and apricots, grow in the 
open air, wherever oaks thrive. 

The apple is supposed to be a native of the Fast ; whence it was in- 
troduced into Europe, and thence into England ; from which country 
it has been brought to the United States. We have, however, an indif- 
ferent crab apple, which is indigenous to the country. 

The alimentary properties of the apple are not great ; but, when ful- 



ly ripe, they are not unwholesome. In diseases of the breast, says Dr. 
Willie, such as catarrhs, coughs, consumptions, &c. they are of con- 
siderable service ; for these beneficial purposes, however, they ought 
not to be eaten raw, but either roasted, stewed, or boiled. With regard 
to their sensible properties, apples have been divided into spicy, acidu- 
lated, and watery. The first contain the least proportion of water, are 
of a most delicate flavor, and on account of their vinous qualities, are 
not apt to excite flatulence. Pippins, on the contrary, though affording 
more nutriment, are more fibrous, and consequently more difficult to 
digest. These belong to the second class. Lastly, those sweet and 
tender apples, which are very sweet and palatable, are the least fit to 
be eaten in a raw state, unless with the addition of bread or biscuit. 

To preserve apples well is obviously a great desideratum. Fessen- 
uen, from an English journal, recommends the use of dry pit sand. 
Glazed earthen jars are to be provided, and the sand to be thoroughly 
dried. A layer of sand an inch thick is then placed in the bottom of 
the jar ; above this, a layer of fruit, to be covered with a layer of sand 
an inch thick, then lay a second stratum of fruit, covering again with 
an inch of sand. An inch and a half of sand may be placed over the 
uppermost row of fruit. The jar is now to be closed, and placed in a 
jdry situation, as cool as possible, but entirely free from frost. 

On the preservation of apples, the following excellent observations 
are from the pen of Noah Webster, Esq. " It is the practice of some 
persons to pick apples in October, and first spread them on the floor of 
an upper room. This practice is said to render apples more durable, 
by drying them. But I can affirm this to be a mistake. Apples, after 
remaining on the trees as long as safety from the frost will admit, 
should be taken directly from the trees to clo*e casks, and kept dry and 
cool as possible. If suffered to lie on a floor for weeks, they wither 
and lose their flavor, without acquiring any additional durability. The 
best mode of preserving apples for spring use, 1 have found to be, to 
put them in dry sand, as soon as picked. For this purpose, I dry sand 
in the heat of summer, and late in October put down the apples in lay- 
ers, with a covering of sand upon each layer. The singular advanta- 
ges of this mode of treatment, are, 1st. The sand keeps the apples from 
the air, which is essential to their preservation, and, 2d. the sand checks 
the evaporation or perspiration of the apples, thus preserving them in 
their full flavor ; at the same time, any moisture yielded by the apples 
(and some there will be) is absorbed by the sand ; so that the apples are 
kept dry and all mustiness prevented. My pippins, in May and June 
are as fresh, as when first picked ; even the ends of the stems look as 
if just separated from the twig." 

PEAR. The pear tree is found in a wild state in Europe, as far 
north as lat. 51°. According to the editors of the Library of Enter- 
taining Knowledge, it is probable that the Romans introduced the cul- 
tivated pear into England. From the latter country, as well as from 
France, many fine varieties have been transferred to America. Some 
sorts are indigenous to the country. 

In a wild state, the fruit of the pear tree has an austere and unpleas- 
ant taste ; but, when cultivated, it is highly grateful. The relative 
salubrity of pears, however, depends much on the state of ripeness or 



immaturity, in which they are used, as well as on their different pro- 
perties. Unripe pears should not be eaten, and those whicli are hard, 
astringent, and difficult of digestion should also be rejected. As a gen- 
eral rule, the more juicy ones are more alimentary, and less objectiona- 
ble, from the circumstance that they abound more in saccharine mat- 
ter, which does not so much oppress the stomach. All the varieties, 
however, are more flatulent than apples, plumbs, or the generality of 
fruit. When on the eve of decay, they are especially obnoxious, and 
likely to produce cholera. Winter pears are, in general, unhealthy ; 
and the more so, as they are commonly eaten at a period of the year, 
when the stomach requires stimulating, rather than cooling nourish- 
ment. Pears, when managed in a similar manner with apples for ma- 
king cider, afford a pleasant liquor known by the name oZyerry. 

PLUM. The tree which bears this fruit is found growing wild in 
Great- Britain, and other parts of Europe; but it is supposed to be a 
native of Asia. It is also indigenous in North America. 

There are nearly three hundred varieties of plums. The origin of 
one kind, the Washington, which in richness of flavor, beauty, and oth- 
er good qualities, is, perhaps, not surpassed by any, is too curious to 
be omitted. The parent tree was purchased in the market of New- 
York, some time in the end of the last century. It remained barren 
several years, till during a violent thunder-storm the whole trunk was 
struck to the earth and destroyed. The root afterwards threw out a 
number of vigorous shoots, all of which were allowed to remain, and 
finally produced fruit. It is therefore to be presumed that the stock of 
the barren kind is the parent of this. Trees of this kind were sent to 
several gentlemen in England, a few years ago, by Dr. Hosack, of New 
York. The fruit appears to be as highly esteemed in England, as in 
this country. 

Besides their utility as a culinary fruit, plums possess valuable me- 
dicinal properties. In a dried state they are called prunes, and are 
eminently useful in cases of costiveness, accompanied by irritation, that 
would be aggravated by powerful laxatives ; but they ought not to be 
eaten after long fasting or for supper, unless mixed with other aliment, 
as they are apt to produce flatulency. With this exception, they suit 
almost every constitution, and produce both cooling and aperient ef- 
fects ; but when prunes do not operate, their power may be increased 
by combining them with a small portion of rhubarb or cream of tartar. 

\fplums be eaten in a fresh state, or before they are perfectly ripe, 
and in immoderate quantities, they induce colics, looseness, and simi- 
lar affections in the stomach and intestines. The larger kinds, especial- 
ly, ought to be used seldom, and with great precaution, being more dan- 
gerous than the smaller plums ; because the former are rarely permit- 
ted to attain their maturity. 

PEACH. The peach tree is said to be a native of Persia in Asia, 
whence it was brought by the Romans into Italy, during the reign of 
the Emperor Claudius. It was first cultivated in England, about the 
middle of the sixteenth century. 

The alimentary properties of the peach are considerable. The bet- 
ter kinds are not only harmless, but often positively beneficial ; espe- 
cially in cases of weakness and derangement of the stomach. In dys- 




enteric complaints, ripe peaches are innoxious, and even salutary, 
They are also useful for children, at the period of teething. Peaches 
which ripen late have fewer good properties than those which are more 
early ; and, in general, the free-stone peach is better flavored, than the 
cling, though to this there are exceptions. 

Peaches are often dried, in which state they will keep for a long time, 
and are exceedingly fine when stewed. In this state they are also 
sometimes used for pies. 

NECTARINE. This, by some writers, is considered as the same 
fruit with the peach. It has, however, a smoother skin and firmer 
pulp. It is when of a good sort, and properly cultivated, thought to be 
superior to it. Few vegetable productions are more grateful to the 
palate even of the epicure. 

APRICOT. The native country of the apricot appears to be Asia, 
where it is widely diffused. . Some writers, however, think it a native 
of Africa, whence, they say, it was carried towards the north. The 
tree was first brought to England in 1524, by Woolf, the gardener to 
Henry VIII. 

From the vinous and saccharine nature of this fruit, we may readily 
conclude that it is possessed of antiseptic, cooling, and nutritive proper- 
ties ; yet, unless fully ripe, it is apt to ferment and turn acid, in weak 
stomachs, especially those of persons who are subject to flatulency and 
eructations : hence apricots ought to be eaten in moderation,* with the 
addition of a little bread, and rather before than after meals. In short, 
they are more useful to billious and plethoric, than to phlegmatic and 
hysterical individuals, or those troubled with hypochondrical com- 

CHERRY. The cherry tree is said to have been originally found 
in Persia, whence it was introduced into Italy, as well as other parts of 
Europe, and is supposed to have been brought from Flanders into Eng- 
land, in the reign of Henry VIII. There are several varieties in the 
United States, which are thought to be natives of the country. The 
common red cherry, which, until within a few years, was almost the 
only sort cultivated among us, is quite indifferent ; and, when eaten im- 
moderately, is apt to produce colic, and other kindred diseases. The 
better sorts afford a refreshing summer fruit, highly grateful at the des- 
sert, and excellent for pies, tarts. Szc. A fine wine is made from the 
juice, and a spirit may be distilled from the fermented pulp. The gum 
which exudes from the tree, is equal to Gum Arabic ; and Hasselquist 
relates, that more than two hundred men, during a siege, were kept 
alive for nearly two months, without any other sustenance than a little 
of the gum, taken sometimes into the mouth, and suffered gradually to 

QUINCE. The quince was introduced into Europe, according to 
Pliny, from the island of Crete. From the largeness of this fruit, and 
its splendid color, it is thought not improbable that it was the same 
with the apples of the Hesperides. 

In the south of France, particularly on the borders of the Garonne, 
the quince is very extensively grown ; and the peasants prepare from it 
a marmalade, which they call colignoc. The term marmalade is deriv- 



ed from the Portuguese name for the quince, rnarmelo. Gerard says, 
that in his time, quince trees were planted in the hedges of gardens and 
vineyards ; and marmalade two centuries ago, seems to have been in 
general use, principally from a belief that it possesses valuable medici- 
nal properties. The seeds of the quince are still used in medicine, on 
account of the great quantity of mucilage, which they yield to boiling 
^vater. The fruit is sometimes boiled and eaten with sugar, in which 
form it may bo usefully employed in cases of dysentery. Five gallons 
of the juice of quinces, mixed with twenty-five pounds of sugar, and fer- 
mented, affords a delicious wine. Quinces are excellent in apple pies, 
in the proportion of one fourth quince to three fourths apple, with some 
thin slices of candied lemon-peal or citron. 



Concerning drinks it may be observed, in general, that they are ne- 
cessary to dilute and to assist the digestion and assimilation of the 
food, to preserve the fluidity of the chyle and of the blood ; and, on 
many occasions, directly to replace the large quantity of watery fluid, 
dissipated by the cutaneous, pulmonary, and urinary secretions. Ac- 
cordingly, if the stomach be oppressed by the solidity or acrimony of 
the food ; if the circulating mass require dilution ; or if there have 
been any extraordinary dissipation of the fluids by the different excreto- 
ries, we are advertised of the necessity of taking drink by the appetite of 

WATER. Water was formerly supposed to be a simple body, and 
was called one of the elements. But the researches of modern chem- 
istry have proved beyond a doubt, that it consists of hydrogen and oxy- 
gen. When two volumes of hydrogen gas are mixed with one volume 
of oxygen, and the mixture inflamed in a proper apparatus, by the elec- 
tric spark, the gases totally disappear, and the interior of the vessel is 
covered with drops of pure water, equal in weight to that of the gases 

Pure water is transparent, and without either color, taste, or smell. 
At the temperature of 40° it is at its greatest density. A cubic foot of 
water weighs, except a trifling fraction, 1000 ounces ; a cubic inch 252. 
953 grains. A pint of pure water, wine measure, weighs, or is assumed 
to weigh, sixteen ounces avoirdupois. 

At the temperature of 32° water becomes ice ; the specific gravity of 
ice is 0,94 ; ice, of course, floats on water. Water exposed to heat in 
open vessels, boils at 212°. But water boils at different temperatures, 
depending upon the pressure of the atmosphere. At the top of Mont 
Blanc it boiled, according to Saussure, at 187°. 

Water is the natural drink of man ; and, indeed, of all animals. It 
is, also, the most universally used ; and though others are taken by a 



great proportion of mankind, it forms the basis of all of them, consider- 
ed merely as drinks. It is not only the safest, and best drink, but how- 
ever it may be disguised, water is perhaps the only fluid, which can an- 
swer all the purposes for which drink is required. 

WINE is an agreeable, spirituous, aromatic liquor, prepared by fer- 
menting the juices of those vegetables, which contain saccharine mat- 

The kinds of wine are extremely various. The difference which 
exists between them is not, however, so much owing to a distinction in 
the species of grapes, as in the quality of fruit, produced by the varie- 
ties of soil, cultivation, and climate, to which they are subject. This 
likewise depends, in some instances, on the peculiar mode of fermenta- 
tion, and the state of the grapes, from which the wine is produced. 

Of all the kinds of wines that are consumed in England, none, it is 
said, are so much in request as red port. This has its name from the 
city of Oporto, in the neighborhood of which, the vines, producing it, 
are chiefly cultivated. 

The difference in color betwixt red and white wines, does not so 
much depend upon the quality of the grapes, as upon the mode in 
which the wines arc prepared. The juice of red grapes, if carefully 
pressed, and fermented separately from the skins, forms a white wine. 
If the skins be pressed so as to discharge the coloring matter, or if they 
be allowed to remain in the juice, during the fermentation, the wine 
assumes a red tinge. 

White port, and Lisbon, are two kinds of white wine, which we re- 
ceive from Portugal. The latter of which is now chiefly used. 

French wines. Many excellent wines are produced in France. That 
which is usually considered the best, is Burgundy, a red wine of very 
delicate flavor, which derives its name from the province, where it is 
made. The wines from the neighborhood of Orleans, however, after 
having been matured by age, are much like Burgundy. Claret is the 
only French red wine, for which there is any great demand in England. 
It is thin and highly flavored, and is chiefly supplied from the neigh- 
borhood of Bordeaux. Some of the red wines of Champaigne are 
highly prized for their excellence and delicacy, though they occasion- 
ally, have a pungent and sourish taste. 

No French white wine has so much celebrity as Champaigne. This 
is of two kinds : one of which called still, or quiet Champaigne, has 
gone through the whole process of fermentation ; the other, which has 
the name of sparkling Champaigne, has been bottled before the fermen- 
tation was complete ; this consequently works slowly in the bottle, and 
causes the wine, on the drawing of the cork, to sparkle in the glass. 
Frontignac and Muscadel, are white" wines, the delicious productions of 

It would not consist with our limits even to name the varieties of 
wine, which are produced in France. Almost every province has a 
wine peculiar to itself. The value of the wine crop is estimated at 
about thirty millions sterling. The department of the Gironde alone, 
produces wine to the value of two millions sterling. 

Spanish loine. In the environs of Xeres, in Spain, is produced the 



wine called sherries, or sherry, which, when well prepared, is highly es- 

The best and richest sort of sherry, is called Pagarette, from the 
Spanish word Pago, a district, and particularly applied to this vintage. 
In one aranzado, (an acre of vineyard,) they plant, 1,800 vines at regu- 
lar distances. It is reckoned a good year if it gives three buts per 
acre ; middling if two ; and bad, if but one ; some years, however, it 
yields four or five. The quantity of sherry wine made annually in this 
place is about 40,000 pipes. Some sweet wines are also produced in 
th-'s neighborhood, of which, the best known, is a sweet red wine call- 
ed vino tinto, or Tent wine. 

Italian wines. Notwithstanding the ancient celebrity of many of 
the wines of Italy, by far the greater part of what are now manufactur- 
ed in that country, are thin and bad. Certain vineyards, on Mount 
Vesuvius, however, still have great celebrity for a luscious red wine 
called Lachryma Christi. 

German wines. Germany produces many excellent wines of which 
lock, Rhenish, and Moselle, are the most celebrated. Tokay 
has its name from a town in Hungary, in the neighborhood of which it 
is chiefly made. The quantity of the wine is so small, that even on 
the spot it is sold at a very high price. Tokay is certainly a fine wine ; 
it is no way adequate to the price, for which it is sold. Several 
years ago, it could not be purchased even in Hungary, for much less 
than half a guinea of English money, per bottle. Of all the German 
wines, that which is in greatest demand in England is Hock. This has 
its name from the town of Hockstedt, in Suabia, celebrated for a great 
battle which was fought in its neighborhood, by the French and the 
allies in 1704. Rhenish and Moselle, are produced chiefly on the banks 
of the rivers Rhine and Moselle ; and have a cool sharp taste, and con- 
siderable strength. Anterior to the late wars in Germany, there were 
wines in the cellars of many of the noble and wealthy inhabitants of 
that country, which were more than a hundred years old, and of such 
body, as to be uninjured even by that great age. 

Madeira and Teneriffe xcines. To the Madeira and Canary islands 
we arc indebted for some excellent white wines. Of these, Madeira 
wine is considered by far the most valuable, particularly after it has 
been ripened by conveyance into a hot climate. The number of pipes 
of Madeira annually made in that island is about 30,000. The grapes 
when gathered, are put into wooden vessels, and the juice is extracted 
by persons treading upon thern. 

The Canary islands gave name to a rich white wine, which was for- 
merly in great esteem under the name of Canary sack, and is now usu- 
ally called Malmsey Madeira. The genuine malmsey wine, which is of 
sweet and luscious flavor, and rich golden yellow color, is the produce 
of Malvesia, one of the Greek islands, and thence had originally its 
name, the French merchants denominating it Vin de Malvesia : but so 
little is now made, that few persons can possess it. Teneriffe wine, 
when two or three years old, has much the flavor of Madeira; but af- 
ter this age it sometimes becomes so sweet and mellow, as somewhat 
to resemble Malaga. 

Cape wines. There are produced at the Cape of Good Hope two 


66 FAMIL. 


kinds of peculiarly rich, sweet, and delicate wines called red and white 
Constantina. The farm from which they have their name is situated 
about eight miles from Cape Town. Constantina is in perfection, when 
about two years old ; but when kept six or seven years, it sparkles in 
the glass, somewhat, like wine which has not undergone a perfect fer- 

Several attempts have been made in the United States, within a few 
years, to cultivate the grapes of our own country, as well as those of 
foreign origin, for the purpose of making wine. Hitherto, the quantity 
has not been great, nor the quality, with some exceptions, superior. 
Indeed, it is doubtful, whether the climate will ever admit of the culti- 
vation of those sorts of grapes, which are essential to wholesome wine. 
Yet it is well known that a different opinion prevails among some. In 
respect to New-England, a writer gives it as his opinion, that it can nev- 
er be the interest of the farmers to raise the \ine for the above purpose. 
"The great objection to its culture," he observes, "for wine is, the de- 
ficiency of sugar, or saccharine matter. This defect is so great in our 
climate that cultivators are obliged to add a large quantity of sugar 
to the must, or expressed juice, to give it sufficient body. In the Mid- 
dle and Southern States the successful cultivation of the vine 6eems 
more probable, and some experiments have even exceeded the expec- 
tations of the sanguine. Wine pronounced to be of an excellentjjquali- 
ty by Dr. Mease, has been manufactured by Col. Adlum, near George- 
town, who in 1826 states, that he realized from two acres and an half, 
from eleven to twelve hundred dollars, after deducting all expenses. 
Among the grapes cultivated for this purpose are the Bland and Ca- 
tawba. In North Carolina, the Scuppernong grape is in high estima- 
tion ; and from it, wine has been made, pronounced by good judges to 
equal the best Madeira. A single vine has been known to produce 
eight barrels of wine. Mr. Prince, near New- York, has produced ex- 
cellent wine from the Isabella grape, to which he gives the preference. 
Wine is manufactured also in parts of Ohio, Tennessee, and several 
other states. 

Method of making and fining wine — In the southern parts of France, 
they make red wines by treading the grapes, or squeezing them be- 
tween the hands ; after the juice and husks have stood a time, they 
press them ; but for white wine they press the grapes immediately. 
When pressed, they tun the must, and stop up the vessel, leaving the 
depth of half a foot or more empty, to give room for it to work. About 
Paris, and in the northern parts of France, they let the husks and must 
stand two days and nights for white wine, and at least a week for 
claret wine, before they tun it. To fine it down, they put shavings of 
green beech into the vessel. Although the juice of the grape general- 
ly contains saccharine matter sufficient for fermentation, yet it is usual 
in some countries to accelerate this process by artificial means, such as 
heat, &c. If after the first fermentation, certain impurities remain, 
wine-coopers remove these by means of isinglass, whites of eggs, pow- 
ders of alabaster, calcined marble, roch-alum, &c. The Grecians pro- 
mote the fining of their strongest wines by a quantity of sulphur and 
alum. Some sweeten their wines with raisins of the sun. 

Currant wine. As this kind of wine is extensively manufactured in 



the United States, especially in private families, we give the following 
rule from the Farmer's Guide. To make this wine, gather the cur- 
rants when fully ripe, let them be picked in fair weather, and with as 
much expedition as possible ; break them well in a tub or vat, (some 
have a mill constructed for the purpose, consisting of a hopper, fixed 
upon two lignum vitae rollers,) press and measure the juice, having 
first strained it through a woollen cloth ; to every gallon of pure cur- 
rant juice, add two gallons of cold water, then to every gallon of this 
mixture, immediately put three pounds of good brovvn sugar, (some 
think it better with three and one-fourth pounds,) stir it well, till the 
sugar is quite dissolved, and then fill up the cask. If you can possibly 
prevent it, let not your juice stand over night, as it should not ferment 
before mixture. Observe that the casks be sweet and clean, and such 
as never have had either beer or cider in them, and if new, let them be 
first well seasoned. The cask must not be so full as to work over. 
Lay the bung lightly on the hole, to keep out flies, Szc. In three weeks, 
or a month, the bung hole may be stopped up, leaving only the vent 
hole open, till it has fully done working; then stop it up tight, and in 
six months, it will be fit for bottling, or for use. Like other wines, 
however, it improves much by age. 

Wine, as well as ardent spirits, it is well known, contains a large 
quantity of alcohol. The following table exhibits the proportion of 
this principle in one hundred parts of the following liquors, and which, 
for convenience, we insert in this place. 

Rum, 54 

Brandy, French . . 53 

Gin, 52 

Scotch Whiskey, . . 54 

Port wine, from . 19 to 26 

Madeira, " . . 19 to 24 
Currant, ... 21 

Sherry, Lisbon, and Malaga, from 18 to 20 
Claret, from . * 13 to 17 

Tokay, " ... 10 
" Nearly all the wines used in this country," observes a writer, ■ con- 
tain a much larger proportion of alcohol, than the above table indi- 
cates ; as it is well known to be the practice of many dealers in wine, 
to add brandy, and other articles, to give them more life and a richer 
color." Indeed, it is stated by a most respectable medical authority, 
that, " for every gallon of pure wine which is sold, there is perhaps a 
pipe, or fifty times the quantity of that which is adulterated, and in 
various manners sophisticated ; the whole, without exception, the source 
of a thousand disorders, and in many instances an active poison im- 
perfectly disguised." 

CIDER. This is a cooling, pleasant, vinous beverage made by 
fermenting the juice of apples. The following essay upon the manu- 
facture of it by Jesse Buel, Esq., we extract from the fifth volume of 
the New England Farmer, as containing the best view of the subject 
which we recollect to have seen. 

The quality of cider depends on several contingencies, among which 
I will enumerate, 



1. The species of fruit employed ; 

2. Soil and aspect of the orchard ; 

3. ( ondition of the fruit when ground ; 

4. The process of grinding, &c. ; 

5. Management of the vinous fermentation ; and 

6. The precautions which are taken to prevent the acetous fermenta- 

I intend to offer remarks upon each of these divisions. And, 
1. The Fruit. Apples differ not only in their flavor, color, and time 
of ripening, but in the proportions of their constituent parts. The 
most material of these constituent parts are acid, sugar, astringency. 
vegetable extract and water. The properties of good dessert and cider 
apples are seldom found united, though they are not incompatible 
with each other. Table apples are esteemed on account of their bland 
and aromatic ilavor, crisp and juicy pulp, and for the property of keep- 
ing long, or ripening late. The characteristics of a good cider apple 
are, a red skin ; yellow and often tough and fibrous pulp, astringency, 
dryness, and ripeness at the cider making season. " When the rind 
and pulp are green, the cider will always be thin, weak and colorless ; 
and when these are deeply tinged with yellow, it will, however manu- 
factured, or in whatever soil it may have grown, almost always possess 
color, with either strength or richness." — {Knight.) The apple, like 
the grape, must attain a state of perfection, or perfect maturity, before 
its juices develope all their excellence ; and as many of our best eating 
apples do not acquire this maturity until winter or spring, this affords 
a satisfactory reason why winter fruit is seldom or never good cider 
fruit. In a dry apple, the essential elements of cider are generally 
more concentrated, or are accompanied with a less proportion of water, 
than in a juicy one ; of course the liquor of the former, is stronger 
than that of the latter. Of our best cider apples, ten or twelve bush- 
els of fruit are' required for a barrel of juice ; while of the ordinary- 
juicy kinds, eight bushels generally suffice. 

Very little has been done to acquire a correct knowledge of the re- 
lative value of our native apples for cider. Coxe has described and 
figured one hundred varieties of this fruit, of which about thirty are 
recommended for cider. Of these thirty kinds I selected the following 
for my nursery, as not only being best for cider, but as generally com- 
bining the desirable qualities of table fruit also : viz. the Hagloe and 
Virginia crabs, Harrison, Campfield, Styre, yellow Newton and New- 
ark pippins, Priestly, Graniwinkle, Winesap, Carthouse and Cooper's 
russeting. We have undoubtedly, among our indigenous fruit, many 
kinds of excellent cider apples hitherto unnoticed ; and it is very de- 
sirable that their properties should be tested, and the result of the in- 
vestigation made public. 

In Great Britain more attention has been given to this subject. The 
specific gravity of the juice of old cider varieties has not only been 
ascertained by scientific men, and their relative value fixed, but new 
varieties have been obtained by artificial crossing, surpassing, in rich- 
ness of juice, any before cultivated. Loudon has given a table of 38 
cider apples, in his Encyclopedia of Agriculture. Of these, the fol- 
lowing are only known to be in our nurseries, viz. ; *Redstreak, Wine, 



Styre, Hagloe crab, *Maiden's Blush, *Count Pendu, *Downton and 
Grange pippins, Foxley, Siberian Harvey, yellow Siberian and *Min- 
shelfs crab. Those with an asterisk are also excellent dessert apples. 
The seven last named, five of which are new varieties by Knight, I have 
obtained from Europe, and propagated in nursery. None of the old 
English cider varieties exceed, in the specific gravity of their juice, 
1,079, water being 1,000. Six of Knight's new varieties are over 1,079, 
and one is 1,091. Knight is of opinion, that with proper varieties of 
fruit, the defects of almost every soil and aspect might be corrected, 
and that fine cider might be made in any part of England. In France 
and Italy, small berried grapes, of a harsh flavor, are preferred for 
wine-making, (Loudon?) and it will be found that the cider apples re- 
commended by Loudon and Coxe are under a medium size, and sever- 
al of them austere and harsh. 

2. Soil and aspect. The apple, like the grape, is known to take 
much of its character from, the soil on which it grows. The best cider 
orchards in England, are on a stratum of red marie, which stretches 
across the Island. The soil of Herefordshire, highly reputed for its 
ciders, is an argillaceous, or clay marie. And Knight says, the strong- 
est and most highly flavored cider which has been obtained from the 
apple, was produced from fruit growing on a shallow loam, on lime- 
stone basis. All the writers upon the subject seem to agree, that cal- 
careous earth should form a component part of the soil of a cider or- 
chard. It appears to have the effect of mitigating the harshness of 
rough and austere fruits, and of neutralizing the juices of those which 
are too acid. Coxe says, the soil which grows good wheat and clover, 
is best for a cider orchard. My own observation would induce me also 
to prefer a dry and somewhat loose soil, in which the roots, destined to 
furnish food for the tree, and fruit, may penetrate freely, and range ex- 
tensively, in search of nutriment. The juices of plants and fruits are 
always more concentrated when growing on a dry than on a wet soil. 
Mint, or other aromatic herbs, is much stronger in the specific virtues 
of the plant, when grown on a dry soil, and greater in volume, when 
grown on a wet one. The maple yields the sweetest sap, though less 
in quantity, on a dry soil. Apples may grow large on a moist alluvion ; 
but the fruit will neither be so abundant, nor so rich, as on a dry soil. 
The thriftiest trees produce the most wood buds ; those less thrifty the 
most fruit buds. The best aspect for an orchard is one somewhat ele- 
vated or undulating, protected from prevailing cold winds — and facing 
the south, south-east or east. 

3. Condition of the fruit. Fruit should be used when it has attain- 
ed its perfect state of maturity, and before it begins to decay, because 
it then yields the greatest proportion of saccharine matter. The most 
certain indication of ripeness, says Crocker, is the fragrance of the 
smell, and the spontaneous dropping from the trees. Each kind of the 
apple should be manufactured separately, or those kinds only mixed 
which ripen at one time and which experience shall show, are not pre- 
judicial to each other. Who would ever think of making a superior 
wine from an indiscriminate mixture of a dozen kinds of grapes ? 
And yet we seem to expect good cider from an indiscriminate mixture 
of a dozen kinds of apples. It may be urged, that the evil is irreme- 
diable, because our orchards, containing these dozen varieties, have 



been furnished to our hands ; and that neither the quantity nor quality 
of any one kind of fruit renders it an object to manufacture it sepa- 
rately. Is it not time, then, to set about correcting the evil, by select- 
ing only the best kinds for new plantations. 

4. Grinding, Sec. The apples should be reduced, by the mill, as 
nearly as possible to a uniform mass, in which the rind and seeds are 
scarcely discoverable ; and the pomace should be exposed to the air 
from twelve to twenty-four hours, according to the temperature, 
before it is pressed. The juices of the rind of fruit, as maybe instan- 
ced in the orange and lemon, are highly concentrated ; and those of 
the rind of the apple have a material influence, with the aromatic bit- 
ter of the seeds, upon the flavor and strength of the liquor. 

5. Vinous fermentation. This is commonly called working. It 
commences at the temperature of 59° Fah., and cannot be conducted 
in safety when the heat is over 75°, for a high temperature induces a 
too rapid fermentation, by which much of the spirit passes off with the 
disengaged carbonic acid gas, and the acetous or vinegar fermentation 
begins at 77°. This will show the importance of conducting the vi- 
nous fermentation under a proper temperature, which is from 50 to 70° 
of Fah. To show the chemical effect of the vinous fermentation, it 
will be proper to repeat that the unfermented juice, or must, of the ap- 
ple, consists of saccharine matter or sugar, vegetable mucilage or ex- 
tract ; astringency or tannin ; malic, and a small matter of gallic acid, 
the principle of flavor, tinging or coloring matter, and water. The 
sugar becomes the basis, or spirit, of the fermented liquor ; the spirit, 
after vinous fermentation, and the tannin, or astringent matter, pre- 
serve it from the acetous fermentation, if the vegetable mucilage, or 
yeast, is separated when it has performed its office. This vegetable 
mucilage acts upon the saccharine matter in a manner analogous to 
yeast upon the wort of the brewer — it causes fermentation, and con- 
verts sugar into spirits— by its giving off carbonic acid gas, and imbi- 
bing hydrogen ; the liquor becomes clear, and part of the mucilage 
rises to the surface with the disengaged air, in the form of froth, and the 
residue is precipitated, with the heavier impurities, to the bottom, in 
the form of sediment or lees. This is the critical period. The liquor 
may now be drawn off clear. If left longer, the feculent matter, or 
froth, by parting with the gas which renders it buoyant, soon settles 
and mixes with the liquor, renders it turbid, and as soon as the temper- 
ature attains a proper height, causes a new fermentation. This will 
explain the reason why ciders become harsh and sour on the approach 
of warm weather in the spring. The elementary principles of sugar, 
ardent spirits and vinegar, it has been ascertained by the experiments 
of Lavoisier, are the same ; and these substances only differ in the 
proportion of their component parts, and in the modes of their, chemi- 
cal union. Sugar consists of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon. An in- 
creased proportion of hydrogen enters into the composition of ardent 
spirits, and of oxygen into vinegar. The same agent, vegetable mu- 
cilage, which converts the sugar of the apple into spirits, will convert 
the spirits into vinegar, under a proper temperature, and aided by the 
oxygen of the atmosphere. The process of making vinegar is greatly 
accelerated by exposing cider or wine to the atmosphere, the oxygen of 
which it imbibes, and which is termed by chemists the great acidify. 



ing principle. Here again we see the propriety of professional cider 
manufacturers, who might be provided with cellars where the temper- 
ature could be regulated, and who would carefully rack off the liquor 
at the completion of the vinous fermentation. 

The vinous fermentation commences and terminates at different pe- 
riods, according to the condition and quality of the fruit, and the state 
of the weather. The juice of unripe fruit, if the weather be warm, 
will begin to ferment in a few hours after it passes from the press ; and 
seidom stops at the vinous stage. The juice of ripe fruit, when the 
temperature is lower, does not begin to ferment under a week or fort- 
night, or longer, often continues slowly through the winter, and when 
made from some of the finer eider apples, is not completed under six 
or nine months. Indeed, in some cases, the liquor does not become 
clear under a year, and the sugar is not wholly decomposed under two 
years ; for the whole of the sugar is seldom decomposed during the 
first sensible fermentation. Knight considers cider at two years old 
as in the best state for bottling. For until the sugar is decomposed, 
fermentation insensibly goes on, and the strength of the liquor increas- 
es. The like insensible process goes on in wines, and when it is com- 
pleted, the wines are said to be ripe, and are in their highest state of 
perfection. (See M'Culloch.) Temperature being the same, I think it 
may be assumed as a rule, that fermentation will be rapid and short, in 
an inverse ratio to the proportion which the saccharine matter bears to 
the mucilage and water ; and that the vinous liquor will be rich, high 
flavored and durable, in proportion as the sugar and astrinerency pre- 
ponderate in the must. 

6. Precautions to prevent acetous fermentation. These are. suppo- 
sing the previous contingencies to have been favorable, a careful sepa- 
ration of the vinous liquor from the froth and lees, — a cool tempera- 
ture, — racking and fining, and artificial means to destroy the ferment- 
ing quality of the remaining mucilage. 

I have already suggested the importance of drawing on the liquor 
from the scum and sediment — at the termination of the vinous ferment- 
ation. This period may be known by the cracking of the froth in an 
open cask, or, if in a close one, by the application of the nose or ear to 
the bung hole. If the fermentation has not ceased, a hissing will be 
apparent, and the gas given off will give a pungent sensation to the 
nose. If the liquor is not sufficiently clear, or indications appear of 
the acetous fermentation having commenced, the cider should be racked 
into clean strong casks, and fined with isinglas, eggs, or skimmed milk. 
This operation may be repeated, if found necessary ; but it should be 
performed in clear cold weather. After the first racking, the casks 
should be kept bunged close, and further rackings be avoided, if possi- 
ble, as every racking reduces its strength, and much of the spirit es- 
capes with the carbonic acid gas which is evolved in the fermentive 
process. The oxygen of the atmosphere, besides, increases the vine- 
gar fermentation. But if these methods fail, resort may be had to the 
means of impeding the natural operation of the mucilage, or vegetable 
leaven. This may be done by what is called stumming, that is, burn- 
ing a rag impregnated with sulphur, in the cask in which the liquor is 
to be decanted, after it has been partly filled, and rolling it so as to in- 
corporate the liquid with the gas ; or by putting a drachm or two of 



sulphite of potash into each cask, which will precipitate and render in- 
soluble the remaining leaven. If the fruit is good, and properly 
ground, and the cider racked from the fermenting casks at a proper 
time, most or all of the subsequent operations will be superseded. 

VINEGAR is an agreeable acid liquor, prepared from wine, cider, 
beer, and other liquors, and it is of considerable use, both as a medicine 
and a sauce. The word is French, vinaigre; from vin, wine, and aigre, 

There are four kinds of vinegar known in commerce ; that from wine, 
from malt, from sugar, and from wood. This last is called the pyrolig- 
neous acid, and is now prepared in large quantities in London, by distil- 
ling wood in close vessels. It may be obtained eight times the strength 
of common vinegar, so that it may be diluted by the purchaser at plea- 
sure. It is colorless, and by many considered superior to common vin- 
egar. It is said to be perfectly free from all flavor, save that of the 
pure acid. 

The principal requisites to form good vinegar, are, 1. contact with 
the air ; 2. A temperature not exceeding 77° of Fahrenheit ; 3. The 
addition of some extraneous vegetable matter, to promote the acetous 
fermentation ; and, 4. the presence of alcohol. 

The vinegar used in the United States is chiefly made from cider. 
It may be prepared thus : to a quarter cask of good cider, add 4 lbs. of 
white Havanna sugar, and half a pound of argol, or rough tartar, in fine 
powder ; it will be better for the addition of some lees of wine. Ex- 
pose it to a heat not less than 75°, nor more than 80°, with the bung 
out. Twice or thrice a day, draw off a pail full, and after it has stood 
exposed to the air, a quarter of an hour, return it to the bung-hole by a 

Vinegar is sometimes made from whey. The following directions 
are given by Mr. Genet, of New- York. " After having clarified the 
whey, it is poured into casks with some aromatic plants, or elder blos- 
soms, as suits the fancy, and exposed in the open air to the sun, when 
it soon acquires an uncommon degree of acidity." 

ALCOHOL. This is said to be an Arabian word, which signifies 
antimony ; so called from the usage of the Eastern ladies to paint their 
eyebrows with antimony, reduced to a most subtile powder ; whence, 
it at last came to signify any thing exalted to its highest perfection. 
Alcohol is highly rectified spirit of wine, freed from all those watery 
particles, which are not essential to it. When pure, it consists of hy- 
drogen, carbon and oxygen. It is quite colorless, and clear ; of a strong 
and penetrating smell and taste ; capable of being set on fire, without 
wick, and burning with aflame, without leaving a residue, and without 
smoke and soot. It is not known to freeze, in any degree of coldness. 
It is used in those preparations, called elixirs, tinctures, essences, &c. 
It is a powerful stimulant and antisceptic It is this, which in brandy, 
rum, wine, &c, exhilarates, and which, at length, destroys the constitu- 
tion of the drunkard. In England, alcohol is procured by distillation 
from molasses ; in Scotland and Ireland, from whiskey. In the East 
ludies, arrack is distilled from rice ; in the West Indies, rum from the 
sugar cane ; and in France and Spain, brandy, from wine ; in the Uni- 



ted States, cider-brandy, from cider. All these afford alcohol by dis- 

RUM is a spirit obtained by distillation from the fermented juice of 
the sugar-cane, or from molasses and other coarse saccharine matter in 
the W est Indies. Rum contains a considerable portion of alcohol ; but 
as it contains, in solution, a gross essential oil, which is apt to disagree 
with some stomachs, it Is not so good, considered medicinally, as 

BRANDY is obtained by simple distillation, from real wines, or the 
fermented juice of grapes. To distil brandy, they fill the still half full 
of the liquor from which it is to be drawn, and raise it with a little fire, 
till about one sixth part be distilled, or till they perceive what falls into 
a receiver is not at all inflammable. Brandy, when first made, is per- 
fectly colourless ; the colour it has in this country is given to it by 
burnt sugar. The peculiar taste of brandy is produced by a small por- 
tion of some essential oil ; whether arising from the wine from which it 
is distilled, or added afterwards, is not known in this country. On this 
account, in moderate doses, it is very grateful to the stomach. The 
greatest part of the brandies in use is prepared in France. Of the 
French brandies, those of Languedoc and Anjou, whence the well 
known Cognac brandy, are the most esteemed. Of brandy, either plain 
or rectified, are prepared various kinds of strong liquors, with the addi- 
tion of other ingredients, sugars, spices, flowers, fruits, Sec. The 
strength of brandy may be determined by olive oil or tallow, both of 
which sink in good brandy. 

GENEVA or GIN ; the name of a compound water, procured from 
juniper berries and other ingredients, distilled with malt spirits. The 
French name of the juniper-berry, is genievre, from which the word is 
formed. But our common distillers leave out the juniper-berries entirely 
from the liquor they now make and sell under that name. Our chem- 
ists have taught them, that the oil of juniper berries and that of turpen- 
tine are very much alike in flavor, though not in price ; and the com- 
mon method of making what is called geneva, in London, is with com- 
mon malt spirit, and a proper quantity of oil of turpentine distilled to- 
gether, with sometimes angelica root, and other aromatic vegetables. 
The Dutch, it is said, still continue the original use of juniper berries, 
and hence the reason why Hollands is by many preferred to English 
gin. This hot fiery spirit is too much used by the lower classes of peo- 
ple in its undiluted state as a drain. It is most injurious to their con- 
stitution and morals. 

ARRACK ; a spirituous liquor imported from the East Indies ; used 
by way of dram and in punch. The word arrack, according to Mr. 
Lockyer, is an Indian name for strong waters of all kinds, for they call 
our spirits English arrack. But what we understand by the name ar- 
rack, he alhrms to be no other than a spirit procured by distillation 
from a vegetable juice called toddy, which flows by incision out of the 
cocoa-nut tree, like the birch juice procured among us. Others are or* 
opinion, that the arrack is a vinous spirit obtained by distillation in ths 
East Indies from rice or sugar fermented with the juice of the cocoa 
tree. The Goa arrack is said to be made from the toddy ; the Batavia 
arrack from rice and sugar ; there is likewise a kind of shrub from 



which arrack is made. By fermenting, distilling, and rectifying, the 
juice of the American maple, which has much the same taste as that of 
the cocoa tree, arrack has been made not inferior to any that comes 
from the East Indies. 

ALE is a popular beverage or drink made from malt. The zythum 
and curmi, mentioned by Tacitus as the beverage of the ancient Ger- 
mans, are supposed to correspond with our ale and beer. 

MALT denotes barley cured, or prepared to fit it for making a pota- 
ble liquor, under the denomination of beer, ale, &c. 

The manner of making malt Sir Robert Murray describes as follows : 
Steep good barley in a stone trough full of water, till the water be of a 
bright reddish color, but it may be known when it is steeped enough by 
other marks, as by the excessive swelling of the grain and the degree 
of softness. It is afterwards taken out, and laid on heaps, to let the 
water drain from it, then turned and laid in a new heap, where it may 
lie forty hours, more or less. In about fifteen or sixteen hours the 
grains put forth roots, which when they have done, the malt must be 
turned over, otherwise the grains will begin to put forth the blade or 
spire, w T hich must be prevented. It must now be spread to a depth not 
exceeding five or six inches, and then turned over and over for the space 
of forty-eight hours at least. This cools, dries and deadens the grain, 
when it becomes mellow, melts easily in brewing, and separates easily 
from the husk. Then throw up the malt into a high heap, and let it grow 
as hot as your hand can endure it, which it usually does in about thirty 
hours. This perfects the sweetness and mellowness of the malt. It is 
now again cooled and turned over, and then laid on a kiln, with hair 
cloth or wire spread under it, where, after one fire, it must have a se- 
cond, and perhaps a third, before the malt be thoroughly dried. The 
time during which the grain continues on the malt floor varies according 
to circumstances; fourteen days is, however, the general average. 
Malt drinks are either pale or brown, as the malt is more or less dried 
on the kiln, that which is the least dried tinging the liquor least in 
brewing, and therefore called pale; whereas the higher dried, and as 
it were roasted, makes it of a higher colour. High dried malt yields 
less liquor or beer than low dried or pale malt does, and hence the por- 
ter brewers are obliged to use colouring drugs and many pernicious 
stuffs, as substitutes for malt, which is too dear to afford deep-colored 
pure malt liquor at the common price of porter. 

BREWING is the operation of preparing ale or beer from malt. In 
brewing, a quantity of water, being boiled, is left to cool till it becomes 
of the temperature of 175° or 180° ; or till the face can be seen pretty 
distinctly in the w r ater. Mix the malt with the water, stirring it dur- 
ing the process with the mashing stick. Reserve a few handfuls of the 
dry malt to strew over the surface after it is mixed, to prevent the es- 
cape of the heat; the vessel should also be covered besides with cloths, 
in order to keep the mixture hot; this operation is called mashing. 
Let the whole stand for three hours, more or less, according to the 
strength of the wort, which is then to be drawn off into a receiver. 
The mashing is repeated for the second wort nearly in the same man- 
ner as for the first. After these worts are run off, a quantity of hops 
is added, and the liquor is again boiled. The hops are afterwards 



strained from it, and when it is moderately cool, the barm or yeast is 
applied. The barm causes the whole to ferment, and when sufficient- 
ly fermented, it is tunned up in vessels for use. One, two, three, or 
more months are necessary to pass, be ore it will befit for use. The 
quantity of malt for making a hogshead, sixty-three gallons, of strong 
bter^ may be ten bushels ; for good ale five bushels are sufficient. 

The following account of a London brewing establishment, from the 
pen of Professor Griscom, will give the reader some idea of the extent 
to which brewing operations are carried in England. This establish- 
ment (Barclay's brewery.) covers about eight acres of ground, and man- 
ufactured last year (1829), 340,000 barrels of 36 gallons each. The 
building which contains the vats, and the vats themselves, are enor- 
mous. The largest of the latter contain each 4000 barrels. The aver- 
age number of vats is nearly one hundred. A steam engine of twenty- 
two horse power is employed in driving the machinery, and about two 
hundred men are engaged in the various works of the establishment ; 
while it is supposed that the number of persons dependent upon it with- 
out, in the sale and transportation of the beer, is three or four thousand. 
The three coppers in which the beer is boiled, hold each 150 barrels. 

Twenty-five gentlemen once dined in one of them ; after which, fifty 
of the workmen got in and regaled themselves. One hundred and nine- 
ty pounds of beef-steaks were thus consumed in one day, in this novel 
dining room. The tuns in which the beer ferments, hold 1400 barrels 
each. The carbonic acid in one of them stood about three and a half 
feet above the liquor, and poured over the side in a continued stream. 
A candle is instantly extinguished on being placed near the outer edge 
of this receptacle, and on holding one's face over it, a sharp, pungent 
sensation is felt in the mouth and fauces, not unlike that produced by 
ardent spirits. An immersion of a few moments would be sufficient to 
occasion a suspension of voluntary motion. 

One hundred and sixty horses are kept on the premises, for the pur- 
pose chiefly of transporting the materials to and from different parts of 
the city. 

HOPS, it is said, preserve malt liquors : if hops were not added, that 
clammy sweetness, which the liquor retains after working, would soon 
become acid, and render the liquor unfit for use. The whole virtue of 
the hop resides, it appears, in a fine yellow powder, readily separable 
from the leaves by mere rubbing, or threshing : this powder is called 



GINGER, the common, is a native of the East Indies, but now natu- 
ralized in the West Indies, whence we are chiefly supplied with it. It 
is a perennial shrub, which grows about a yard high. Its propagation 
is effected by parting the roots in the spring, planting them in pots of 



light earth, and placing them in a hot bed of tanner's bark, where they 
remain. The different kinds of ginger found in the shops appear to be 
the same root differently dried, or otherwise prepared ; the roots which 
are white, soft, and woolly, are in general, less pungent than the more 
solid and compact kinds. Ginger is much employed as a condiment, 
and as a medicine. It is considered as a useful stimulant in dyspepsy, 
gout, and other complaints, requiring exciting medicines. Ginger is 
sometimes brought to this country, preserved in syrup. It is also used 
as a plaster, wet with French brandy, to be laid upon the stomach, in 
cases of great pain, or to check excessive vomiting in cholera ; and of- 
ten subserves an excellent purpose. 

NUTMEG is the product of a tree, which resembles the cherry tree 
in growth, and size, and is a native of the Molucca Islands, from which, 
except Banda, by the policy of the Dutch, it has been nearly extirpa- 
ted ; Banda, now supplying with mace and nutmegs, the whole of 
Europe. The flowers, which are inodorous, are present at the same 
time with the fruit, and male and female are on the same, and on sepa- 
rate trees. Nutmegs are inclosed in four different covers. The first 
a thick husk, like that of our walnuts. Under this lies a thin reddish 
coat, of an agreeable smell, and aromatic taste, called mace. This 
wraps up the shell, and opens in proportion as the pod grows. The 
shell, which makes the third cover, is hard, thin, and blackish ; under 
this is a greenish film of no use ; and in this is found the nutmeg,which 
is properly the kernel of the fruit. The nutmeg tree yields three crops 
annually : the first, which is the best, in April ; the second in August, 
and the third in December. The fruit requires nine months to ripen ; 
when gathered, the outer covering is first stripped off, and then the 
mace carefully separated and dried ; the nutmegs in the shell are next 
exposed to heat, and smoke, for three months, then broken, and the 
kernels thrown into a strong mixture of lime and water, after which 
they are cleaned and packed up. This process is said to be necessary 
for their preservation, and with the same intention, the mace is sprink- 
led with salt water. 

The CLOVE is obtained from a tree, somewhat in the form of a 
nail ; whence the term clove, from the French clove, a nail. The clove 
tree was anciently very common in the Molucca islands ; at present, 
cloves are chiefly obtained from Amboyna, the Dutch having from their 
cupidity, dug up the trees in the other islands. It is now, however, 
cultivated in the isles of France, at Cayenne, and in the island of Dom- 
inica, in the West Indies. The tree is very large; its bark resembles 
that of the olive tree, and its leaves those of ihe laurel, its fruit falling, 
takes root without any culture, and eight years after bears fruit. The 
clove is the unexpanded flower. At Amboyna, they are collected from 
October to December, when they begin to redden. They require to be 
dried quickly ; on which account, they are first immersed in boiling 
water, and then exposed to smoke and heat ; the drying is afterwards, 
finished in the sun. Although the unopened flowers, and even the 
leaves, are extremely aromatic, the real fruit which is a coriaceous ber- 
ry, is not so. Clove- are hot, stimulating aromatics, which affect th© 
breath, eyes, and hea. and are useful in palsies, &c. There is an oil 
drawn from clo es by distillation ; it is sometimes used as a remedy for 



the tooth-ache, but very improperly, since from its pungent quality, it i* 
apt to corrode the gums and injure the adjacent teeth. When the tooth 
is carious and will admit of it, a bruised clove is much to be preferred. 
Much, however, of the oil of cloves, which is sold, is said to be obtain- 
ed from all-spice. 

PEPPER, or rather Black Pepper, is well known from its general use. 
It is the produce of a climbing plant, or vine, growing in several parts 
of the East Indies, chiefly Java, Sumatra, Malacca, and the coasts of 
Malabar. It is propagated in bumatra by cuttings, or suckers ; in 
growing, it is supported by props. The plant is three years old, before 
it bears fruit; it yields two crops annually, the first in December, the 
second in July. White pepper is the fruit of the same plant, perfectly 
ripe, and freed from its outer coat by means of a preparation of lime 
and mustard- oil applied before it is dried. 

The Cayenne Pepper, or bird pepper, brought from the West Indies, 
is very useful as a condiment, particularly with fish ; and latterly it 
has been introduced into medicine in the shape of a tincture, which is 
a useful stimulant in dyspepsy, &c. 

Jamaica Pepper, or pimenta, is the fruit of an ever-green-tree, rising 
sometimes fifty feet in height. It grows plentifully in Jamaica and 
other American Islands. It is aromatic, and may supply the place 
both of cloves, nutmeg, and cinnamon, whence it is called by the Eng- 
lish all-spice. The essential oil of pimenta contains the principal vir- 
tues of the berry ; it is so much like oil of cloves as to be often mista- 
ken and sold for it. 

CASSIA., or Cassia Cinnamon, is the bark of a species of bay-tree, 
growing in Malabar, Ceylon, Sumatra, and Java. It has many of the 
habits of the cinnamon tree, and is barked in the same manner. Cas- 
sia cinnamon is chiefly distinguishable from the true cinnamon, by being 
of a lighter color than that article ; by being also thicker, by breaking 
shorter, and by having less bitterness in its taste, as well as very fre- 
quently when chewed becoming mucilaginous in the mouth ; this last, 
however, is not an invariable accompaniment. 

CINNAMON is the bark of a tree growing in abundance in the isl- 
ands of Ceyion, and also in Malabar, Cochin China, Sumatra and other 
East India islands. It is also now cultivated in the Pirazils, the Mau- 
ritius, and Guiana. It seldom rises above thirty feet high. Ten va- 
rieties of this tree have been enumerated ; of these, that called the 
sharp sv:ett cinnamon, is said to be the best. It is raised from the seed. 
The chief part of the cinnamon in this country is brought from Cey- 
lon. The principal difference between cinnamon and cassia consists 
in the former being much thinner and in more irregular masses, and 
also in its having much more astringency, and therefore in substance 
is preferable to cassia. 

SALT, COMMON SALT, muriate of soda, or chloride of sodium 
by the most correct and recent nomenclature, is a saline crystallization 
used to season and give pungency to various kinds of food ; as well 
as to preserve it on numerous occasions from putrefaction. Salt is ob- 
tained from three different sources, namely, the water of the sea, mines, 
where it exists in a solid form, called rock salt, and from saline springs. 



Rock salt is found in various places ; at Nantwich in Cheshire, at Cra- 
cow in Poland, and in Hungary, Catalonia, in Africa, Asia ; and in 
America, forming hills or very extensive beds above the surface. 

Rock salt, it is said, was entirely unknown to the ancients. The Po- 
lish mines near Cracow were discovered in 1251 ; their depth and ca- 
pacity are surprising. Within them is found a kind of subterraneous 
republic, which has its polity, laws, families, &c. ; and even public 
roads, carriages, and horses, for the conveyance of salt to the mouth 
of the quarry, where it is taken up by engines. These horses when 
once down never see the light again ; but the men take frequent occa- 
sions ©f breathing the village air. "When a traveller arrives at the bot- 
tom of this strange abyss where so many people are interred alive, and 
where so many are even born, and have never stirred out, he is sur- 
prised with along series of lofty vaults sustained by huge pilasters cut 
out with chisels ; and which, being themselves rock salt, appear by the 
light of flambeaux, which are incessantly burning^as so many crystals 
or precious stones of various colors, casting a lustre which the eye can 
scarcely bear. One of the chief wonders of the place is, that through 
these mountains of salt, and along the middle of the mine, runs a rivu- 
let o fresh water, sufficient to supply the inhabitants. As soon as 
the massive pieces are got out of the quarry, they break them into frag- 
ments fit for the mills, where they are reduced to a coarse powder, to 
be used as culinary salt. There are four kinds, white, bay, red, and 
brilliant ; the last is the sal gemma* of the druggists, but not known in 
this country. All these become white when pulveiized, though they 
appear of different colors in their natural state. 

Salt is obtained from sea water by different methods. At Lyming- 
ton, in Hampshire, England, the sea water is admitted into large reser- 
voirs, where, being exposed to the air, a part of the water evaporates ; 
the remaining liquor is then transferred to boilers, where the water is 
still further evaporated by artificial heat, and then set by to cool and 
crystallize. The water which remains after the crystallization of the 
salt is called mother water. It contains, or is said to contain, sulphate 
of magnesia, or as it is usually called Epsom salt, a well known purga- 
tive salt ; from this source it is that most, if not- all the Epsom salt 
found in the shops, is obtained by mere evaporation. From the same 
salt is also obtained the common magnesia of the shops. This is 
what is publicly known of the method of obtaining Epsom saHs, but it 
is believed that the manufacturers keep the real process a secret. 

Besides the salt obtained from sea water, in various countries, much 
is obtained from the rock salt produced from mines, and a good deal is 
also produced from brine springs. 

In the United States salt is manufactured, but not very extensively, 
from sea water. Large quantities are made from brine springs. The 
principal springs are to be found in the State of New York, in the coun- 
ties of Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Ontario, Niagara, Genesee, Tomp- 
kins, Wayne, and Oneida. Those of Oneida are the most valuable. 
In 1823, 606,463 bushels were manufactured in this latter county. In 
1800, there were not less than 50,000 bushels manufactured. Forty- 
five gallons of water make a bushel of salt. At Nantucket, 350 gal- 
lons of sea water arc required. Tfte following approximated analysis 



of the water of a spring in New York is given by Dr. Noyes of Ham- 
ilton College. Forty gallons, or 355lbs. contain 561bs. of saline ex- 

Pure Muriate of Soda, 5 1 lb. — oz. 

Carb. Lime, colored by oxide of iron, — 6£ 
Sulph. of Lime, 2 4 

Muriate of Lime, 1 12£ 

and probably muriate magnesia and sulphate of soda. 

The village of Salina and other neighboring places, are the chief 
places where salt is extensively manufactured. The mode of evapo- 
ration is different at different places — sometimes by boiling, and again 
by exposure to the atmosphere. "At Salina, the mode adopted," says 
the Northern Traveller, " is that of boiling ; and a brief description 
will convey a clear idea of the process. Each building contains six- 
teen or eighteen large iron kettles, which are placed in two rows, 
forming what is called u a block." They stand about three feet higher 
than the floor ; and under them is a large furnace, which is heated 
with pine wood, and requires constant attention, to keep the water al- 
ways boiling. The water is drawn from a large reservoir, at one end 
of the building, after having been allowed to stand awhile, and deposit 
the impurities it has brought along with it. A hollow log, with a 
pump at one end, and furnished with openings against the kettles, is 
the only machine used in filling them. The first deposit made by the 
water, after the boiling commences, is a compound of several substan- 
ces, and is thrown away, under the name of w Bittern ;" but the pure 
white salt, which soon after makes its appearance, is carefully remo- 
ved, and placed in a store room, just at hand, ready for barrelling and 
the market. 

" Each manufactory yields about forty bushels a day, and the differ- 
ent buildings cost about half a million. 

" There are two large manufactories here, where salt is made in re- 
servoirs of an immense size, and evaporated by hot air passing through 
them in large pipes. The reservoir of the principal one contains no 
less than 40,000 gallons. The pipe is supplied with heat by a furnace 
below, and the salt is formed in large loose masses, resembling half 
thawed ice. The crystallization, also, is different from that produced 
by the other modes, at least in secondary forms." 

As a condiment, common salt is of all others the safest, best, and 
most extensively employed. It is used by all nations ; and, indeed, in 
some shape, or other, by almost all animals whatever. It seems, in a 
peculiar manner, designed to assist in the digestion, and assimilation 
of our food. In the quantity in which it is usually taken, there is no 
reason to doubt, that many of our aliments become thereby more 
wholesome and digestible, as well as more agreeable. Like the other 
condiments, however, in larger quantities it is injurious to the consti- 
tution. It occasions heat and thirst, and seems rather to impede, than 
to assist, digestion. Besides the usual culinary preparations, in which 
salt is advantageously employed, it is used, also, as an antisceptic, to 
preserve aliments from spontaneous decomposition, and particularly to 
prevent the putrefaction of animal food. In general, however, the 
large quantity of salt which is necessarily employed in this way, in- 



jures the alimentary properties of the meat ; and the longer it has 
been preserved, the less wholesome and digestible does it become. It 
is this kind of food, salted flesh and fish, which so surely occasions the 
disease called scurvy amongst sailors, and others, who are deprived of 
fresher and more wholesome aliment. Meat, however, which has not 
been too long preserved, simply pickled, or corned meat, as it is called, 
is but little injured or decomposed, is still succulent and tender, easily 
digested, nourishing, and wholesome enough. 

Salted and hung meat, and therefore all sorts of hams are more in- 
digestible, and less nutritive. Sparingly used with other food, they 
communicate, indeed, to it an agreeable relish, and prove a stimulus to 
the stomach, but their freer and more frequent use cannot be whole- 

They require, in general, all the powers of the most robust stomachs. 
It is worthy of remark, in this place, that the fat of animals seems less 
injured, as an aliment, by salting, than the lean parts. Bacon, there- 
fore, though long preserved, is still a very nourishing aliment ; though 
not easily digested. 

MUSTARD. There are cultivated two species of this plant, the 
bhck, and the white : both annuals, and both natives of Great Britain. 

The seed of the white mustard is celebrated for its medicinal vir- 
tues, being at once a tonic and an aperient ; cleansing the stomach 
and bowels, and bracing the system at the same time. The following 
are the directions given by Loudon, for its cultivation. For spring 
and summer consumption, sow once a w r eek or fortnight, in dry, warm 
situations, in February and March, (of course later in the United 
States ;) and afterwards in any other compartment. In summer, sow 
in shady borders, if it be hot, sunny weather ; or, have the beds sha- 
ded. Generally, sow in shallow flat drills, from three to six inches 
apart ; scatter the seeds thick and regular, and cover in thinly with 
the earth, about a quarter of an inch. 

Black mustard is a larger plant than the w T hite, with much darker 
leaves, and their divisions blunter. It is cultivated chiefly in fields for 
the mill, and for medicinal purposes. It is sometimes, however, sown 
in gardens, and the tender leaves used as greens, early in the spring. 

To raise seed for flour of mustard, &c, sow either in March or 
April, in any open compartment ; or make large sowings in fields, 
where designed for public supply. Sow moderately thick, either in 
drills, from six to twelve inches asunder, or. broad-cast and rake, or 
harrow in the seed. When the plants are two or three inches in the 
growth, hoe and thin them moderately, where too thick, and clear 
them from weeds. They Will soon run up in stalks, and in July or 
August return a crop of seed ripe for gathering. 

KETCHUP is a sauce, which derives its name, it is said, from a 
Japanese word kit-jap. It is made, or ought to be made, from the 
juice of the mushroom. Wild mushrooms, from old pastures, are 
generally considered as more delicate in flavor, and more lender in 
flesh, than those raised in artificial beds. 








DOMESTIC ANIMALS. For an account of neat cattle, horses, 
sheep, and swine, together with the proper mode of rearing and man- 
aging them, &c, see Part V. Sec. II. Art. Agriculture. 

In respect to other animals, it will not comport with the design of 
this work to give a minute and extended account. Yet, as it might 
otherwise be thought quite incomplete, we shall proceed to notice a 
few of the most interesting animals found on the globe, without con- 
fining ourselves exclusively to those which are used as aliments. We 
begin with the 

LION. This noble animal is far from being as large in size, as many 
others. His ordinary height is between three and four feet, and his 
length six feet. Some are still larger. His head, neck, and shoulders 
are large ; while his hinder parts are comparatively thin, and small. 
His strength and courage are such, as to entitle him to the appellation 
of kt King of Beasts." The only animals whichever, seriously, pre- 
tend to cope with him, are the elephant, tiger, and rhinoceros. The 
color of the lion is a reddish yellow ; his mane is somewhat darker, 
and often approaches to black. He is found in most parts of Africa, 
and the southern parts of Asia ; but is more common in the former, 
than in the latter. The lioness is one third smaller than the male ; but 
in disposition is more ferocious. The lion requires from twelve to 
twenty pounds of food every day. He lives chiefly upon the flesh of 
animals ; and, in a wild state, generally takes his prey by night. 

?riany interesting anecdotes are related of the lion. The following 
is an account of an engagement which recently took place between a 
lion and two tigers in the tower of London : — 

M Between eleven and twelve o'clock yesterday morning, as the man 
whose duty it is to clean the wild beasts at the Tower was in the exe- 
cution of that oflice, he inadvertently raised a door in the upper tier of 
cells, which separated the den of a huge lion from one in which there 
were a Bengal royal tiger and tigress. At sight of each other the eyes 
of the animals sparkled with rage. The lion instantly erected his 
mane, and, with a tremendous roar, sprang at the tiger. The tiger was 
equally eager for the combat, and, in a paroxysm of fury, flew at his 
assailant, whilst the tigress fiercely seconded her mate. The roaring 
and yelling of the combatants resounded through the yards, and exci- 
ted in all the various animals the most lively demonstrations of fear or 
rage. The timid tribes shivered with dread, and ran round their cages 
shrieking with terror, whilst the other lions and tigers, with the bears, 
leopards, panthers, wolves, and hyenas, flew round their dens, shaking 
the bars witii their utmost strength, and uttering the most terrific cries. 
The lion fought most bravely, but was evidently overmatched, having 
to contend with two adversaries not more than a year from the woods, 
whilst he had been upwards of seven years in confinement. Still the 
battle ragt>d with doubtful success, until the tiger seized the lion by the 
throat, and flung him on his back, when, after roiling over each other 
several times, the exasperated tigress pinned her enemy against the ve- 
randa. In that situation the prostrate lord of the forest still struggled 
with an indomitable spirit, roaring with agony and rage. By this time, 
however, some iron rods had been heated, the red-hot ends of which 
were now applied to the mouths and nostrils of the infuriated tigers, 



who were by this means forced to relinquish their grasp ; but no soon- 
er was the separation effected than the lion and tiger seized in their 
mouths, the one the upper, and the other the lower jaw of his antago- 
nist, biting and tugging at each other with deadly fury. So excited 
was their animosity, that it was with great difficulty, by the insertion 
into their nostrils of the glowing iron, they could be disengaged, and 
the lion driven back to his cell, the door of which was instantly closed 
upon him; The battle lasted full half an hour. The tiger in the last 
onset lost one of his tusks, but the poor lion was very severely punished. 

In a work entitled, u Researches in South Africa," published by the 
Rev. Dr. Philip, is given an account of an adventure with a lion, so 
curious, that we extract it without abridgement. 

u Our wasfgons, which were obliged to take a circuitous route, arrived 
at last, and we pitched our tent a musket shot from the kraal ; and after 
having arranged every tiling, went to rest, but were soon disturbed ; 
for about midnight the cattle and horses, which were standing between 
the wagons, began to start and run, and one of the drivers to shout, on 
which every one ran out of the tent with his gun. About thirty paces 
from the tent stood a lion, which, on seeing us, walked very deliberate- 
ly about thirty paces farther, behind a small thorn-bush, carrying 
something with him, which I took to be a young ox. We fired more 
than sixty shots at that bush, and pierced it stoutly, without perceiving 
any movement. The southeast wind blew strong, the sky was clear, 
and the moon shone very bright, so that we could perceive every thing 
at that distance. After the cattle had been quieted again, and I had 
looked over every thing, I missed the sentry from before the tent, Jan 
Smit, from Antwerp, belonging to the Groene Kloof. We called as 
loudly as possible, but in vain, — nobody answered ; from which I con- 
cluded that the lion had carried him off. Three or four men then ad- 
vanced very cautiously to the bush, which stood right opposite the dcor 
of the tent, to see if they could discover any thing of the man, but re- 
turned helter-skelter, for the lion, who was there still, rose up, and be- 
gan to roar. They found there the musket of the sentry, which was 
cocked, and also his cap and shoes. 

" We fired again about a hundred shots at c 'he bush, (which was sixty 
paces from the tent and only thirty paces -fr*»:n the wagons, and at 
which we were able to point as at a target,) without perceiving any 
thing of the lion, from which we concluded that he was killed or had 
run away. This induced the marksman, Jan .^tamansz, to go and see 
if he was there still or not, taking with him a firebrand. But. as soon 
as he approached the bush the lion roared terr bly and leaped at him ; 
on which he threw the fire-brand at him, and the other people having 
fired about ten shots, he retirea directly to his former place behind that 

" The firebrand which he hnd thrown al the lion had fallen in the 
midst of the hu?h, and, favored by the strong south-east wind, it began 
to burn with a great flame, so that we could see very clearly into and 
through it. We continued our firing into it ; the night passed away, 
and the day began to break, which animated every one to aim at the 
lion, because he could not go from thence without exposing himself en- 
tirely, as the bush stood directly against a steep kloof. Seven men, 



posted at the farthest wagons, watched him, to take aim at him if he 
should come out. 

" At last, before it became quite light, he walked up the hill with the 
man in his mouth, when about forty shots were fired at him without 
hitting him, although some were very near. Every time this happen- 
ed, he turned round towards the tent, and came roaring towards us ; 
and I am of opinion, that if he had been hit, he would have rushed on 
the people and the tent. 

" When it became broad day-light, we perceived, by the blood. and a 
piece of the clothes of the man, that the Jion had taken him away and 
carried him with him. We also found behind the bush, the place 
where the lion had been keeping the man, and it appeared impossible 
that no ball should have hit him, as we found in that place several balls 
beaten flat. We concluded that he was wounded, and not far from 
this. The people therefore requested permission to go in search of the 
man's corpse in order to bury it, supposing, that, by our continual fir- 
ing, the lion would not have had time to devour much of it. I gave 
permission to some, on condition that they should take a good party of 
armed Hottentots with them, and made them promise that they would 
not run into danger, but keep a good look-out, and be circumspect. 
On this seven of them, assisted by forty-three armed Hottentots, follow- 
ed the track, and found the lion about half a league farther on, lying 
behind a little bush. On the shout of the Hottentots, he sprang up and 
ran away, on which they all pursued him. At last the beast turned 
round, and rushed, roaring terribly, amongst the crowd. The people, 
fatigued and out of breath with their running, fired and missed him, on 
which he made directly towards them. The captain, or chief head of 
the kraal, here did a brave act, in aid of two of the people whom the 
lion attacked. The gun of one of them missed fire, and the other mis- 
sed his aim, on which the captain threw himself between the lion and 
the people so close, that the lion struck his claws into the caross (man- 
tle) of the Hottentot. But he was too agile for him, doffed his caross, 
and stabbed him with an assagai. Instantly the other Hottentots has- 
tened on, and adorned him with all their assagais, so that he looked like 
a porcupine. Notwithstanding thishe did notleave off roaring and leap- 
ing, and bit off some of the assagais, till the marksman, Jan Stamansz 
fired a ball into his eye, which made him turn over, and he was then 
shot dead by the other people. He was a tremendously large beast, 
and had but a short time before carried off a Hottentot from the kraal 
and devoured him. 1 ' 

TIGER. The Tiger, commonly called the Royal Tiger, is a native 
of Bengal, of the kingdoms of Siam and Tonquin, of China, of Suma- 
tra, and, indeed, of all the countries of Southern Asia, situated beyond 
the Indus, and extending to the north of China. This species of ani- 
mal has long abounded in the above countries, while the Asiatic lion, 
on the contrary, has only been known, within a few years. The aver- 
age height of the tiger is about three feet, and the length nearly six feet. 
The species, however, varies considerably in size, and individuals have 
often been found, much taller and longer than the lion. The peculiar 
markings of the tiger's skin, are well known. On a ground of yellow, 
of various shades in different specimens, there is a series of black trans- 



verse bars, varying in number, from twenty to thirty, and becoming 
black rings on the tail, the number of which is, almost invariably fif- 
teen. There are oblique bauds, also, on the legs. The pupils of the 
eye are circular. 

The tiger, like the lion, springs upon its prey, from an ambush ; and, 
in most cases, he is easily terrified by any sudden opposition from hu- 
man beings. A party in India was once saved from a ciger, by a ladv, 
who suddenly opened an umbrella, as she saw him about to spring. Our 
readers" may remember the attack of a tigress upon the horses of the 
mail, on Salisbury plain, in England, a few years ago. The creature 
had escaped from a travelling menagerie ; and, not forgetting her natu- 
ral habits, sprung upon the leaders as they passed her. The guard 
would have shot her ; but her keepers drove her off, and she escaped 
to a haystack, under which she crept, and was retaken without difficulty. 
In narrow passages in Hindoostan, travellers have often been seized by 
tigers ; or a bullock, or horse has fallen a victim to the ferocity of this 
prowling beast. Horses have such a dread of the tiger, that they can 
scarcely ever be brought to face him. Hunting him, therefore, on 
horseback, is a service of great danger. The elephant, on the contrary, 
though considerably agitated* will stand more steadily, while his rider 
anticipates the fatal spring, by a shot which levels the tiger to the earth. 
One peculiarity of the tiger, is his willingness to take to the water 
either when pursued, or in search of the prey, which lie espies on the 
opposite bank of a river. 

The PUMA or COUGAR is a native of the American continent, and 
is principally found in Paraguay, Brazil, and Guiana. He is sometimes 
seen in the United States, where he is called panther or -painter. He 
resembles the lion, both in color and voice ; but is not as lar^e and 
has no mane. Capt. Head, in his " Journey across the Pampas, '-relates 
the following interview between a maD and a puma. 

"The man was trying to 6hootsome wild ducks ; and, in order to 
approach them unperceived, he put the corner of his poncho (which is 
a sort of long, narrow blanket,) over his head, and crawling along the 
ground upon his hands and knees, the poncho not only covered his 
body, but trailed along the ground behind him. As he was thus creep- 
ing by a large bush of reeds, he heard a loud, sudden noise, between a 
bark and a roar : he felt something heavy strike his leet. and instantly 
jumping up, he saw, to his astonishment, a large puma, actually stand- 
ing on his poncho ; and perhaps the animal was equally astonished, to 
find himself in the immediate presence of so athletic a man. The man 
told me he was unwilling to fire, as his gun was loaded with very small 
shot ; and therefore remained motionless, the puma standing on his 
poncho for many seconds ; at last the creature turned his head, and 
walking very slowly away about ten yards, he stopped and turned 
again : the man still maintained his ground, upon which the animal ta- 
citly acknowledged his supremacy, and walked off." 

The DOMESTIC CAT is found in almost every country on 
globe. It is probably a domesticated variety of the wild cat, for v 
suffered to retire to the woods, it soon becomes wild. A tame cat gen- 
Slly attains the age of twelve years. The food most agreeable to 
cats is the flesh of animals, or fish ; they eat vegetable aliment oily 




from necessity. There are, however, some plants of which they are 
very fond ; of this nature is the valerian root, and the herb called nep % 
or cat-mint. On the other hand, they shun the common rue, as a poi- 
son, and any substance rubbed with the leaves of this plant, is said to 
be perfectly secure from their depredations. 

Cats delight in a warm temperature, and a soft couch ; moisture 
and filth, as well as water and cold are Equally repugnant to their na- 
ture ; hence they are continually cleaning themselves with their paws 
and tongue. Another peculiarity is, the purring of these animals, 
when they are cajoled or flattered, by passing the hand over their 
backs : this singular noise is performed by means of two elastic mem- 
branes in the larynx, or upper part of the wind-pipe. Their hair is 
so electric, that the expanded skin of a cat makes an excellent cushion 
for the glass cylinder, or globe, of an electrifying machine. 

The flesh of cats is eaten by several nations ; but the substance of 
the brain is said to be poisonous. From the intestines of these animals 
is manufactured the celebrated Roman chords, for covering the violin. 
They are manufactured out of the guts of rabbits and sheep also : they 
are cleaned, soaked in water, stretched bv a machine, and dried. The 
name of cat-gut comes from the circumstance of cats being used as 
food in many parts of Italy, and their guts applied to the making of 

With respect to their peculiarities, we shall remark, that cats pos- 
sess a very acute sense of both smell and sight. By the structure of 
their eyes, which sparkle in the dark, they are better enabled to discov- 
er objects of prey, such as mice and rats, at night, than in the daytime ; 
hence, they ought not to be luxuriously fed, if kept for the destruction 
of these vermin. It is, however, to be regretted, that this useful do- 
mestic creature is one of the most deceitful companions, being constant- 
ly bent on theft and rapine. 

Many persons have so invincible an antipathy against these creatures, 
that they have been known to faint in rooms where cats were concealed, 
and no arguments were sufficient to efface the impression. 

DOG. Animals of the dog kind are distinguished by their claws, 
which have no sheath, like those of the cat kind; but adhere to the 
point of each toe, without the power of being extended, or drawn back. 
Their eyes, also, are not formed for seeing clearly in the dark. By 
comparing the habits and propensities of the two classes, we shall find, 
that while the savage selfishness of the cat's disposition, prevents it 
from deriving any pleasure from society, the dog seems to find its grati- 
fication increased, by associating with the species to which he belongs; 
and in countries where they are permitted to range with freedom, they 
are always observed to hunt in packs. 

The dog is allowed to be the most intelligent of all quadrupeds ; and 
one that, doubtless, is most deserving of admiration ; for, independent 
of his beauty, his vivacity and swiftness, he gives the most manifest . 
proofs of his attachment to mankind. In his savage state, he may have 
been a formidable enemy ; but to view him at present, he seems only 
anxious to please ; he willingly crouches before his master, and is reaA 
dy to lick the dust from his feet; he waits his orders, consults his 
looks* and is more faithful than half the human race. He is constant 




in his affections, friendly without interest, and grateful for the slightest 
favor he can receive; easily forgets both cruelty and oppression ; and 
disarms resentment by submissively yielding to the will of those, whom 
he studiously endeavors to serve and please. 

It is said that there are nearly thirty distinct, and well ascertained 
varieties of the dog. Of these we can notice but a few. 

The MASTIFF, the lar- 
gest of domestic dogs, has a 
large head, robust body,and 
lips which hang down on 
each side of his mouth. 
This dog was trained, by 
the ancient Britons, to be 
of use in war. They are 
now chiefly used as watch 
dogs, which duty they dis- 
charge with great fidelity. 

The BULL-DOG is 
smaller than the mastiff, 
but strongly resembleshim. 
For courage and ferocity, 
this dog is exceeded by no 
animal of its size. His an- 
tipathy to the bull, from 
which he derives his name, 
is remarkable. 


is larger than the common 
hound, and is generally of 
a deep tan or reddish color, 
with a black spot over each 
eye. They are chiefly used 
for fox hunting. 





is distinguished by his 
slender and curved body, 
his narrow muzzle, and 
his tail being curved up- 
wards, at the extremity. 
This kind of doghuats by 
sight, and not by scent. 
Such is his fleetness, thai 
in a hilly and uneven 
country, there are few 
horses that can keep pace 
with him. He is supposed to outlive all others of the deg species. 

The SHEP- 
seldom found in 
the United States; 
of Europe, he is 
= common, espe- 
cially where sheep 
^=§5 are kept in large 
flocks, and atten- 
ded by shepherds. 

The docility and sagacity of the pure breed, indeed, surpass those of 
every other variety of the canine race ; obedient to the voice, looks, 
and gestures of his master, he quickly perceives his commands, and in- 
stantly executes them. A well-trained dog of this kind, is, to a shep- 
herd, an invariable acquisition. The faithful animal anxiously watches 
the flock, and keeps them together in the pasture ; from one part of 
which it conducts them to another ; and, if the sheep are driven to any 
distance, a well trained dog will infallibly confine them within the 
road, and, at the same time, prevent any strange sheep from mingling- 
with them. Should, however, any straggle from the road, he will pur- 
sue them, and drive them to the flock, without hurting them in the 
slightest degree. In Prussia the shepherds have a kind of dog, which 
they are able to teach never to bite a sheep, but they will push them for- 
ward with their muzzles in the direction in which their masters wish 
the sheep to go. 

SPANIEL. Of this dog there are many varieties. They are so call- 
ed, probably, because they are of Spanish extraction. They have gen- 
erally pendulous and woolly ears, with long hair on all parts of the bo- 
dy, but particularly on the breast, beneath the body, and at the back of 
the legs. In all ages, the spaniel has been noted for fidelity and attach- 
ment to mankind. 





This kind is chiefly useful 
to sportsmen, in the hunt- 
ing of water-fowl. 

The POINTER is used by sportsmen for discovering game, which 
he is taught to do with wonderful steadiness and attention. Aided by 
the acuteness of their smell, pointers generally approach the spot where 
the game lies; and at length stop, their eyes being steadily fixed upon 
it, one foot generally somewhat raised from the ground, and the tail 
extended in a straight line. If the bird runs, the dog discovers it, and 
steals cautiously after it, keeping still the same attitude ; and when it 
stops, he is again steady. 

The SETTER, is a dog nearly allied to the pointer. His 6cent is 
more exquisite, and his muscular powers, for his size, nearly unequal- 

The TERRIER, is a 
small and hardy kind of 
dog, the name of which is 
derived from its subterra- 
neous employments. He is 
a great enemy to rats, pole- 
cats, and other species of 

The TURNSPIT is a small dog, with short, and generally crooked 
legs, and the tail curled upward. He is used on the continent of Eu- 
rope, to turn the spit for roasting meat. 

LAND DOG is but little 
smaller than the mastiff. 
In strength and docility, he 
exceeds most other kinds 
of dogs. He is often em- 
ployed in Newfoundland 
to draw wood on sledges, 
from the interior of the 
country to the sea-coast, 
and before the introduction 
of horses into general use 



in Canada, most of the land carriage was performed by dogs. The 
ease with which he swims renders him of great service in cases of dan- 
ger from the oversetting of boats, and other accidents by water. 

The SIBERIAN DOG is distinguished by having its ears erect, 
and the hair of its body and tail very long. He is employed in drawing 
sledges over the frozen snow, five of them being yoked to each sledge, 
with the fifth in front as the leader. The fleetness of these dogs is so 
great, that they have been known to perform a journey of 270 miles in 
three days and a half; and, with a sledge containing three persons and 
their baggage, they will travel sixty miles in a day. During the most 
severe storms, when their master cannot see his path, or even keep his 
eyes open, they seldom miss their way. And it is said that, in the 
midst of a long journey, when it is found absolutely impossible to pro- 
ceed any further, the dogs, lying round their master, will keep him 
warm, and prevent him from perishing by the cold. 

Of the numerous anecdotes which we might relate, of the sagacity 
and fidelity of the dog, we have room for but one, illustrative of the 
latter characteristic of this sometimes noble animal. 

" A French merchant, having some money due from a correspondent, 
set out on horseback to receive it, accompanied by his dog ; and, hav- 
ing settled the business to his satisfaction, placed it in the bag that con- 
tained his clothes. Finding himself rather fatigued with his journey T 
he resolved to repose under a hedge, and, untying the bag from the 
front of his saddle, placed it carefully under his head. 

" After having remained sometime in this situation, he found him- 
self entirely recovered from fatigue; and, wholly absorbed in some 
pleasing reflections, he remounted without even a thought of the bag. 
The dog, who had witnessed this mark of inattention, attempted to 
recall his recollection by barks and screams ; and, finding the bag too 
heavy for his utmost exertion, ran howling after him, and caught the 
horse by the heels. Roused by this mark of what he thought sudden 
madness, he resolved to watch the animal's motions when he approached 
a stream, and, perceiving he did not attempt to quench his thirst, as 
usual, was absolutely confirmed in the belief that he was mad. l My 
poor animal,' said the afflicted merchant, fc and must I, in justice, take 
away thy life ? alas !' continued he, 'it is an act of necessity, for there 
is no one to perform the office in my place.' So saying, he drew a pis- 
tol from his pocket, but from affection to his favorite, averted his head ; 
the ball, however, performed it* embassy, for the dog was mortally 
wounded, though not dead. The bleeding animal endeavoured to 
crawl towards its master, whose feelings revolted at the affecting sight, 
and spurring on his horse, he pursued his journey, with the image of 
his expiring favorite strongly impressed upon his mind. l How unfor- 
tunate I am,' said he, mentally ; c I had rather have lost my money than 
a dog I so much prized !' — when, stretching out his hand, as if to grasp 
the treasure, neither bag nor money was to be seen. His eyes were 
instantly opened to conviction : l And what a wretch I have been !' he 
suddenly exclaimed : i Poor faithful creature ! how have I rewarded 
thy fidelity ? Oh, madness of recollection, how severely am I to bA 
blamed !' 

" He immediately turned his horse, and set off with the fleetest m*- 



tion, and sdoii came to the spot where the proof of his folly was dis- 
played ; and every drop of blood that he saw seemed to reproach him 
with injustice, and every feeling of his hea r t was severely pained. 
These sanguinary drops proved a sufficient direction for the faithful 
creature's footsteps to be traced, and he was found stretched beside the 
treasure he had been so anxious to take care of, and which had been 
the primary means of depriving him of life. 

" When the merchant beheld him still guarding his possession, though 
struggling with death and agonized with pain, his sensations of remorse 
were very much heightened ; but all hopes of preserving his existence 
proved vain. The poor animal no sooner perceived his master ap- 
proaching, than he testified his joy by the wagging of his tail ; and 
absolutely expired in licking the hand which caressed him, as if in to- 
ken of forgiveness for having taken away his life." 

CAMEL. Few animals present more points of interest than the 
camel. His height is about five and a half feet, and his length about 
ten. Me has long legs, a short but large body, a long and crooked neck, 
and a small and exceedingly ill shapen head. There are too species 
of camel, the Bactrian and Arabian. The former of these has two 
bunches on the back ; the latter, which is sometimes called the drome- 
dary, has but one. In general, these two varieties possess the same 
character and qualities. Their hair is coarse, and usually, their color 
is alike, brown. Of the two varieties, the Bactrian camel is much more 
rare. This species is found in Turkistan, which is the ancient Bactria, 
and in Thibet, as far as the frontiers of China. The ordinary duration 
of the camel's life, in Arabia, is said to be forty or fifty years. 

The camel is obviously fitted for the countries in which he is found. 
He possesses uncommon strength, which enables him to carry heavy 
burdens, over arid plains, and through tiackless deserts, which would 
otherwise be impassable to the commodities of the East. And, in ad- 
dition, he has an extraordinary capacity of enduring privation, being 
able to sustain a march of several hundred miles, with a scanty supply 
of food, and without any water. 

He is provided with a bag, or reservoir, in which he may take an am- 
ple provision of water to serve him in the time of need, having the 
power to force the liquid back into his first stomach, and even to his 
mouth, to allay his thirst, and soften, by rumination, the hard and dry 
herbs, upon which he feeds : the large hump which he has on his back, 
is a mass of fat, destined to supply the want of food, by absorption. It 
is through this peculiar structure that the camel has become the inhab- 
itant of flat countries — sandy, sterile, and arid. 

Camels are to be found at San Rossora, in Italy. They are the pro- 
perty of the government of Tuscany. The time of their introduction 
into that country is uncertain. These camels walk at the rate of about 
three miles an hour, and they travel about thirty miles a day. They 
are so degenerated, that from them, no adequate idea can be formed, of 
what the Arabians call the "ship of the desert." 

The ordinary load of a camel is six hundred weight ; but he will car- 

^y a thousand. Mr. Buckingham saw camels carrying millstones, to 

the large towns on the west of the Jordan, each of which was nearly six 

feet in diameter ; one being, laid flat on the animal's back, in the very 




centre of the hump, and resting on the high part of the saddie, was se- 
cured by cords passing under his belly. The camel sometimes carries 
large panniers, or baskets, filled with heavy goods. In these baskets 
women and children are often carried. 


Above we present our readers with a view of a swift Dromedary 
harnessed, and with his rider upon him. The saddle is placed on the 
withers, and confined by a band under the belly. It is very small, and 
it is difficult to sit upon it. This is done by balancing with the feet 
against the neck of the animal, and holding a tight rein to steady the 

The first experiment which an European makes in bestriding a dro- 
medary, is generally a service of some little danger, from the peculiari- 
ty of the animal's movement, in rising. The following account is giv- 
en us by Capt. Riley, during his captivity among the Arabs. " They 
placed me on the largest camel I had yet seen, which was nine or ten 
feet in height. The camels were now all kneeling or lying down, and 
mine among the rest. I thought I had taken good hold, to steady my- 
self, while he was rising ; yet his motion was so heavy, and my strength 
so far exhausted, that I could not possibly hold on, and tumbled off 
over his tail, turning entirely over. 1 came down upon my feet, which 
prevented my receiving any material injury, though the shock to my 
frame was very severe. The owner of the camel helped me up, and 
asked me whether 1 was injured ; I told him no. * God be praised V 
said he, « for turning you over ; had you fallen upon your head, these 
stones must have dashed out your brains. But the camel,' added he, 
4 is a sacred animal, and Heaven protects those who ride on him ! Haci*. 
you fallen from an ass, though he is only two cubits and a rialf high, it 
would have killed you, for the ass is not so noble a creature as the cam- 
el or the horse.' I afterwards found this to be the prevailing opinion 



among" all classes of the Moors and Arabs. When they put me on 
again, two of the men steadied me by the legs, until the camel was fair- 
ly up, and then told me to be careful, and to hold on fast ; they also 
took great care to assist my companions in the same way." 

Our readers probably well know, that immense journies are made in 
the east by means of the camel ; and the produce of one country is con- 
veyed to another by merchants who go in caravans. These caravans 
sometimes consist of several thousand camels. Occasionally, they suf- 
fer great distress for the want of water, and are sometimes overwhelm- 
ed by the sands of the desert. The following interesting story is rela- 
ted by Buckhardt, of a small caravan which was passing from Berber 
to Daraou, across the Nubian desert. " It consisted of five merchants 
and about thirty slaves, with a proportionate number of camels. Afraid 
of the robber Naym, who at that time was in the habit of waylaying 
travellers about the well of Nedjeym, and who had constant intelligence 
of the departure of every caravan from Berber, they determined to take 
a more eastern road, by the well Owareyk. They had hired an Ababde 
guide, who conducted them in safety to that place, but who lost his 
way from thence northward, the route being very unfrequented. Af- 
ter five day's march in the mountains their stock of water was exhaust- 
ed, nor did they know where they were. They resolved, therefore, to 
direct their course toward the setting sun, hoping thus to reach the 
Nile. After two days' thirst, fifteen slaves and one of the merchants 
died ; another of them, an Ababde, who had ten camels with him, 
thinking that the camels might know better than their masters where 
water was to be found, desired his comrades to tie him fast upon the 
saddle of his strongest camel, that he might not fall down from weak- 
ness; and thus he parted from them, permitting his camels to take 
their own way, but neither the man nor his camel were ever heard of 
afterwards. On the eighth day after leaving Owareyk, the survivors 
came in sight of the mountains of Shigre, which they immediately re- 
cognized ; but their strength was quite exhausted, and neither men nor 
beasts were able to move any farther. "Lying down under a rock they 
sent two of their servants, with the two strongest remaining camels, in 
search of water. Before these two men could reach the mountain, one 
of them dropped off his camel deprived of speech, and able only to 
move his hands to his comrade as a signal that he desired to be left to 
his fate. The survivor then continued his route; bet such was the ef- 
fect of thirst upon him that his eyes grew dim, and he lost the road, 
though he had often travelled over it before, and had been perfectly 
acquainted with it. Having wandered about for a long time, he alight- 
e< under the shade of a tree, and tied the camel to one of its branches : 
the beast, however, smelt the water, (as the Arabs express it,) and, 
wearied as it was, broke its halter, and set off galloping furiously in the 
direction of the spring, which, as it afterwards appeared, was at half 
an hour's distance. The man, well understanding the camel's action, 
endeavored to follow its footsteps, but could only move a few yards ; he 
fell exhausted on the ground, and was about to breathe his last, when 
Providence led tha* waj from a neighboring encampment, a Bisharye 
Bedouin, who, by tl rowio water upon the-man's face, restored him to 
his senses. They ,hen wc it hastily together to the water, filled the 
skins, and returning to the caravaD, had the good fortune to find the 



sufferers still alive. The Bisharye received a slave for his trouble. 
My informer, a native of Yembo, in Arabia, was the man whose camel 
discovered the spring ; and he added the remarkable circumstance, that 
the youngest slaves bore the thirst better than the rest, and that, while 
the grown up boys all died, the children reached Egypt in safety.*' 

At particular seasons of the year, camel-fights are common at Smyr- 
na and Aleppo. They are led out to a large plain, where they are 
muzzled, to prevent their being seriously injured, for their bite is tre- 
mendous, and are let loose, a couple at a time. Their mode of combat 
is curious: they knock their heads together (laterally) twist their long 
necks, wrestle with their fore legs, and seem chiefly intent in throwing 
each other down. The following cut will give the reader a pretty just 
idea of a camel-fight. 

LLAMA. This animal is a native of South America, particularly of 
the mountainous district of Chili and Peru, where, it is said, that they 
abound by thousands, and almost by millions. Their heads are small 
in proportion to thair bodies ; and are somewhat in shape between the 
head of a horse and that of a sheep, the upper lip being cleft like that 
of a hare, through which they can spit to the distance of ten paces : 
and if the spittle happens to fall on the face of a person, it causes a rsd 
itchy spot. Their necks are long, and concavely bent downwards, like 
that of a camel, which animal they greatly resemble, except in having 
no hump on their backs, and being much smaller. Their ordinary 
height is from four feet to four and a half, and their ordinary burden 
does not exceed an hundred weight. They walk, holding up their 
heads, with wonderful gravity, and at so regular a pace, as no beating 
can quicken. At night it is impossible to make them move with their 
loads, for they lie down till these are taken off, and then go to graze. 
Their ordinary food is a sort of grass called yeho, something lik 3 a small 
rush, but finer, and has a sharp point, with which all the nounta.ins are 
covered exclusively. They eat little, and seldom drink, so that they are 




easily maintained. They have cloven feet, like sheep, and are used at 
the mines to carry ore to the mills ; and, as soon as loaded, they set or! 
without any guide, to the place where they are usually unloaded. 

They have a sort of spur above the foot, which renders them sure- 
footed among- the rocks, as it serves as a sort of hook to hold by. Their 
hair, or rather wool, is long, white, gray, and russet, in spots. These 
animals are of great use and profit to their masters; for their wool is 
very good and fine, particularly of that species named pacas, which 
have very long fleeces : — and they are of little expense for nourishment, 
for a handful of maize suffices them, and they can go a long time with- 
out water. Their flesh is as good as that of the fat sheep in Castile. 
There are now public shambles for the sale of their flesh, in all parts of 
Peru, where the animal is found. 




The GIRAFFE, or Cameleopard. There are at present three Gi- 
raffes in Europe — one in the King's Menagerie, in Windsor Great 
Park, — one at the Jardine des Plantes, at Paris, — the third at Venice, 
which arrived late in 1828 : a fourth was sent to Constantinople, but 
died there. These animals were all presents fom the Pasha of Egypt. 
Till the year 1827, when a giraffe arrived in England, and another in 
France, the animal had not been seen in Europe since the end of the 
fifteenth century, when the Soldan of Egypt sent one to Lorenzo di 
Medici. The absence of the giraffe from Europe, for three centuries 
and a half, naturally induced a belief, that the descriptions of this ani- 
mal were in a great part fabulous — that a creature of such extraordina- 
ry height and apparent disproportions was not to be found amongst the 
actual works of nature. 

This animal is said to be the tallest in the world, the top of its head 
being about seventeen feet from the ground, and its body about ten. 
His size is that of the horse ; and, in shape, he resembles the camel. 
From the manner in which he stands, his fore legs have the appearance 
of being much longer than his hind legs ; yet this is not so. His mouth 
is quite small. His hoofs, which are cleft, resemble those of the ox. 
The motions of the head and neck are extremely graceful and curious, 
possessing the flexibility and usefulness of the neck of the swan and 
peacock. Its eye is large, prominent, and exceedingly quick at catch- 
ing objects at a great distance ; it is well defended by the brow, and it 
can see without turning the head, behind and below it. The ears are 
well formed to receive sounds ; and are constantly bent forward. The 
tongue has very peculiar properties, and can be so tapered as to enter 
the ring of a very small key. Its taste and smell are very acute and 
delicate, especialty in regard to the artificial food given it. It can raise 
the little papillae at pleasure, for the tongue at times is perfectly smooth, 
and at others exceedingly rough. It is a small feeder, but drinks about 
eight or ten quarts of milk in the day. The upper lip is longer than 
the lower one, which assists the tongue in drawing in boughs ; but 
when grinding its food it is contracted. It has no teeth or nippers in 
the upper jaw, and the two outside ones are divided to the socket; it 
lies down when it chews the cud. 

His defence,, as that of the horse and other hoofed animals, consists 
in kicks ; and his hinder limbs are so light, and his blows are so rapid? 
that the eye cannot follow them. They are sufficient for his defence 
against the lion. He never employs his horns in resisting any attack. 
The giraffes, male and female, resemble each other in their exterior, in 
their youth. Their obtuse horns are then terminated by a knot of long 
hair ; the female preserves this peculiarity for some time, but the male 
loses it at the age of three years. The hide, which is at first of a light 
red, becomes of a deeper color as the animal advances in age, and is at 
length of a yellow brown in the female, and of a brown approaching to 
black in the male. By this difference of color the male may be distin- 
guished from the female, at a distance. 

DEER. Animals of the deer kind, have a head which is elongated, 
but not very large. The ears are large and pointed, the neck is of mod- 
erate length, the body plump, and the limbs, slender though strongly 
knit. The hair is very similar in color throughout the species of this 



genus, and is dry and harsh. The young deer or fawns are mostly spot- 
ted with white, upon a brownish yellow ground. The males of this 
genus are all provided with horns, which are variously branched. The 
species which we shall notice are the Moose, American Elk, Rein Deer, 
and the Virginia or Common Deer. 

The MOOSE is the largest of the deer kind, and often exceeds the 
largest horse in size and bulk. In his form, he is not as handsome, nor 
are his motions as graceful, as those of the other species of deer. His 
head is large, and his horns, which sometimes exceed fifty pounds in 
weight, are unwieldy. In the summer, the moose frequents swampy 
or low grounds, near the margin of lakes and rivers, through which 
he delights to swim, as it frees him for the time from the annoyance of 
insects. During the winter, in families of fifteen or twenty, they seek 
the depths of the forest, for shelter and food. Their flesh, though 
generally coarser and tougher than other venison, is esteemed excellent 
food, and the Indians, hunters, and travellers all declare, that they can 
withstand more fatigue, while fed on tbis meat, than when using any 
other. The skin of the moose is of great value to the Indians, who 
use it for tent covers, clothing, &c. This animal inhabits the northern 
parts of both continents. In Europe it is called the Elk. Its northern 
range in America is not ascertained. It has been found as far north as 
the country has been explored. It w r as formerly seen in the New Eng- 
land States; but is now rare, even as far south as the State of Maine. 

The AMERICAN ELK. This animal was, for a long time, con- 
sidered as a mere variety of the moose, if not identically the same ; 
but more recent investigation has corrected the mistake, and shown, 
that though inferior in size to the moose, in beauty of form, grace, and 
agility of movement, and other attributes of its kind,- it is not excelled 
by any deer of the Old and the New World. The hair of the elk, in 
autumn, is of a blueish gray color ; during winter it continues of a 
dark grey, and at the approach of spring it assumes a reddish or bright 
brown color, which is permanent throughout the summer. Its horns 
often rise to the height of four and five feet. The elk is shy and re- 
tiring. When surprised by the hunter, he gazes for a moment intense- 
ly upon the object of his fear, and then throwing back his lofty horns 
upon his neck, he flies with the velocity of the race horse. The flesh 
of the elk is highly esteemed by the Indians and hunters as food ; and 
the hide is converted to the purpose of dress, &c. The elk is occa- 
sionally found in the remote and thinly settled parts of Pennsylvania ; 
but it is only in the western wilds, where exists a luxuriant vegetation, 
and where the solitude is seldom interrupted, that they are seen in 
considerable numbers. 

REIN DEER. The height of this animal is generally about three 
feet and a half, and his length about five feet and a half. His color is 
commonly brown, with white under the belly. His horns are long, 
slender, and branching. 

This animal is of great value in the northern parts of both conti- 
nents ; and constitutes a very considerable part of the subsistence of 
the tribes inhabiting the region it frequents. In the northern parts of 
Asia, and Europe, the rein-deer has b^en domesticated for a long time ; 





and with the exception of the dog, is the only beast of draught or 
burthen possessed by the natives. The North American Indians, how- 
ever, have never profited by the docility of this animal to aid them in 
transporting their families or property, though they annually destroy 
great numbers of them, for the sake of their flesh, hides, horns, &c. 

To the Laplander, they are of great importance, supplying the place 
of the horse, cow, sheep, and goat. The milk is used as food, and is 
often converted into cheese. Of the skins, a warm clothing is made 
for winter, and when dressed into leather they are converted into stock- 
ings, and shoes, and light summer clothing. Harnessed to a sledge, 
a rein-deer will draw about 300 pounds ; but the Laplanders generally 
limit the burden to 240 pounds. 


The trot of the rein-deer is about ten miles an hour; and his power 
of endurance is such, that journies of 150 miles in nineteen hours are 
not uncommon. There is a portrait of a rein-deer in the palace of 
Drotningholm, (Sweden,) which is represented, upon an occasion of 
emergency, to have drawn an officer with important despatches, the in- 
credible distance of eight hundred English miles, in forty-eight hours. 
This event is stated to have happened in 1699, and the tradition adds, 
that the deer dropped down lifeless upon his arrival. 

The number of deer belonging to a herd is from three hundred to five 
hundred ; with these a Laplander can do well, and live in tolerable 
comfort. He can make in summer a sufficient quantity of cheese for 
the year's consumption ; and, during the winter season can afford to 
kill deer enough to supply him and his family pretty constantly with 
venison. With two hundred deer, a man, if his family be but small, 
can manage to get on. If he have but one hundred, his subsistence is 
very precarious, and he cannot rely entirely upon them for support. 
Should he have but fifty, he is no longer independent, or able to keep a 



separate establishment ; but generally joins his small herd with that of 
some richer Laplander, being then considered more in the light of a 
menial, undertaking the laborious office of attending upon and watch- 
ing the herd, bringing them home to be milked, and other similar offi- 
ces, in return for the subsistence afforded him. 

The VIRGINIA, or COMMON DEER. This deer is the smallest 
American species at present known, and is found in all parts of North 
America, and in the northern parts of South America. Considerable 
varieties in size and color, are presented by this species, in the exten- 
sive range of country in which it is found. The length of the common 
deer is from five feet to five feet and a half. 

This animal has always been of great importance to the Indians, 
scattered over the country, as well as to those, who have settled our 
western wilds. Immense numbers are still found far to the west, as is 
evident from the vast numbers of hides and horns which are annually 
brought into the market. 

ELEPHANT. " This wonderful quadruped," says Bigland, in his 
Natural History," is a native of Asia and Africa, but is most numerous 
in the latter. In the extensive regions which lie between the river 
Senegal and the Cape of Good Hope, elephants abound more than in 
any other part of the world, and are also less fearful of man ; for the 
savage inhabitants of those countries, instead of attempting to subdue 
this powerful animal, and render him subservient to their necessities, 
seem only desirous of avoiding his anger. In the countries near the 
Cape, elephants are seen, in large herds, consisting of many hundred, 
and in the vast regions of Monomrotana, Monocmerci, and other parts 
of the interior of Africa, they are probably still more numerous. 

" At the Cape, the height of the animal is from 12 to 15 feet. His 
eyes are very small in proportion to his size, but lively, brilliant, and 
full of expression. His ears are very large, long and pendulous ; but 
he can raise them with great facility, and make use of them as a fan to 
cool himself, and drive away the flies or insects. His hearing is re- 
markably fine : he delights in the sound of musical instruments, to 
which he is easily brought to move in cadence. His sense of smelling 
is equally delicate ; for he is highly delighted with the scent of odorif- 
erous herbs. In each jaw he has four grinders ; one of which, some- 
times measures nine inches in breadth, and weighs four pounds and a 

41 The proboscis, or trunk, is a most wonderful instrument. With 
it, the animal can lift from the ground the smallest piece of money, se- 
lect herbs and h'owers, untie knots, and grasp any thing so firmly, that 
no force can tear it from him. 

" Although the elephant be indisputably the strongest, as well as the 
largest of all quadrupeds ; yet in its native woods it is neither formida- 
ble nor ferocious, but mild and peaceable in its disposition, equally 
fearless and inoffensive ; and when tamed by man, and tutored by his 
instructions, the noble animal submits to the most painful drudgery, 
and is so attentive to the commands of his master, that a word or look 
js sufficient to stimulate him to extraordinary exertion. 

" Of all the animals that have been subjugated by the human race, 




the elephant is universally allowed to be the most tractable and obedi- 
ent. When treated with kindness, he testifies his gratitude by fulfilling- 
all the desires of his keeper, caresses him with affectionate fondness, 
receives his commands with attention, and executes them with punctu- 
ality and zeal. He bends the knee for the accommodation of those 
who wis 1 to mount upon his back, suffers himself to be harnessed, and 
seems to delight in the finery of his trappings. These animals are 
used in drawing chariots, waggons and various sorts of machines, hav- 
ing the strength of six horses; and they can travel near a hundred 
miles a day, and fifty or sixty regularly, without any violent effort. 




It sometimes happens, however, that domesticated elephants mi 
their escape to the wild herd. Warren Hastings, the governor-general 
of India, possessed an elephant, which had been ten years absent from 
the rule of man. His keeper being dismissed, he was refractory to all 
others, who attempted to control him ; and, at length, escaped. After 
the long interval we have mentioned, his old keeper recognized him, 
and the elephant instantlysubmitted himself. The preceding is an ex- 
act portrait of this beautiful animal. The instrument which he carries 
with his trunk is described as a cow-tail, with a silver handle, which 
elephants of rank bear for driving off flies. 

"In taking the elephant, a large piece of ground is marked out, in 
the midst of some forest, and surrounded with strong palisades, inter- 
woven with large branches of trees ; one end of this enclosure is nar- 
row, from which it opens gradually, so as to take in a considerable ex- 
tent of country. Some thousands of people assemble, kindle large 
fires, of which the elephants are exceedingly afraid, and by these and 
the noise of drums, they drive them towards the enclosure. Another 
large party with the aid of female elephants trained for the purpose, 
urge the wild ones slowly forward, the whole train closing in after them, 
shouting and making loud noises, till, by insensible degrees, they are 
driven into the narrow part, through which there is an opening into a 
smaller space, strongly fenced in and guarded on all sides. As soon as 
a wild elephant enters this narrow passage, a strong bar closes it from 
behind, and he finds himself completely environed. He is then urged 
forward to the end of the passage, where there is just room enough for 
him to go through. He is then received into the custody of two tame 
elephants, which stand one on each side ; and if he be likely to prove 
refractory, they beat him with their trunks, till he is reduced to obedi*- 
ence and suffers himself to be led to a tree, where he is bound by the 
legs with stout thongs of untanned elk-skins. The tame elephants 
are then led back to the enclosure, and other wild ones are brought to 
submission in the same manner. Attendants are placed by the side of 
each elephant that is caught, and in the space of fourteen days, hi3 
subjugation is completed." 

Elephants are sometimes taken, as in the kingdom of Ava, and other 
places, by means of decoy female elephants. These elephants are so 
trained as to favor the designs of their drivers. When a male wild ele- 
phant is discovered alone, the decoy elephants are let loose, upon which 
they proceed cautiously towards him, grazing along, as if they were^ 
like him, inhabitants of the wild forest. As they approach him, he 
generally makes up to them, and abandons himself to their caresses* 
In the mean time, the hunters cautiously creep under him, and during 
the intoxication of his pleasure, fasten his fore legs with a strong rope ; 
after which the hind legs are secured in a similar manner, when the fe- 
males quit him, he discovers his condition, and endeavors to make his 
escape. If the ropes are sufficiently strong, he soon becomes exhaust- 
ed with his own rage. 





The following is a representation of the manner of securing a malt 
elephant as just described. 

This extraordinary quadruped is thirty years in arriving at its full 
growth, and lives even in a state of captivity a hundred and twenty 
years ; in a state of natural freedom, the duration of its life is supposed 
to be much further extended. 

" In regard to the Elephant's discernment and sagacity, stories have 
been related that might seem incredible, and of which some are un- 
doubtedly fictitious. Of such, however, as are so well authenticated 
as not to admit of a doubt, we have a sufficient number to shew its su- 
periority over the rest of the brute creation. Some of the actions of 



this surprising animal mi^ht, indeed, almost seem to be the effects of a 
portion of intellect, rather than of mere instinct. 

" Among the several anecdotes communicated by the Marquis de 
Montmirail, we find that the cornac or conductor of an elephant, had 
excited the animal to make an extraordinary effort, by showing him a 
vessel of arrack, which he pointed out as his reward ; but when he had 
performed his arduous task, the elephant had the mortification of see- 
ing himself disappointed of his expected recompense, and impatient of 
being thus mocked, immediately killed his governor. 

M The man's wife who was a spectator of this dreadful catastrophe, 
in a fit of agonizing- grief, took her two Utile infants and thiew them at 
the feet of the enraged animal, saying, M since you have destroyed my 
husband, kill me also and my children/' The elephant immediately 
stopped ; and, as if stung with remorse, took up the eldest boy with 
his trunk, placed him on his neck, and would never after obey any 
other governor. It is here to be observed, that the elephant is ex- 
tremely fond of spirituous liquors, as well as of wine ; and the sight 
of a vessel filled with these liquors, will induce him to make the most 
extraordinary exertions, and to perform the most painful tasks ; and 
to disappoint him is dangerous, and his revenge is almost certain. But 
if he is vindictive, he is equally grateful, and will suffer no kindness 
shown him to go unrewarded. 

4 - A soldier of Pondicherry, who frequently carried one of these an- 
imals a certain measure of arrack, being one day a little intoxicated, 
and seeing himself pursued by the guard, who were about to conduct 
hjm to prison, took refuge under the eirphant, where he fell sound 
asleep. The guird attempted in vain to take him from this asylum, 
the elephant defending him with his trunk. The next day, the soldier 
becoming sober, was terrified at seeing himself placed under so enor- 
mous an animal ; but the elephant caressed him with his trunk, to re- 
move his fears, and made him understand that he might depart in 

M The elephant is sometimes seized with a sort of phrenzy, which 
makes him extremely formidable, so that on the first symptoms of mad- 
ness, he is commonly killed, in order to prevent mischief: yet in these 
fits he has been frequently known to distinguish his benefactors ; so 
strongly are gratitude and magnanimity impressed on his nature. 

u The elephant that was kept in the menagerie, at Versailles, always 
discerned when any person designed to make a fool of him, and al- 
ways remembered an affront, which he never failed to revenge at the 
first opportunity. Having been cheated by a man who feigned to 
throw something into his mouth, he struck him with his trunk, and 
broke two of his ribs, and afterwards trampled him under his feet, and 
broke one of his legs. A Painter being desirous of drawing him in the 
attitude of having his trunk erect and his mouth open, ordered his ser- 
vants to make him retain that posture, by constantly throwing him fruit ; 
the servant however at last deceived him, which so roused his indigna- 
tion, that perceiving the original cause of the deception to be the paint- 
er's desire of drawing him, he revenged himself by throwing with his 
trunk a large quantity of water on the paper, which completely spoiled 
the design. 



*♦ The elephants exhibited in Europe are commonly of a diminutive 
size, as the coldness of the climate both checks the growth and abridges 
the life of these animals. That which has just been mentioned, and 
which was sent by the King of Portugal to Louis 14th A. D. 1668, died 
in 1(38 i , beiog four years old at his arrival, and being only thirteen 
years at the menagerie at Versailles. He was six feet and a half high, 
at four years old, and advanced in growth only one foot, during the 
thirteen years that he lived in France, although ho was treated with 
care, and fed with profusion. He had every day four pounds of bread, 
twelve pints of wine, two buckets of porridge, with four or five pounds 
of steeped bread, and two buckets of rice boiled in water. 

" The elephant that died in 1803 at Exeter change, was brought over 
in the Rose East Indiaman, and purchased by the owner of the mena- 
gerie for j£l000. He was generally fed with hay and straw, and could 
also eat with avidity, carrots, cabbages, bread and boiled potatoes. 
He was so excessively fond of beer, that he has been known to drink 
upwards of fifty quarts in a day given by his numerous visiters. iJe 
drank also nine pails of water daily, given at three different times ; but 
the quantity he ate could not be precisely ascertained, as he frequently 
scattered great part of the straw which was given him for food, and ate 
a considerable portion of that which formed his litter. This animal 
would kneel down, bow to the company, or search the pocket of his 
keeper at command." 

The elephant is invariably employed in India, in hunting the tiger. 
Occasionally the hunter, with his rifle, is mounted on the elephant's 
back. When a tiger is perceived, he is fired at ; if wounded, he gene- 
rally bounds towards the elephant, with savage ferocity. In the mean 
time, the elephant, assisted by the hunters, prepare to keep him at bay ; 
but if, at any time, the elephant's proboscis be injured, the contest ends 
from that moment. He seems tc lose his self command, his courage, 
and even his senses, and sets off at full speed, utterly regardless of his 
driver, and heedless of the way he takes. The following is a represent- 
ation of an elephant thus wounded, fleeing from a tiger. 




GrGAXTIC MASTODON, or MAM>]OTH. The former of these 
names is the appropriate appellation, according to Dr. Godman, of a 
creature of gigantic dimensions, which formerly existed in North Ame- 
rica. The race itself is now extinct ; but nearly entire skeletons have 
been found, and from their huge dimensions, it is apparent that they 
were among the chief of the works of God. To these animals, the 



name mammoth, said to be a corruption of the Hebrew word behemoth, 
was formerly applied. But the more appropriate name of mastodon, 
has, at length been given to it by Cuvier. 

" The emotions experienced," says Dr. Godman, " when, for the first 
time, we behold the giant relics of this great animal, are those of un- 
mingled awe. We cannot avoid reflecting on the time, when this huge 
frame was clothed with its peculiar integuments, and moved by appro- 
priate muscles; when the mighty heart dashed forth its torrents of 
blood through vessels of enormous calibre, and the mastodon strode 
along in supreme dominion over every other tenant of the wilderness. 
However we examine what is left to us, we cannot help feeling that 
this animal must have been endowed with a strength exceeding that of 
other quadrupeds, as much as it exceeded them in size ; and, looking 
at its ponderous jaws, armed with teeth peculiarly formed for the most 
effectual crushing of the firmest substances, we are assured that its 
life could only be supported by the destruction of vast quantities of 
food. Enormous as were these creatures during life, and endowed 
with faculties proportioned to the bulk of their frames, the whole race 
has been extinct for ages. No traditions nor human record of their 
existence have been saved, and but for the accidental preservation of a 
comparatively few bones, we should never have dreamed that a crea- 
ture of such vast size and strength, once existed, — nor could we have 
believed that such a race had oeen extinguished forever. 

"£uch, however," continues Dr. Godman, "is the fact — ages after 
ages have rolled away — empires and nations have arisen, flourished, 
and sunk into irretrievabe oblivion, while the bones of the mastodon, 
which perished long before the periods of their origin, have been dis- 
covered, scarcely changed in color, and exhibiting all the marks of per- 
fection and durability. That a race of animals so large, and consisting 
of so many species, should become entirely and universally extinct, is 
a circumstance of high interest ; for it is not with the mastodon as with 
the elephant, which still continues to be a living genus, although many 
of its species have become extinct : — the entire race of the mastodon 
has been utterly destroyed, leaving nothing but the l mighty wreck' of 
their skeletons, to testify that they once w T ere among the living occu- 
pants of this land." 

The BEAR in general is an animal of great strength and ferocity of 
disposition, slow in his movements and of sluggish habits. The eyes 
and ears are small, and the tongue smooth. The body and limbs are 
large and powerful, and covered with a thick woolly hair. Of this 
animal there are several species. We shall notice but three ; the 
black, grisly and polar bear. 

Black Bear. This bear is found throughout North America, from 
the shores of the Arctic sea, to its most southern extremity. He is 
about three feet high, and from four and a half to five feet long. His 
feet long, and crowned with five claws each. The food of this ani- 
mal is principally grapes, plums, whortle-berrie's, bramble, and other 
berries; he is also particularly fond of the acorns of the live oak, on 
which he grows excessively fat, in Florida, &c. In attempting to pro- 
cure these acorns, bears subject themselves to great perils, for after 
climbing theso enormous oak-trees, they push themselves along the 



limbs towards the extreme branches, and with their fore-paws bend 
the twigs within reach, thus exposing themselves to severe, and even 
fatal accidents, in case of a fall. They are also very fond of the differ- 
ent kinds of nuts and esculent roots, and often ramble to great distances 
from their dens, in search of whortle-berries, mulberries, and indeed all 
sweet flavored and spicy fruits; birds, small quadrupeds, injects, and 
eggs, are devoured by them, whenever they can be obtained. 

In the north, the flesh of the black bear is fitted for the table, after 
the middle of July, when the berries begin to ripen ; though some kinds 
of berries on which they feed, impart a very disagreeable flavor to their 
flesh. They remain in good condition until the following January or 
February ; late in the spring, they are much emaciated, and their flesh 
is indifferent, in consequence of their long fasting through the season of 
their torpidity. 

The black bear, like all the species of this genus, is very tenacious of 
life, and seldom falls unless shot through the brain or heart. An ex- 
perienced hunter never advances on a bear that has fallen, without 
stopping to load his rifle, as the beast frequently recovers to a consider- 
able degree, and w T ould then be a most dangerous adversary. The 
skull appears actually to be almost impenetrable, and a rifle ball, fired 
at the distance of ninety-Bix yards, has been flattened against it, with- 
out appearing to do any material injury to the bone. The best place to 
direct blows against the bear is upon his snout ; when struck else- 
where, his dense woolly coat, thick hide, and robust muscles, render 
manual violence almost entirely unavailing. 

When the bear is merely wounded, it is very dangerous to attempt 
to kill him, with such a weapon as a knife or tomahawk, or indeed any 
thing which may bring one within his reach. In this way hunters and 
others have paid very dearly for their rashness, and barely escaped 
with their lives. The following instance may serve as an example of 
the danger of such an enterprise. 

A farmer, by the name of Mayborne, residing in the county of Cayu- 
ga, state of New York, having discovered the traces of a bear, took a 
pitchfork and hatchet, and proceeded, in company with his son, a boy 
10 or 11 years of age, in quest of him. The bear was at length discov- 
ered, under a projecting cliff, below which was a deep ravine, at the 
bottom of which was a sort of basin or pond of water. 

Mayborne, desiring his boy to remain where he was, took the pitch- 
fork, and descending to the bottom, determined, from necessity, to at- 
tack him from below. The bear kept his position, until the man ap- 
proached within six or seven feet, when on the instant, instead of beino- 
able to make a stab with the pitchfork, he found himself grappled by 
the bear, and both together rolled towards the pond, at least twenty, or 
twenty-five feet, the bear biting his left arm, and hugging him almost 
to suffocation. By great exertion, the man thrust his right arm partly 
down his throat, and in that manner endeavored to strangle him, but 
was once more hurled headlong down through the bushes, a greater 
distance than before, into the water. Here, finding the bear gaining on 
him, he made one desperate effort, and drew the animal's head partly 
under water, and repeating his exertions, at last weakened him so much, 
that, calling to his boy, vvbo stood on the other side in a state little 



short of distraction for the fate of his father, to bring him the hatchet, 
he sunk the edge of it, by repeated blows, into the brain of the bear. 
This man, although robust and muscular, was scarcely able to crawl 
home, where he lay for nearly three weeks, the flesh of his arm being 
much crushed, and his breast severely mangled. The bear weighed 
upwards of four hundred pounds. 

Grisly Bear. This bear is in length about seven feet, and, in 
height, four and a half. His hair is long and generally almost black. 
He is unable to climb trees, like other bears, and is more intimidated by 
the voice, than the aspect of man. His ferocity, under the excitement 
of hunger, is terrible. His name is dreadful to the Indians, and the 
killing of one is esteemed equal to a great victory. 

This bear, at present, inhabits the country adjacent to the eastern 
side of the Rocky Mountains, where it frequents the plains, or resides 
in the copses of wood, which skirt along the margin of water courses. 

The grisly bear is remarkably tenacious of life, and on many occa- 
sions numerous rifle-balls have been fired into the body of an individu- 
al, without much apparent injury. Instances are related by the travel- 
lers, who have explored the countries in the vicinity of the Rocky 
Mountains, of from ten to fourteen balls having been discharged into 
the body of one of these bears before it expired. 

The following statement is from Major Long's Expedition to the 
Rocky Mountains. 

* One evening, the men in the hindmost of one of Lewis and Clark's 
canoes perceived one of these bears, lying in the open ground, about 
three hundred paces from the river, and six of them, who were all good 
hunters, went to attack him. Concealing themselves by a small emi- 
nence, they were able to approach within forty paces unperceived ; 
four of the hunters now fired, and each lodged a ball in his body, two 
of which passed directly through his lungs. The bear sprang up, and 
ran furiously with open mouth upon them ; two of the hunters, who 
had reserved their fire, gave him two additional wounds, and one 
breaking his shoulder blade, somewhat retarded his motions. Before 
they could again load their guns, he came so close to them, that they 
were obliged to run towards the river, and before they had gained it, 
the bear had almost overtaken them. Two men jumped into the ca- 
noe ; the other four separated, and concealing themselves among the 
willows, fired as fast as they could load their pieces. Several times the 
bear was struck, but each shot seemed only to increase his fury to- 
wards the hunters. At last he pursued them so closely, that they threw 
aside their guns and pouches, and jumped from a perpendicular bank 
into the river. The bear sprung after them, and was very near the 
. hindmost man, when one of the hunters on the shore shot him through 
the head, and finally killed him. When they dragged him on shore, 
they found that eight balls had passed through his body in different di- 

Polar Bear. This animal is stated to be generally four or five feet 
high, from seven to eight feet long, and nearly the same in circumfer- 
ence. Individuals have frequently been met with of much greater size ; 
Barentz killed one in Cherie Islajuld, whose skin measured thirteen feet. 



The weight is generally from six to eight hundred pounds. The hair 
of the body is long, and of a yellowish white color, and is very shaggy 
about the inside of the legs. The paws are seven inches or more in 
breadth, with claws two inches long. 

A considerable part of the Polar bear's food is supplied by seals, but 
very probably he suffers long fasts and extreme hunger, owing to the 
peculiar vigilance of these creatures ; occasionally, he is much reduced 
by being carried out to sea on a small island of ice, where he may be 
forced to remain for a week, without an opportunity of procuring food. 
In this situation, they have been seen on ice-is!ands, two hundred miles 
distant from land, and sometimes they are drifted to the shores of Ice- 
land, or Norway, where they are so ravenous as to destroy all the ani- 
mals they find. 

SEAL. The seal has a round head, and in the fore part bears con- 
siderable resemblance to the otter, though the whole aspect is not un- 
like that of some varieties of the do::, whence the names of sea-dog 
and sea-wolf have been applied to different species of the seal. The 
general color of the seal is of a yellowish gray, varied or spotted with, 
brown or black in different degrees, according to the age of the animal. 

The common seal frequents the sea coasts, perhaps throughout the 
world ; but is most numerous in high northern latitudes, and furnishes 
the inhabitants of those frigid regions with nearly all their necessaries 
and luxuries. The food of the common seal is fish, crabs, and birds, 
which last it contrives to secure by rising under them, and seizing their 
feet before they are aware of its approach. Feeding on much the 
same food as some whales, the latter are not found where seals are 
very numerous. In the spring of the year, the seals are fattest, and 
yield several gallons of blubber ; small ones afford four or five gailona 
of oil. 

The best situation for sealing in the Arctic Seas is stated by Scores- 
by, to be in the vicinity of Jan Main's Island, and the best season, the 
months of March and April. 

The number of seals destroyed in a single season by the regular 
staler:, may well excite surprise ; one ship has been known to obtain a 
cargo of four or five thousand skins, and upwards of a hundred tons 
of oil. Whale ships have accidentally fallen in with and secured two 
or three thousand of these animals, during the month of April. The 
sealing business is, however, very hazardous, when conducted on the 
borders of the Spitsbergen ice. .Many ships, with all their crews, are 
lost by the sudden and tremendous Ftorms occurring in those seas, 
where the dangers are vastly multiplied by the diivirng of immense 
bodies of ice. In one storm that occurred in the year 1774. no less 
than five seal ships were destroyed in a few hours, and six hundred 
valuable seamen perished. 

The seal is generally very fat, as his supply of food is abundant, and 
the amount of blood contained in his body is far/greater than would be 
inferred from comparing him with other animals. The flesh is of a 
very dark red color, and rather soft ; that of the young animal is 
thought to be quite good by Europeans, but the Esquimaux are ex- 
tremely fond of it at every age, and under all circumstances. 




BEAVER. This animal is represented by Dr. Godman as, about 
two feet in length, having a thick and heavy body, especially at its 
hinder part. The head is compressed and somewhat arched at the 
front, the upper part being rather narrow, and the snout, at the extrem- 
ity, quite so ; the neck is very short and thick. The eyes are situated 
rather high up on the head, and have rounded pupils ; the ears are 
short, elliptical, and almost entirely concealed by the fur. The whole 
skin is covered by two sorts of hair ; one which is long, rather stiff, 
elastic, and of a grey color for two thirds of its length next tiie base, 
and terminated by shining, reddish, brown points, giving the general 
color to the pelage ; the other is short, very fine, thick, tufted and soft, 
being of different shades of silver gray, or light lead color. On the 
head and feet, the hair is shorter than elsewhere. The tail, which is 
ten or eleven inches long, is covered with hair similar to that of the 

The general aspect of the beaver, at first view, would remind one 
of a very large rat, and seen at a little distance, it might be readily 
mistaken for the common musk-rat. But the greater size of the beaver, 
the thickness and breadth of its head, and its horizontally flattened, 
broad and scaly tail, render it impossible to mistake it for any other 
creature, when closely examined. 

Beavers are not particular in the site they select for the establishment 
of their dwellings ; but if in a lake or pond where a dam is not re- 
quired, they are careful to build where the water is sufficiently deep. 
In standing waters, however, they have not the advantage afforded by 
a current for the transportation of their supplies of wood, which, when 
they build on a running stream, is always cut higher up than the place 
of their residence, and floated down. 

The materials used for the construction of their dams, are the trunks 
and branches of small birch, mulberry, willow, poplar, &c. They be- 
gin to cut down their timber for building early in the summer, but their 
edifices are not commenced until about the middle or latter part of 
August, and are not completed until the beginning of the cold season. 
The strength of their teeth, and their perseverance in this work, may 
be fairly estimated by the size of the trees they cut down. Dr. Best 
informs us that he has seen a mulberry tree, eight inches in diameter, 
which had been gnawed down by the beaver. 

The figure of the dam varies according to circumstances. Should 
the current be very gentle, the dam is carried nearly straight across ; 
but when the stream is swiftly flowing, it is uniformly made with a 
considerable curve, having the convex opposed to the current. 

The dwellings of the beaver are formed of the same materials as 
their dams, and are very rude, though strong, and adapted in size to 
the number of their inhabitants. These are seldom more than four 
old and six or eight young ones. Double that number have been 
found occasionally in one of the lodges, though this is by no means 

When building their houses, they place most of their wood cross- 
wise, and nearly horizontally, observing no other order than that of 
leaving a cavity in the middle. Branches which project inward are 
cut off with their teeth and thrown among the rest. The houses are 

YCL0PED1A. 111 


by no Beans built of sticks first and then plastered, but all the mate- 
als, sticks, mud, and stones, if the latter can be procured, are mixed up 
together, and this composition is employed from the foundation to the 
summit. The mud is obtained from the adjacent banks or bottom of 
the stream or pond, near the door of the hut. Mud and stones the 
beaver always carries by holding them between his fore paws and 

Their work is all performed at night, and with much expedition. 
When straw or grass is mingled with the mud used by them in build- 
ing, it is an accidental circumstance, owing to the nature of the spot 
whence the latter is taken. As soon as any part of the materia] is 
placed where it is intended to remain, they turn around and give it a 
smart blow with their tail. The same sort of blow is struck by them 
upon the surface of the water when they are in the act of diving. 

The outside of the hut is covered or plastered with mud late in the 
autumn, and after frost 'has begun to appear. By freezing, it soon be- 
comes almost as hard as stone, effectually excluding their great enemy, 
the wolverene, during the winter. Their habit of walking over the 
work frequently during its progress, has led to the absurd idea of their 
using their tail as a trowel. 

The beaver feeds principally upon the bark of the aspen, willow, 
birch, poplar, and occasionally the alder, but it rarely resorts to the 
pine tribe, unless from severe necessity. They provide a stock of 
wood from the trees mentioned, during the summer season, and place 
it in the water opposite the entrance to their houses. 

The beaver is a cleanly animal, and always leaves the house to at- 
tend to the calls of nature ; the excrement being light rises to the top 
of the water, and soon separates and disappears. Thus, however 
great may be the number of inhabitants occupying the hut, no accumu- 
lation of filth of this kind occurs. 

The number of beavers killed in the northern parts of this country 
is exceedingly great, even at the present time, after the fur trade 
has been carried on for so many years, and the most indiscriminate 
warfare waged uninterruptedly against the species. In the year 1820, 
sixty thousand beaver skins were sold by the Hudson's Bay Company, 
which we can by no means suppose to be the whole number killed 
during the preceding season. If to these be added the quantities col- 
lected by the traders from the Indians of the Missouri country, we 
may form some idea of the immense number of these animals which 
exist throughout the vast regions of the north and west. 



It is not our design, nor will it accord with our limits, to enter into 
the natural history of fish in general ; but rather to notice, in brief 
terms, a few of the more common sorts ; those which are important ei- 



ther as aliments, or otherwise contributing to the comfort of man; We 
begin with the 

SALMON FISHERY. Salmon are a very general, and favorite ar- 
ticle of food. When eaten fresh, they are tender, flaky, and nutritive ; 
but are thought to be difficult of digestion. The flesh of the salmon 
is of a red color, and the beauty of its appearance is increased, by soak- 
ing the slices of it in fresh water, before they are cooked. It has two 
fins on the back, which distinguish it from other fish. It will live both 
in salt and fresh water, and is often found at the distance of 200 miles 
up rivers, in the season of spawning ; and will, with this object in view, 
leap mill-dams and falls many feet high. The modes of curing salmon 
are various ; but are chiefly by drying, smoking, salting, and pickling. 
The chief places in Europe where the salmon fishery is carried on, are 
in England, Scotland, and Ireland, in the rivers, and sea coasts near the 
rivers 1 mouths. The fishing season usually begins about the first of 
January, and ends by the last of September. It is commonly performed 
with nets. Salmon were formerly abundant in the rivers of New Eng- 
land, especially in the Connecticut river. At the period of their great- 
est abundance, they were sold for two coppers a-piece. At present, 
they are taken chiefly in the rivers, and on the coast of Maine. 

COD FISHERY. The cod is a fish of passage, and is usually from 
eighteen inches to three or four feet long ; with a large head, and teeth 
in the bottom of the throat. Its flesh is white, its skin brownish on the 
back, and covered witii a few transparent scales. It eats excellently 
when fresh ; and if well prepared and salted will keep a long time. 
The grand resort, for centuries past, of this fish, has been on the banks 
of Newfoundland, and near Cape Breton. The vessels used are from 
a hundred to a hundred and fifty tons burden, and they catch thirty or 
forty thousand fish a-piece. The most essential article in this fishery 
is, to have a master who knows how to open the fish, to cut off the 
heads, and salt them ; upon his ability in this the success of the voyage 
depends. The commerce in this kind offish is the most secure and ad- 
vantageous that is known. The best fishing season is from the begin- 
ning of February to the end of April, at which time the cods, which 
during the winter had retired to the deepest part of the sea, return to 
the bank and grow very fat. Those caught from March to June keep 
well enough ; but those in July, August, and September, soon spoil. 
The fishing is sometimes done in a month or six weeks ; sometimes it 
holds six months. 

Each fisher only takes a cod at a time ; and yet, an experienced man 
will take three or four hundred in a day. They salt the cod on board. 
This description respects the gree?i cod fishery. In the fishing of dry cod, 
vessels of all sizes are employed. As cod is only to be dried in the sun, 
the European vessels are obliged to put out in March or April, to have 
the benefit of the summer for drying. The principal fishery for dry 
cod is along the coasts of Placentia, a sea-port of Newfoundland. The 
fish intended for this use, though of the same kind as the green cod, are 
much smaller, and hence fitter to keep. The method of fishing is much 
the same in both ; only this latter is more expensive, as it takes up more 
time, and employs more hands ; and yet scarce half the salt is used in 
this as in the other. When the fish have taken salt, they are laid in 



piles on the galleries of the scaffold ; when drained, they are ranged on 
hurdles, and frequently turned, to dry the better. There are four kinds 
of commodities drawn from cod ; viz. the tripes, or sounds, and tongues 
salted at the same time with the fish ; the roes or eggs, which being 
salted and barrelled up, serve to cast into the sea to draw fish together ; 
and lastly the oil, which is used in dressing of leather. 

HERRING FISHERY. The herring is a small fish, from eight to 
ten inches in length, which feeds, in countless multitudes, in the inac- 
cessible seas of the north ; whence they proceed along the coast of Hol- 
land, reach the Shetland Islands in the month of June, where separa- 
ting, they surround the British Isles. In September they unito again, 
at Land's End, whence they proceed to the American shore, and along 
the coast of Newfoundland, and at length, return to their polar habita- 

The herring fishery, in different parts of the world, affords occupa- 
tion and support to a great number of people. In Holland, it has been 
calculated, that formerly more than 150,000 persons were employed in 
catching, pickling, drying, and trading, in herrings ; and on the differ- 
ent coasts of Great Britain, many thousands of families are entirely 
supported by this fishery. The principal of the British herring fish- 
eries are off the coasts of Scotland and Norfolk ; and the implements 
that are used in catching the fish, are nets stretched in the water, one 
side of which is kept from sinking, by buoys fixed to them at proper 
distances, and the other hangs down, by the weight of lead which is 
placed along its bottom. The herrings are caught in the meshes of the 
nets, as they endeavour to pass through ; and unable to liberate them- 
selves, they continue there, until the nets are hauled in, and they are 
taken out. 

Some of them are pickled, and others dried. In the preparation of 
the latter, (which have the name of red herrings,) the fish are soaked 
for twenty-four hours in brine, and then taken out, strung by the hand 
on little wooden spits, and hung in a chimney formed to receive them. 
After this, a fire of brush-wood, which yields much smoke, but no 
flame, is kindled beneath, and they are suffered to remain until they 
are sufficiently dried, when they are packed in barrels for exportation 
and sale. 

MACKEREL FISHERY. The mackerel is a sait water fish, usu- 
ally from a foot to eighteen inches in length ; its weight seldom ex- 
ceeds two or three pounds. It is found on the French, English, and 
American coasts, and also in large shoals in the ocean. They are ex- 
cellent food when fresh, but much greater quantities are used in a pick- 
led state. This fishery employs a great number of men, and a large 
capital both here and in Great Britain. The method of taking the fish 
is either with a line or net. If with a line, the bait used is a piece of 
red cloth or the tail of a mackerel. The method of taking the fish 
with nets is more common, and is usually performed in the night time. 
The water wherein mackerel have been boiled often yields a light af- 
ter being stirred a little. 

SHAD. This important and delicious fish is found, it is believed, in 
no other country besides America. In many of the rivers of the Uni- 
ted States, it abounds. During the months of April, May, and a part 




of June, multitudes are caught which are eaten fresh or salted. Those 
caught in the rivers of New England are the most esteemed. The Con- 
necticut river shad are justly famous. This fishery employs several 
thousand men, who pack thousands of barrels, which find their way 
into every part of the interior. 

The LOBSTER is found extensively diffused in the various salt wa- 
ters of the globe. The common method of taking them is in pots, or 
a kind of trap, - constructed of twigs, baited with garbage, and formed 
similar to a wire mouse trap, so that the animal after entering it, can- 
not escape. Such machines are fastened to a cord sunk in the sea, and 
lace is marked by a buoy. In summer, they are found near the 
shore, and thence to about six fathoms deep ; but, in winter, they are 
seldom taken in less than twelve or fifteen fathoms of water. 

Lobsters continue to grow in size, only while their shells are soft. 
Those selected for the table ought to be heavy in proportion to their 
size, and be furnished with a hard crust on their sides, which, when in 
perfection, will not yield to a moderate pressure. 

The meat of the lobster is not easy of digestion. Sometimes the 
immoderate use of lobsters is attended with eruptions of the erysipela- 
tous kind in the face, or a species of nettle rash over the whole body; 
either of which, being salutary efforts of nature, to expel noxious mat- 
ter, are more troublesome than dangerous. 

OYSTERS. Of this shell fish, it is said, that there are an hundred 
and fifty species. They are to be found in ail countries on the globe. 
In the East Indies, they are sometimes two feet in diameter. The oys- 
ters found on the English coast are said to have a strong copper taste, 
which they acquire from their growing on the copper banks. This 
tasie renders them unpleasant at first ; but, at length, it imparts to 
them a higher relish. 

During the breeding season, and for some weeks following, oysters 
are said to be quite unhealthy ; hut in all other seasons of the year, 
they are esteemed an excellent food, and are eaten both raw, and 
dressed in various ways; in a fresh state, however, they are doubtless 
preferable; for, by cooking, they are in a great measure deprived of 
their nourishing jelly, and of the salt-water which promotes their di- 
gestion in the stomach. Hence raw oysters, may be used with equal 
advantage, by the robust, the weak, and the consumptive. Indepen- 
dently of the nutritive effects peculiar to this shell fish, it generally 
tends to open the bowels, especially if a certain quantity be swallowed 
at one meal : hence to persons of a costive habit they afford a dietetic 

TORTOISE. This amphibious animal is found in the West Indies, 
and the South Seas. Between thirty and forty different species have 
been enumerated. Some of the species, such as the common green 
turtle and the haivksbill turtle, grow to a very large size, and are not 
unfrequently four, five, or six hundred pounds in weight. Those who 
take them watch them when they go from their nests on shore, in 
moon-light nights ; and before they reach the sea, turn them on their 
backs, and leave them till morning, for they are utterly unable to recov- 
er their former position ; at other times they hunt them in boats, with 



a spear, striking them with it through the shell ; and as there is a cord 
fastened to the spear, they are taken much in the same manner as whales. 
Tortoises will live after being deprived of the brain, and even of their 
heads. The flesh of many of the sea-turtles is highly esteemed as food ; 
that of the hawks-bill, however is indifferent ; this species is noticed, 
chiefly as producing the tortoise-shell of commerce, so well known and 
used for various purposes.. 

WHALE. The whale, of which there are several species, is the 
largest of all animals ; it is sometimes ninety feet long, and those of 
the torrid zone are said to be much larger. The head is about one 
third the length of the whole fish; the under lip is much broader than 
the upper. The tongue is a spongy, fat substance, sometimes yielding 
five or six barrels of oil. The gullet or swallow of the whale, in some 
species, is very small for so large an animal ; it does not exceed four 
inches in width : but it is proportioned to the food it eats, which is said 
to be a particular kind of small snail ; or, as some say, it varies its re- 
past with the medusa, or sea-blubber, an animal which is found in the 
sea. The whale has two orifices in the middle of the head, through 
which it spouts water to a great height, and sometimes with a noise 
tike thunder. Its eves are not larger than those of an ox, and placed at 
a great distance from each other. Under the skin the whale is covered 
with fat or blubber, from six to twelve inches thick, which sometimes 
yields from one to two hundred barrels of oil. The flesh is red and 
coarse, somewhat like beef. The Greenlanders eat it, and the Iceland- 
ers soak it in sour whey. Whales, which produce the well known arti- 
cle of whale bone, are chiefly caught in the North seas ; the largest sort 
about Greenland or Spitzbergen. At the first discovery of that coun- 
try, and at the beginning of this fishery, they took nothing but the pure 
oil and the whalebone, and all the business was executed in the coun- 
try; by which means a ship eould bring home the product of many 
more whales thaj^she can at present, as it is now conducted. 

A whale, extended motionless, at the surfaee of the sea, can sink in 
the space of five or six seconds, beyond the reach of its human ene- 
mies. The usual rate at which whales swim, seldom exceeds four 
miles an hour ; when urged by the sight of an enemy, or alarmed by 
the stroke of a harpoon, they swim at the rate of eight or nine miles 
an hour. But this speed never continues longer than for a few min- 
utes. They commonly remain at the surface, to breathe, two min- 
utes ; during which time, they blow eight or nine times, and then de- 
scend for an interval, usually, of five or ten minutes. When struck, 
their descent extends, sometimes, to the depth of 700 or 800 fathoms. 

The maternal affection of the whale, is striking and interesting. 
When her cub is harpooned, she will join it at the surface of the water, 
and encourage it in its attempt to escape ; and for this purpose, will 
take it under her fin, and seldom deserts it while life remains. At such 
times, 6he loses all regard for her own safety, and it is exceedingly dan- 
gerous to approach her. 

Every whale ship is furnished with six boats. Those called six oared 
boats, adapted for carrying seven men, six of whom, including the 
harpooner, are rowers, are generally from 26 to 28 feet in length, and 
about five feet nine inches in breadth. Six-men boats, and four-oared 
boats are proportionably smaller. 



The instruments in general use, in the capture of the whale, are the 
harpoon and lance. The harpoon is an instrument of iron, about three 
feet in length. It consists of three conjoined parts, called the socket, 
shank, and mouth ; the latter of which, includes the barbs or withers. 
The next in importance to the harpoon is the lance. It consists of a 
hollow socket, six inches long, and swelling from half an inch, the size 
of the shank, to near two inches in diameter ; into which is fitted, a 
four feet stock, or handle, of fir; a shank five feet long, and half an 
inch in diameter; and a mouth of steel, which is made very thin, and 
exceedingly sharp, seven or eight inches in length, and two and a half 
inches in breadth. 

Qn the arrival of a ship, at the fishing station, the master, or officer 
of the watch, takes his station in the crow's ntst, a place fitted for shel- 
tering him from the wind, on the main top-mast, or top-gallant-mast 
head, from which he keeps an anxious watch, for the appearance of a 
whale. The moment that a fish is seen, he gives notice to the watch 
upon deck, part of whom leap into a boat, are lowered down, and push 
off towards the place. On coming near, the harpoon is thrown. The 
wounded whale, in the surprise and agony of the moment, makes a 
convulsive effort to escape. Then is trie moment of danger. The 
boat is subjected to the most violent blows from its head, or its fins ; 
but particularly from its ponderous tail, which sometimes sweeps the 
air with such tremendous fury, that both boat and men, are exposed to 
one common destruction. 

A signal is now given to the people on board of the vessel, by setting 
up one of their oars in the middle of the boat. On perceiving this* 
the men on the waich, alarm all the rest by the cry of fall, fall, and 
the other boats go* immediately to the assistance of the first. The 
whale, finding himself wounded, runs off with prodigious violence, 
sometimes horizontally, at others descending perpendicularly. The 
rope which is fastened to the harpoon is about two ^undred fathoms 
long ; but sometimes several ropes are united together. The velocity 
with which the whale draws it over the sides of the boat is so great, 
that it is wetted to prevent its taking fire. The fishermen find it ne- 
cessary to let go the rope for a time, till the whale is spent, otherwise 
its violence would sink the boat. The whale soon, however, comes up, 
for it cannot stay long below water, and being now fatigued and 
wounded, stays above longer than usual. It is now struck again with 
a harpoon, and again descends, but with less force; when it comes up 
again, it is generally incapable of descending, but suffers itself to be 
wounded and killed with long lances, with which the men are provided. 
It is known to be near death when it spouts up the water deeply tinged 
with blood. The whale being dispatched, the body floats ; the fins* 
and tail are now cut off, and it is drawn to the vessel ; the blubber or 
fat cut off, and the whalebone cut off from the upper jaw ; the fat and 
the bone being all which is wanted, the remains of the whale are 
left. When the ship is thus sufficiently laden, it sails homewards, 
during which voyage the fat is melted down into oil. One of the lar- 
gest fish will fill more than seventy butts. The produce of a large 
whale is valued at about a thousand pounds. 

A considerable whale fishery is also carried on in the South Seas ; 



here the object of the fisherman is the spermaceti uhaie, which produ- 
ces not only a much more valuable oil than the preceding, but also the 
peculiar substance called spermaceti. 



No part of nature exhibits a more beautiful variety, than the feather- 
ed tribe?. Did our limits permit, it would be pleasant to ourselves, and 
not without interest, we trust, to our readers, to describe, at some 
length, these tenants of the air; but, as utility rather than amusement 
is the object of our work, we must content ourselves with noticing 
chiefly that part of the feathered creation which contributes to the com- 
fort of man, with a notice of a limited number belonging to other class- 

t Birds of the more useful description are of the poultry kind, in which 
class are ranked all those which have white flesh, and bodies bulky, 
when compared with the size of their head and limbs. These are the 
common cock, the peacock, the turkey, the Guinea hen, the pheasant 
and the partridge. 

The COCK is allowed originally to have been a native of Persia, 
imported into Europe many centuries ago. Few animals of the flying 
species exhibit so many varieties as the cock ; there being scarcely two 
birds of this description that resemble each other in plumage and shape. 
Some species are without the tail, and others destitute of a rump. 
Instead of feathgrs, which usually belong to this fowl, a species is 
found in Japan, which is covered with hair. In the island Tinian, and 
several others in the Indian Ocean, the plumage of the cock is black 
and yellow, and his comb and wattles are of the latter color and pur- 
ple combined. 

No animal in the world has greater courage than the common do- 
mestic cock, when opposed to one of his own species: and in every 
part of the world, where refinement and polished manners have not 
entirely taken place, cock fighting is a principal diversion. In several 
parts of Europe, this vulgar amusement is still common, and is not un- 
frequent in some of the southern states of our own country. The fol- 
lowing story is authentically related of a gentleman, some years since 
in England, who was passionately fond of this species of gamin?. He 
possessed a favorite cock, on which he had won many profitable match- 
es. The last bet he laid on this cock, he lost; which so enraged him, 
that he had the bird tied to a spit, and roasted alive, before a large fire. 
The screams of the miserable anima^rere so affecting, that some gen- 
tlemen, who were present, attemptWto interfere, which so increased 
the gentleman's anger that he seized a poker, and with the most furious 
vehemence declared, that he would kill the first man who should inter- 
pose ; but in the midst of his passionate asseverations, befell down 




dead upon the spot — a solemn warning to all, who violate the common 
and obvious principles of humanity. 

The HEN. If well fed and allowed to roam in a farm-yard, a good 
hen will deposit, in the course of twelve months above 200 eggs ; but 
if left entirely to herself, she seldom lays more than fifteen eggs in the 
same nest without attempting to hatch them ; but, if eggs only be de- 
sired, they should be removed, one only being left, and she will contin- 
ue to lay for a long time. When the hen begins to sit, nothing can 
exceed her perseverence and patience ; she continues for some days 
immoveable, and when forced away by the importunities of hunger, 
she quickly returns. While the hen sits, she carefully turns her eggs, 
till at length, in about three weeks, the young brood begin to give signs 
of a desire to burst their confinement. When all are produced, she 
then leads them forth to provide for themselves. Her affection and 
pride seem then to alter her very nature, and correct her injfcrfections. 
No longer voracious and cowardly, she abstains from all foWd that her 
young can swallow, and flies* ^oldly at every creature that she thinks is 
likely to do them mischief. 

The proper heat for hatching a hen's egg according to some, is 104 c 
of Fahrenheit ; according to others 96° ; to which degree the surface 
of the body of the hen will raise the thermometer, when she sits upon 
her eggs. In those birds who do not sit constantly, but trust chiefly to 
the heat of the sun, as the crane, heron, ostrich, &c. &c, the tempera- 
ture of the eggs is probably below 104 degrees. 

The full period of the hen in this country, is know r n to be 21 days. 
In warmer climates, it is said to be a day or two less. The following 
table was compiled by Count Morozzo, in a litter from him to Lace- 
pede, to show the periods of incubation, compared with those of the life 
of certain birds. 

Name of the Bird. 







Turkey, - 


Pheasant, - 






Goldfinch, - 

Artificial means have been 

Period of Incuba. 

Duration of Life 


42 days 

about 200 vears. 


100 years. 


80 or more. 


30 { 

30 i 

not known. 

30 J 

26 to 27 

25 to 28 

20 to 25 

18 to 20 


100 or more. 

19 to 20 

17 to 18 

19 to 21 

12 to 15 

17 to 18 

16 to 17 

13 to 14 

13 to 14 

13 to 14 

18 to 20 

aerated, in different parts of the world, 
to catch chickens from the eggs, without the assistance of the hen. In 
Egypt, the method adopted is to place the eggs in stoves, erected for 
their reception, and to supply them with such a degree of heat, as* is 



necessary to call them into life. By this means, it is said tbnt tens of 
thousands of chickens are annually hatched in the above • 

Reaumur, the celebrated naturalist, instituted a s [ieri- 

raents, to reduce the art of hatching chickens, to fixed \>y\ Ac- 

cording to him, the degree of heat necessary to acco; iect, 

is 96 of Fahrenheit. He also invented a kind of hollow cover.-, or low 
boxes, without bottoms, and lined with fur, which he called ' pa- 

rents. These were designed to shelter the chicken :ied, 

and to afford them protection similar to that of the wings of '.' 

Hens which do not. lay in the winter, should have a< :ed 

lime, pounded bones, oyster shells, or other matter, whi rne, 

or some of its compounds, because something of the kind is nece rsary 
to form the shell of their eggs. This is not necessar 
which are fed on wheat, as that grain contains phospha lime, the 

substance of which egg-shells are composed. 

It is o^ftusly an important point to ascertain the most economical 
method or keeping and fattening poultry. Boiled potato >d 

for poultry, is both excellent and economical. Some wr m- 

mend a proportion of beets, ripe and sweet pumpkins, and squashes, to 
. be mixed with the potatoes; others recommend a small portion of 
bran, or Indian meal. 

To fatten chickens expeditiously, the Domestic Encyclopedia recom- 
mends, to take a quantity of ground rice, and an equal quantity of 
common flour ; mix sufficient for present use with milk and a little 
coarse sugar; stir the whole well over the fire, till it makes a thi 
paste ; and feed the chickens in the day time only, by putting as much 
of it as they can eat, but no more, into the troughs belonging to the 
coops. It must be eaten while warm ; and if they have also beer to 
drink, they will soon grow very fat. A mixture of oat-meal and trea- 
cle, combined till it crumbles, is said to form a food for chickens, of 
which they are so fond, and with which they thrive so rapidly, that at 
the end of two months, they become as large as the generality of full- 
grown fowls, fed in the common way. But no common fowl is to be 
compared with a capon thus fed. 

A writer in the New England Farmer recommends to confine fowls 
in a large airy enclosure, and feed them on broken Indian corn, Ind 
meal, or mush with raw potatoes, cut into small pieces, not larg I 
a filbert ; placing within their reach a quantity of charcoal, broken into 
small pieces, which he says they will greedily eat, and thereby promote 
a rapid digestion of their food. By this method, they will fatt 
one halPthe usual time, and with much less expense. 

The French, who are great egg eaters, take unusual pains to obtaia 
fresh laid eggs in winter. For this purpose, they keen their hens in a 
dry warm place, it being well known that exposure to wet weather, es- 
pecially cold, wet weather,diminishes their propensity to lay. Stimulating 
food is given them, such as barley* wheat, boiled, and given warm, 
and also curds, buckwheat, parsley, and other herbs, chopped fine, cats 
and wheat, and occasionally hemp-seed, and the seed of nettles. 
White cabbages, chopped up, ■^excellent in winter for all sorts of 
poultry. ** • 

The ailments of fowls are numerous ; but they would seldom be ?rw> 
if the proper care were taken. If well fed, and kept perfectly clean-- 



fowls will seldom be sick ; and in respect to age, they should never be 
kept more than two or three years, since beyond this period, they are 
of little value as layers. 

With ordinary management, however, fowls will sometimes be trou- 
bled with diseases, among the most fatal of which is the disorder called 
gapes; a disease which, in New England, we believe, generally goes 
by the name of pip. 

In chickens, the gapes is said to arise from a worm, and some say a 
collection of worms in the wind-pipe ; according to others, it is a thick 
viscous matter, which lines the windpipe. Mr. Mowbray informs us, 
that the pip is a white scale, growing on the tip of the tongue, which 
must be torn off, and the part rubbed with salt. Whatever be the na- 
ture of the disease, it usually destroys a large proportion of all the chick- 
ens that are hatched. Various prescriptions have been suggested, for 
its cure. Some advise to mix soft soap with meal dough^fcthers, to 
make a decoction of red pepper, with which to wet up mus^P> be giv- 
en to the chickens. Others recommend, in respect to full grown fowls, 
which are afflicted with this disease, to pull the feathers from the tail. 
The TURKEY, it is thought, belonged originally to North America ; 
but is now common throughout Europe. It was formerly found wild, 
in the forests of Canada and the United States ; and flocks are, to this 
day, occasionally seen. The wild Turkey is generally larger than the 

Young turkies are liable to the pip, which often proves speedily fatal. 
The remedies suggested in respect to chickens, which have this dis- 
ease, may, perhaps, be found equally beneficial in respect to turkies. 
A writer remarks, however, that on inspecting the rump feathers, two 
or three of their quills will be found to contain blood ; but on drawing 
them out, the chick soon recovers, and afterwards requires no other 
care than common poultry. 

The GUINEA HEN, is a bird well known in England, but is a na- 
tive of Africa and America. The flesh is thought by many to be deli- 
cious ; it requires great care in being reared in this climate ; a good 
common hen will hatch the eggs much better than the Guinea hen her- 
self, and to common hens in this country should the eggs of the Guinea 
hen always be entrusted. The Guinea hen does not conform to cli- 
mate, like many other birds : it lays its eggs on the bare ground, and 
after the young are hatched, it often neglects them. This bird will lay 
many eggs ; but they are extremely small for the size of the bird ; 
much less than a pullet's egg. 

The GOOSE. This common bird is probably the wild goose do- 
mesticated. The latter, it is well known, is a bird of passage, and on 
the approach of spring, large flocks of them are seen wending their 
way towards the polar "regions. The fortunate sportsman sometimes 
brings one down from his airy height. If only wounded, he may be 
tamed, and will readily pair with the common grey goose. 

The goose is a valuable, but expej^re bird ;— valuable, as it furnish- 
es feathers for our beds ; and, in thiWiew, may be regarded as necessa^ 
ry,— expensive, requiring considerable food, during the winter season, 
but more expensive, from the injury that it occasions to our meadows 
and pasture lands. 



The method of rearing geese is so well known, and so uniform, that 
it will be unnecessary to describe it. It may be proper, however, to no- 
tice a recommendation found in Willich's Encyclopedia ; viz. to break 
the shell near the beak of the young goslin, about the period of its 
hatching. This we should deem injudicious and unnecessary. Wild 
geese can have no assistance of this kind, and we conclude that goslins 
can, generally speaking, make their way into the world, without the 
proposed manipulation. 

As geese form a principal delicacy at our tables, the most expeditious 
mode of fattening them, is an object of some importance. Hence, it 
has been recommended to keep them cooped up in a dark and narrow 
place, where they are to be fed with ground malt, mixed with milk, or, 
if milk be scarce, with barley meal, mashed up with water. Cobbett 
recommends feeding them with corn, some raw Swedish turnips, car- 
rots, whita»abbages, or lettuce. 

The CmKplete Farmer, an English work, says; "if you would fatten 
geese, you must shut them up when they are about a month old, and 
they will be fat in about a month more. Be sure to let them have al- 
ways, in a small rack, some fine hay, which will much hasten their fat- 
ting. But for fatting older geese, it is commonly done when they are 
about six months old, or soon after harvest, when they have been in 
stubble fields, from which food they will grow tolerably fat. But those 
who are desirous of having them very fat, shut them up for a fortnight 
or three weeks, and feed them with oats, split peas, barley meal, or 
ground malt mixed with milk. But the best thing to fatten them with, 
is malt mixed with beer. You must, however, observe, in fattening all 
sorts of water-fowl, that they usually sit with their bills upon their 
rumps, where they suck out the greater part of the moisture and fatness, 
at a small bunch of feathers, which you will find standing upright on 
their rumps, and always moist, with which they trim their feathers, 
which renders them more oily and slippery than the feathers of other 
fowls, and causes the water to slip orTthem. If, therefore, the upright 
feathers are cut away close, they will become fat in less time, and witrj 
less food than otherwise. If you give them rye, before or about mid- 
summer, it will strengthen them, and keep them in health, that being 
commonly their sickly time.'' 

In choosing geese for table, care should be taken that the feet and 
legs be yellow, which is an indication of the bird being young ; the legs 
of old geese are red. If recently killed, the legs will be pliable, but if 
stale, they will generally be found dry and stiff. 

A new breed of geese, called Bremen geese, has been introduced into 
the United States, which is said to be decidedly superior to any hereto- 
fore known in this country. They were first imported, we believe, by 
Mr. James Sisson, of Warren, (R. I.) who received a premium, in Oc- 
tober, 1K26, from the Rhode Island Society for the Encouragement of 
Domestic Industry, for the exhibition of some geese of this breed. 
They are said to possess the following advantages, over any other ani- 
mals of their kind : they grow to a greater size, may be raised with 
more facility, are fattened with less grain, and make more delicious 

DUCK. Of the duck there are many varieties ; but they may be 




reduced to two general classes — the wild and the tame. Of the wild 
duck, the canvass-backed is peculiar to America ; where it is in higher 
estimation than any other, on account of the exquisite flavor of its 
flesh. It abounds in the neighborhood of Chesapeake bay ; but is sel- 
dom seen north of Pennsylvania. 

The Mallard is the most common of wild ducks, and is the original 
of our domestic duck. Wild ducks pair in the spring, build their nests 
among rushes near the water, and lay from ten to sixteen eggs. The 
female is a very artful bird, and does not always make the nest close 
to the water, but frequently at a good distance from it ; in which case, 
•he will carry the young to it in her beak, or between her legs. There 
are various means used to catch wild ducks and geese, of which one 
seems worth mentioning. The person washing to take these, wades in- 
to the water up to the chin, and, having his head covered with a cala- 
bash, approaches the place where the ducks are: when^^y, not re- 
garding an object of this sort, suffer the man freely to ml" with the 
flock ; alter this, he has only to pull them by the legs into the water, 
one after the other, till he is satisfied ; returning as unsuspected by the 
remainder, as when he first came among them. This method is fre- 
quently put in practice on the river Ganges, using the earthen vessels 
of the Gentoos, instead of the calabashes ; these vessels are what the 
Gentoos boil their rice in, and after being once used, they consider 
them defiled, and throw them into the river as useless. The ducks, 
seeing these vessels float down the stream, look upon them with disre- 
gard, and the duck-takers find them, on this account, convenient for 
their purpose. 

The tame duck is the most easily reared of all our domestic animals ; 
and in the neighborhood of a sufficiently sluggish and muddy stream 
will procure their living, and even grow fat without being led. It is 
better, however, to confide them to the care of a hen, because the duck 
is a heedless and inattentive mother, and frequently leaves her eggs, 
until they spoil. After hatching her brood, she forthwith leads them 
to a pond, shows them the water, and appears to think that she has 
performed every duty which is required of her. 

A singular mode of fattening ducks obtains in France. In the au- 
tumn, when tolerably fat, they are shut up, eight by eight, in a dark 
place, and crammed with boiled corn. They are sometimes suffocated, 
but if they are soon bled, they are not the worse for it. They pass 
fifteen days in a state of oppression and suffocation, which makes their 
livers grow large. When the tail spreads out like a fan, they are fat 
enough ; they are then turned out to bathe, after which they are killed. 

Two days after killing, they are opened below, and their wings and 
legs taken off, and the flesh covering the rump and stomach. The : 
whole is put into a salting tub, with the neck and end of the rump, and 
left covered with salt for fifteen days, after which they are cut into four ! 
quarters, and put into the pot. They are first seasoned with cloves, 
and other spices put in them. Some leaves of Spanish laurel, and a 
little salt-petre having been put in the brine to give the meat a red ' 

WILD PIGEON of America. "The wild pigeon of the United 
States," says Wilson in his Ornithology, " inhabits a wide and exten- 



sive region of North America, on this side of the Great Stony Moun- 
tains, beyond which, to the westward, I have not heard of one being 
seen. According to Mr. Hutchins, they abound in the country round 
Hudson's bav, where they usually remain as late as December, feeding, 
when the ground is covered with snow, on the buds of juniper. They 
are spread over the whole of Canada, were seen by Capt. Lewis and 
his party, near the great falls of the Missouri, upwards of 2500 miles 
from its mouth, reckoning the meanderings of the river, were also met 
with in the interior of Louisiana, by Col. Pike, and extend their range 
as far south as the Gulf of Mexico; occasionally visiting or breeding 
in almost every quarter of the United States. 

M But the most remarkable characteristic of these birds is their asso- 
ciating together, both in their migrations, and also during the period of 
incubation, in such prodigious numbers as almost to pass belief; a cir- 
cumstance which has no parallel among any other of the feathered 
tribes on die face of the earth, with which naturalists are acquainted. 

" These migrations appear to be undertaken, rather in quest of food 
than merely to avoid the cold of the climate. Vast multitudes congre- 
gate in the western forests, particularly in the states of Ohio, Kentucky, 
and Indiana. These extensive regions abound with the beach nut, 
which constitutes the chief food of the wild pigeon. During theirstay 
they fix upon some spot in a forest as their roosting place. These roost- 
ing places sometimes occupy a large extent. When they have fre- 
quented one of these places for some time, the appearance it exhibits 
is surprising. The ground is covered to the depth of several inches 
with their excrement ; all the tender grass and underwood is destroyed ; 
the surface strewed with large limbs of trees broken off by the weight 
of the birds clustering one above another ; and the trees themselves, 
for thousands of acres, killed as completely as if girdled with an axe. 
The marks of this desolation remain for many years on the spot; and 
numerous places could be pointed out, where, for several years after, 
scarce a single vegetable made its appearance. 

" When these roosts are first discovered, the inhabitants from con- 
siderable distances visit them in the night, w T ith guns, clubs, long poles, 
pots of sulphur, and various other engines of destruction. In a few- 
hours they fill many sacks and load their horses with them. By the 
Indians, a pigeon roost, or breeding place is considered an important 
source of national profit and dependence for that season ; and all their 
active ingenuity is exercised on the occasion. The breeding place dif- 
fers from the former in its greater extent. In the western countries 
above mentioned, these are generally in beech woods, and often extend 
in nearly a straight line, across the country for a great way. Not far 
from Shelby ville, in the state of Kentucky, about five years ago, there 
was one of these breeding places, which stretched through the woods in 
nearly a north and south direction ; was several miles in breadth, and 
was said to be upwards of forty miles in extent! In this tract almost 
every tree was furnished with nests wherever the branches could ac- 
commodate them. The pigeons made their first appearance there 
about the tenth of April, and left it altogether, with their young, before 
the twenty-fifth of May, 

" To form a rough estimate," continues Mr. Wilson, " of the daily 
consumption of one of these immense flocks, let us first attempt to cal- 



cuiatc the numbers of that above mentioned, as seen in passing between 
Frankfort and the Indiana territory. If we suppose this column to 
have been one mile in breadth, — and I believe it to have been much 
more, and that it moved at the rate of one mile in a minute, four hours* 
the time it continued passing, would make its whole length two hun- 
dred and forty miles. Again, supposing that each square yard of this 
moving body comprehended three pigeons, the square yards in the 
whole square multiplied by three, would give two thousand two hundred 
and thirty millions, two hundred and seventy -two thousand pigeons ! 
an almost inconceivable multitude, and yet probably far below the ac- 
tual amount. Computing each of these to consume half a pint of mast 
daily, the whole quantity, at this rate, would equal seventeen millions, 
four hundred and twenty-four thousand bushels per day. Heaven has 
wisely and graciously given to these birds rapidity of flight and a dis- 
position to range over vast uncultivated tracts of the earth; otherwise 
they must have perished in the district where they resided;*r devoured 
the whole productions of agriculture, as well as those of the forest. 

" Happening to go ashore one charming afternoon, to purchase some 
milk at a house that stood near the river, and while talking with the 
people within doors, I was suddenly struck with astonishment, by a 
loud rushing roar, succeeded by instant darkness, which, at the first 
moment, I took for a tornado, about to overwhelm the house, and every 
thing around in destruction. The people, observing my surprise, said 
coolly, 4 it is only the pigeons,' and on running out, I beheld a flock, 
thirty or forty yards in width, sweeping along, very low, between the 
house and the mountain, or height that formed the second bank of the 
river. These continued passing for more than a quarter of an hour t 
and at length varied their bearing, so as to pass over the mountain, 
behind which they disappeared before the rear came up." 

CARRIER PIGEON. This is a name given to a variety of the 
tame pigeon, or house dove, from being sometimes employed to con- 
vey letters, or small packets, from one place to another. Mention is 
made of them by ancient writers. Modern history records several in- 
teresting accounts of the employment of these aerial messengers. 
"When the city of Ptolemais, in Syria," says the Percy Anecdotes, 
" was invested by the French and Venetians, and it was ready to fall 
into their hands, they observed a pigeon flying over them, and immedi- 
ately conjectured that it was charged with letters to the garrison. On 
this, the whole army raising a loud shout, so confounded the poor aeri- 
al post, that it fell to the ground ; and on being seized, a letter was 
found under its wings, from the sultan, in which he assured the garri- 
son that " he would be with them in three days, with an army sufficient 
to raise the siege." For this letter the besiegers substituted another, 
to this purpose, " that the garrison must see to their own safety, for the 
sultan had such other affairs pressing him, that it was impossible for 
him to come to their succour ;" and with this false intelligence, they 
let the pigeon pursue his course. The garrison, deprived by this de- 
cree of all hopes of relief, immediately surrendered. The sultan ap- 
peared on the third day, as he had promised, with a powerful army, 
and was not a little mortified to find the city already in the hands of 
the Christians. 

" Carrier pigeons were again employed, but with better success, a.1 



the siege ofLeyden, in 1675. The garrison were, by means of the in- 
formation thus conveyed to them, induced to stand out, till the enemy, 
despairing of reducing the place, withdrew. On the siege being rais- 
ed, the Prince of Orange ordered that the pigeons, which had rendered 
such essential service, should be maintained at the public expense, and 
that at their death they should be embalmed and preserved in the town 
house, as a perpetual token of gratitude. 

"In the East, the employment of pigeons for the conveyance of let- 
ters, is still very common ; particularly in Syria, Arabia, and Egypt. 
They are also employed in several parts of Europe, but rather for the 
purposes of amusement, than for objects of great utility. 

" The diligence and speed, with which these feathered messenger! 
wing their course, is extraordinary. From the instant of their libera- 
tion, their flight is directed through the clouds, at an immense height to 
the place of their destination. They are believed to dart onwards in a 
straight line, and never to descend, except when at a loss for breath, 
and then they are to be seen commonly at dawn of day, lying on then- 
backs on the ground, with their bills open, sucking in with hasty avidi- 
ty the dew of the morning. Of their speed, the instances related, are 
almost incredible. 

" Some years ago, a gentleman sent a carrier pigeon from London, 
by the stage coach, to his friend in Edmundsbury, together with a 
note, desiring that the pigeon, two days after the arrival there, might 
be thrown up, precisely when the town clock struck nine in the morn- 
ing. This was done accordingly, and the pigeon arrived in London, 
and flew to the Bull Inn in Bishopgate street, into the loft, and wai 
there shown at half an hour past eleven o'clock, having flown seventy- 
two miles in two hours and a half. 

" It is through the attachment of the animals to the place of their 
birth, and particularly to the spot where they have brought up their 
young, that they are thus rendered useful to mankind. 

" When a young one flies very hard at home, and is come to its full 
strength, it is carried in a basket, or otherwise, about half a mile from 
home, and then turned out ; after this it is carried a mile, then two, 
four, eight, ten, twenty, &c, till at length it will return from the fur- 
thermost parts of the country." 






Every one is liable to suffering, either from accident or disease. Yet, 
it is certain that a large proportion of the accidents which occur, as 
well as many of the diseases which afflict mankind, are the result of 
carelessness and neglect. Less haste, or a little more forethought, 
would often save a bone from being broken ; and a little more atten- 
tion to diet, air, exercise, cleanliness, moderation in drink, needless ex- 
posure, &c. &c, would frequently prevent dangerous and protracted 
illness, and especially those chronic diseases, which, if less immediate- 
ly dangerous, occasion suffering and distress, perhaps through life. 

Yet, it is nevertheless true, that accidents and diseases will some- 
times occur. They will occur suddenly and unexpectedly. A physi- 
cs -;n may not be within immediate call; and before he can be summon- 
ed, life may have become extinct, or the foundation laid for months of 
debility and suffering. 

Such calamities, it cannot be doubted, might not unfrequently be pre- 
vented, by a little knowledge of the human frame, and of a few simple 
medicines, or expedients easily comprehended ; almost always at hand, 
and which every person of common understanding may administer and 

Without, therefore, infringing upon the province of the regularlv 
bred physician, or appearing to advocate empyricism, the editor believes 
an article devoted to the prevention of diseases and accidents, and the- 
management of the latter more especially, which shall be divested of 
the technical language of the profession — may be useful to those fami- 
lies, for which this work is designed. 

It is needless to say that a regular treatise on surgery and practice is 
not here attempted. Such an attempt would justly subject the con- 
ductor of this work to ridicule ; nor will it fall within the object and 
scope of this part of the work to sanction "nursery gossip" — nor to 
countenance and spread abroad the " mendacious reports of nostrum 
makers and venders." But rather to select such hints on the subject 
of preserving the health, and to recommend such remedies for certain 
accidents as have been furnished by enlightened experience, and which 
are safe and useful in the hands of the professionally unlearned. 

Hence, it will be obvious, that this article is not designed for the crit- 
ically learned. Should such an one — to use the language employed in 
an admirable work of a similar character, and written by a distinguish- 
ed physician — " cast his eye on these pages, he will here learn, this 
book was written for the unlearned ; and he will also learn that a hand- 
kerchief tied loosely round a man's leg above a wounded and bleeding 
artery, and a stick twisted into it, will as effectually save life as a sur- 
geon's turniquet — and many other such things. He will therefore 
please to spare this little ,work, r or the sake of him whose house is far 
removed from the surgeon, and who has no money to pay the physi- 





Rules of Sir R. Philips. — I. Rise early, and never sit up late. 

2. Wash the whole body every morning with cold water, by means 
of a large sponge, and rub it dry with a rough towel, or scrub the whole 
body for ten or fifteen minutes with flesh brushes. 

3. Drink water generally, and avoid excess of spirits, wine, and fer- 
mented liquors. 

4. Keep the body open by the free use of the syringe, and remove su- 
perior obstructions by aperient pills. 

5. Sleep in a room which has free access to the open air. 

6. Keep the head cool by washing it when necessary with cold wa- 
ter, and abate feverish and inflammatory symptoms when they arise, by 
persevering stillness. 

7. Correct symptoms of plethora and indigestion, by eating and drink- 
ing less, per diem for a few days. 

8. Never eat a hearty supper, especially of animal food ; and drink 
wine, spirits, and beer, if these are necessary, only after dinner. 

Rules of Dr. Boerhaave. — The following were the simple and un- 
erring directions of this great man for the preservation of health ; they 
contained the sum and substance of his vast professional knowledge 
during a long and useful life : — " Keep the feet warm ; the head cool ; 
and the body open." If these were generally attended to, the physi- 
cian's aid would seldom be required. 

Experience of Howard. — We give the following account of Mr. 
Howard's experience, which was furnished by him to a friend, as con- 
taining suggestions of a most important and valuable sort; and which, 
if adopted by many of the dyspeptics of the day, would go farther to- 
ward their restoration to a healthful state of body and mind, than the 
most learned prescriptions of the most celebrated doctors. 

" A more 'puny whipster' than myself, in the days of my youth, was 
never suen. I could not walk out in the evening, without being wrap- 
ped up : I could fiot put on my linen without its being aired : I was, 
politely speaking, enfeebled enough to have delicate nerves, and was, 
occasionally troubled with a very genteel hectic. To be serious, I am 
convinced that whatever enfeebles the body debilitates the mind, and 
renders both unfit for those exertions, which are of such use to us all as 
social beings. I therefore entered upon a reform of my constitution, 
and have succeeded in such a degree, that I have neither had a cough, 
cold, the vapors, nor any more alarming disorder, since I surmounted 
the seasoning. Prior to this, I used to be a miserable dependant on 
wind and weather ; a little too much of the one, or a slight inclemency 
of the other, would postpone, and frequently prevent, not only my 



amusements, but my duties : or, if pressed by my affections, or by the 
necessity of affairs, I did venture forth in despite of the elements, the 
consequences were equally absurd and incommodious, not seldom afflic- 
tive. I muffled up even to my nostrils; a crack in the glass of my 
chaise was sufficient to distress me ; a sudden slope of the wheels to the 
right or left, set me a trembling ; a jolt seemed like a dislocation, and 
the sight of a bank or a precipice, near which my horse or carriage was 
to pass, would disorder me so much, that I would order the driver to 
stop, that I might get out and walk by the difficult places. Mulled 
wines, spirituous cordials, and large fires, were to comfort me, and to 
keep out the cold, as it is called, at every stage, and if I felt the least 
damp in my feet, or other parts of my body, dry stockings, linen, &c. 
were to be instantly put on ; the perils of the day were to be baffled by 
something taken hot on going to bed ; and before I pursued my jour- 
ney, the next morning, a dram was to be swallowed, in order to fortify 
the stomach. In a word, I lived, moved, and had my being so much 
by rule, that the slightest deviation was a disease. 

" Every man must, in these cases, be his own physician. He must 
prescribe for, and practise on, himself. I did this by a very simple, but 
as you will think, a very severe regimen, namely, by denying myself 
almost every thing in which I had long indulged. But as it is always 
harder to get rid of a bad habit, than to contract it, I entered on my 
reform gradually ; that is to say, I began to diminish my usual indul- 
gences by degrees. I found that a heavy meal, or a hearty one, as it is 
termed, and a cheerful glass, that is, one more than does you good, 
made me incapable, or at least, disinclined to any useful exertions for 
some time after dinner hours ; and if the dilutive powers of tea assisted 
the work of a disturbed digestion, so far as to restore my faculties, a 
luxurious supper came in so close upon it, that I was fit for nothing but 
dissipation, till I went to a luxurious bed, where I finished the ener- 
vating practices, by sleeping eight, ten, and sometimes a dozen hours 
on the stretch. You will not wonder that I rose the next morning 
with the solids relaxed, the juices thickened, and the constitution weak- 

" To remedy all this, I ate a little less at every meal, and reduced my 
drink in proportion. It is really wonderful to consider, how impercep- 
tibly a single morsel of animal food, and a tea spoonful of liquor de- 
ducted from the usual quantity daily, will restore the mental functions, 
without any injury to the corporeal — nay, with increase of vigour to 
both. I brought myself, in the first instance, from dining on many 
dishes, to dining on a few, and then to being satisfied with one ; in like 
manner, instead of drinking a variety of wines, I m#de my election of 
a single sort, and adhered to it alone. 

My next business was to eat and drink sparingly of that adopted 
dish and bottle. My ease, vivacity, health, and spirits augmented. My 
clothing, &c. underwent a similar reform ; the effect of all which is, 
and has bfeen for many years, that I am neither affected by seeing my 
carriage dragged up a mountain, or driven down a valley. If an acci- 
dent happens, I am prepared for it, I mean so far as respects unneces- 
sary terrors ; and I am proof against all changes in the atmosphere, 
wet clothes, damp feet, night air, transitions from heat to cold, and the 
long train of hypochondria affections." 



Hints to Students. — Students, more than most persons, are apt to 
bring upon themselves a train of stomachic and nervous affections, in 
consequence of an intense application of mind, and neglect of appro- 
priate exercise in the open air. No one, however, can long hope for 
the enjoyment, either of health or vigor of mind, who is not in the daily- 
habit of exercise abroad. It is important, also, that his study should be 
large, perfectly dry, and often well ventilated. Great attention should 
also be paid to position. Students, whether they stand or sit, and by 
turns they should do both, should maintain an erect posture. Care 
should be exercised not to press, for any length of time, against a hard 
substance. The rocking chai r - with a leaf, or round table, situated in 
front of them, and which are often found in our colleges, are highly 
improper. It is also recommended to students, for the purpose of giv- 
ing exercise and strength to the lungs, frequently to read and speak 
loud. But some caution will be necessary, lest the exercise be carried 
too far. Vociferation should never be indulged. A naturally weak 
voice may be greatly strengthened by exercise ; and even a natural im- 
pediment removed, by careful and judicious perseverance. The case 
of Demosthenes illustrates this. His voice was so weak, and indis- 
tinct, that he could be scarcely heard or understood ; vet he contrived 
to remedy both defects, by declaiming, while ascending the brow of a 
hill or walking amid the noise of the waves along the se^. shore. 

We must also enter our protest against midnight studies. The late 
President Dwight, whose experience rendered him perfectly compe- 
tent to impart advice on this subject, gave it as his opinion, that as a 
general rule, nothing was gained by any student, by application to his 
books, after ten o'clock at night. The morning is the season most ap- 
propriate to study. It is also the best season for exercise. But both 
objects may be accomplished by early rising ; a point of great impor- 
tance, both in respect to clearness of mind, health of body, and rapid 
improvement. But in few things, perhaps, do students fail more than 
in the kinds of exercise adopted. They should not be those kinds, 
which are of course violent ; nor those which exercise only particular 
parts of the body. Great fatigue should be avoided. In general, ri- 
ding on horseback, walking, or working in the garden, are to be prefer- 
red to most other kinds of exercise. 

The utility of exercise, however, is often much diminished, by its be- 
ing taken as exercise. On this point we quote the language of a dis- 
tinguished writer, as well as student : M A solitary walk, or ride, mere- 
ly for the sake of exercise, and with no other object to stimulate our 
progress, as it is of all amusements the dullest, so it is found rather 
hurtful than advantageous. The mind still meditates in solitude, and 
the body, at the same time, labours ; so that both are exhausted at once, 
and the student returns to his closet fatigued, dejected, and disappoint- 
ed. Some little amusement must therefore be contrived, or some bu- 
siness engaged in, which may operate as a loadstone, in attracting us, 
without being sensible of our own efforts, from our libraries, up the 
mountain, and along the forest, where health, with all her thousand 
joys, delights to fix her abode." 

With regard to diet, no good reason exists, why the student should 
deny himself any plain and wholesome food, provided that he eats not 
to complete satiety. This should always be avoided, as should supper 
late in the evening. 



And in regard to drink, water doubtless should constitute his princi- 
pal drink. But more than most persons, should the student abstain 
from the use of spirituous liquors. They are a bane, to which none of 
the habits of his life present any antidote whatever. The laborer in 
the field, by his powerful exercise, may perspire away in a measure the 
effects of stimulating liquors : but the student in his application has no 
such effort to anticipate. Stimulating liquors, and close study, will 
soon undermine and destroy the best constitution ever given to man. 

QUANTITY OF FOOD. In respect to the quantity of food adapt- 
ed to the preservation of health, perhaps no invariable rule can be 
given. "As a general rule," observes the authors of the Journal of 
Health, "it will be found, that those who exercise much in the open 
air, or follow laborious occupations, will demand a larger amount of 
food than the indolent, or the sedentary. Young persons, also, com- 
monly require more than those advanced in years; and the inhabit- 
ants of cold, more than those of warm climates. We say this is a 
general rule ; for very many exceptions are to be found, in each of 
these particulars. Thus, we not unfrequently find, that one individu- 
al requires more food to support his system than another, of the same 
frame of body and trade, and who partakes of the same degree of exer- 
cise. Jn fact, ene person will support his strength, or even become 
more robust upon the same quantity of food, which will occasion in 
another, debility and emaciation." 

In general, persons eat by far too great quantity of food. The digest- 
ive powers are constantly put upon the stretch, and the ultimate effect 
is, that they become weakened and incapable of converting into nutri- 
ment a quantity of food, essential to a vigorous state of the system. It 
should not be forgotten — an observation we believe of the celebrated 
Dr. Abernethy — that it is not the quantity of food, which is eaten, but 
the quantity digested^ which administers to the support of the body. 
Hence, all that is consumed beyond the point of easy digestion tends 
to load and clog the machine — to impair the energies — and to render it 
less fit for future agreeable movements. The exact point when a per- 
son should lay aside his knife and fork we do not, and cannot perhaps 
determine ; but each one may judge in general, for himself. But if 
he experience any sensation of oppression— any "load at the stomach" 
— he has eaten too much. A single mouthful taken after feeling satis- 
fied, is injurious; indeed, we should contrive to stop short of that 
point. . 

In regard to children, a somewhat different regimen may doubtless 
with safety be adopted. A judicious writer remarks, " whatever regi- 
men you prescribe for children, provided you only accustom them to 
plain and simple food, you may let them eat, run, and play as much as 
they please, and you may be sure they will never eat too much, or be 
troubled with indigestion. But if you starve them half the day, and 
they find means to escape your observation, they will make themselves 
amends, and eat till they are sick, or even burst." 

ABSTIN ENCE. Abstinence is the avoiding or refraining from any 
thing to which there is a natural or habitual propensity. As a reli- 
gious service it has often been enjoined in various systems of religion ; 
but in the present article we design to speak of abstinence in relation 



to its importance to health. As a preventive of disease, too much, 
perhaps, cannot be said in its favor; while wonderful effects, in the 
cure of disease, have been ascribed to it. One of these is recorded in 
the history of Cornaro, a noble Venetian, who, after a life of luxury, 
was, at the age of forty, attacked by a disease attended with mortal 
symptoms; yet he not only recovered, but lived nearly one hundred 
years, from the mere effects of abstemiousness. We are told of several 
individuals that have reached a century, a century and a half, nay, 
have even approached to the age of two centuries, supported on an 
extremely slender diet, which was thought to contribute materially to 
the preservation of their health. It is related of Howard, the celebra- 
ted philanthropist, that he used to fast for the purposes of health, one 
day in ihe week. Franklin for a period did the same. Napoleon, 
when he felt his system unstrung, suspended his wonted repast and 
took exercise on horseback. We are not of the opinion, indeed, of a 
French Physician that it is necessary ahsolutely to fast, in order to at- 
tain old age ; but occasional fasting powerfully tends to renew the en- 
ergies of the system, as the stopping of grinding at the mill presents an 
opportunity for the head waters to increase their power. The above 
Physician, to convince every one of the truth of his proposition, that 
fasting is essential, selects one hundred and fifty-two hermits, or bish- 
ops, who are known to have led a strictly temperate life — frequently 
fasting, and regularly alternating their studies and religious observ- 
ances, with bodily labor, or distant journies, for purposes of charity 
and other duties. These he compares with the same number of acade- 
micians, one half from the Academy of Sciences, and the other half 
from that of Belles-lettres. On the one side, their joint lives amount- 
ed to 11589 years, and on the other only 10511 ; hence he concludes, 
that even frequent fasting would prolong the lives of men of letters 
more than seven years. 

Whatever deductions might be made from the above account, certain 
it is that a moderate diet, with occasional fasting, is essential to unin- 
terrupted health and cheerful spirits. It is related of Sir Isaac Newton, 
that while he was composing his cebbrated treatise on Optics, he con- 
fined himself entirely to bread, with a little sack and water. Gen. El- 
liott, the defender of Gibraltar, during eight of the most anxious days 
of the siege, lived upon four ounces of rice per day. Most of the stand- 
ard works of English literature were composed by men whose circum- 
stances compelled them to adopt a spare diet — they fasted often times 
from necessity, rather than choice ; yet their ideas were doubtless pro- 
portionately more clear — their conceptions more rapid and bold. Pres- 
ident Edwards in his diary records it as the result of his experience, 
that he was more sprightly and healthy, both in body and mind, for the 
practice of self-denial, in eatingand drinking. - By a sparing diet," 
says he, "and eating (as much as may be) what is light and easy of 
digestion, I shall doubtless be able to think clearer and shall gain time, 
first by lengthening out my life. Secondly, shall needless time for di- 
gestion after meals. Thirdly, shall be able to study closer without 
wrong to my health. Fourthly, shall need less time to sleep. Fifthlv, 
shall seldom be troubled with the head-ache/' It was the reply of Car- 
dinal de Sallis, arch-bishop of Seville, who died at the advanced age 
of one hundred and ten years, when asked what rule he had observed 



to preserve his health, " Why," said he, "by being old, when I was 
young, I find myself young, now when I am old." Shakespeare has 
well expressed the same idea in one of his plays. 

" Though I look old, yet I am strong and lusty : 
For in my youth I never did apply 
Hot and rebellious liquors in my blood ; 
Nor did not, with unbashful forehead woo 
The means of weakness and debility. 
Therefore, my age is as a lusty winter — 
Frosty, but kindly." 

As You Like it.— Act II. Scene 3. 

" Most of all the chronical diseases, the infirmities of old age, and the 
short periods of the lives of Englishmen," said Dr. Cheyne, more than a 
hundred years ago, u are owing to repletion." 

" I tell you honesty," says Mr. Abernethy, " what I think is the cause 
of the complicated maladies of the human race : tt it is their gorman- 
dizing, and stuffing, and stimulating their digestive organs to an ex- 
cess, thereby producing nervous disorders and irritation." 

" It is the opinion of the majority of the most distinguished phy- 
sicians," says another medical writer, " that intemperance in diet, de- 
stroys the bulk of mankind ; in other words, that what is eaten and 
drank, and thus taken into the habit, is the original cause of by far 
the greatest number of diseases, which afflict the human race." 

Abstinence, after excessive fatigue, or rather peculiar moderation in 
respect to eating and drinking, is important for all. This perhaps will 
not be doubted, in relation to men of sedentary habits. But its import- 
ance is not much less to farmers, who, after the toils of the day are wont 
to indulge a heightened appetite to complete satiety. This is wrong. 
For however they may think that when the machine is exhausted, it 
requires much refreshment, a slight examination of the effects of reple- 
tion, will be sufficient to condemn the practice. " For after eating and 
drinking copiously under such circumstances," remarks Wallace, in his 
Art of Preventing Diseases, " the system grows dull and heavy, and 
general lassitude comes on ; the pulse grows quick, the face flushes, a 
temporary fever ensues ; the skin is dry — the mouth clammy ; thirst 
attends, and in the place of that recruited strength, alacrity and cheer- 
fulness, they expected to obtain from their hearty meal and night's re- 
pose, they arise in the morning, after a few hours of disturbed sleep, 
weary and depressed with pain, or stiffness in the joints, an aching 
head, and a stomach loathing its accustomed food. Nor can it be oth- 
erwise ; for the digestive powers of the stomach, in that state of ex- 
haustion induced by fatigue, are incapable of performing the task to 
which they are excited : and the load of food which is taken, in place 
of recruiting the strength and activity of the system, is a cause of suf- 
fering and disease, extending from the stomach itself to the residue of 
the system." 

EXERCISE. In our hints to students, we have alluded to the im- 
portant subject of exercise. It deserves, however, a more serious and 
extended notice. At the present day, exercise, temperance, and pure 
air, none of which are costly articles, are considered indispensable to 



health. u These constitute the arcana of health and longevity ; and it 
is curious, that man should so often evince a total disregard for those 
principles on which his existence depends. Exercise of too violent na- 
ture, and a total want of it, are attended with equal disadvantages. 
Violent exercise is very injurious to those persons who are unaccustomed 
to it, particularly where excesses in eating and drinking have been com- 
mitted. All sudden transitions from a state of rest to violent action are 
extremely injudicious, particularly in hot weather. Exercise admit*? 
of being diversified ; viz. walking, running, leaping, swimming, riding, 
different games, gardening, &c. Passive exercise, which consists of 
riding in a carriage, sailing, friction, swinging, &c. is better calculated 
for debilitated constitutions, particularly the asthmatic and consump- 
tive. At all times, that exercise is to be preferred, which, with a view 
to brace and strengthen the body, we are most accustomed to ; and it 
should always be begun and finished gradually. Exercise should never 
be takeil before a meal, when the body is in a state of perspiration, as 
digestion might be thereby retarded ; and for the same reason, it is also 
hurtful if taken immediately after a meal. By walking, the appetite 
and perspiration are promoted ; the mind is enlivened by the change of 
scene, the lungs are strengthened, and the contraction of the legs is re- 
lieved. The inhabitants of large towns require longer walks than those 
who breathe a pure atmosphere; therefore, those who lead sedentary 
lives, or are troubled with nervovs affections, should use daily exercise, 
but it should be that species which is agreeable to the feelings. Exer- 
cise ought only to be continued till an agreeable perspiration is felt ; if 
carried further, instead of the body being strengthened, it will be weak- 
ened. The thirst generally felt after exercise must not be immediately 
satisfied by cooling drink." 

FRICTION. One of the most gentle and useful kinds of exercise, 
is friction of the body, either by the naked hand, a piece of flannel, or, 
what is still better, a flesh brush. This was in great esteem among the 
ancients, and is so at present in the East Indies. The whole body may 
be subjected to this mild operation, but chiefly the belly, the spine, or 
back-bone, and the arms and legs. But, in rubbing the belly, the opera- 
tion ought to be performed in a circular direction, as being most favor- 
able to the course of the intestines, and their natural action. " It should 
be performed," says Sir A. Cooper, "in the morning, on an empty sto- 
mach, or rather in bed, before getting up, and continued, at least for 
some minutes at a time." 

AIR. The air, or atmosphere, which we breathe, is a compound' 
consisting of oxygen and nitroj^eii^ in the proportions of 21 or 22 parts 
of the former to 78 or 79 of the latter. In neither of these elements 
alone could we live ; by the former, we should be so exhilarated, as 
quickly to exhaust our vital powers ; in the latter we should die instant- 
ly. But Providence has so proportioned them, as to render them fitted 
for respiration, and in that proportion they contribute to health. 

Whenever the above proportion of oxygen is seriously altered, or its 
due supply withheld, the lungs must suffer, and with them the heart 
and circulation also. Various causes may operate to injure the vitality 
of the air. In a tight room, candles may consume so much of the ox- 
ygen as to render it less fitted for the purpose of respiration ; or, car- 




bonic acid gas, otherwise called ckoke-damp, may become mingled with 
it, and render it incapable of sustaining life. This often occurs in 
wells and caverns; or, it may become vitiated or impure by being re- 
peatedly breathed, as is sometimes the case, when a large number of 
persons are crowded together, in a small and confined apartment. In 
the process of respiration, air undergoes an important change. Nothing 
is lost, indeed, in respect to weight ; but the oxygen, combining with 
the carbon found in the blood, forms carbonic acid gas, and in that form, 
is the air found, as it issues from the air-cells of the lungs. Hence, it 
soon becomes entirely unfitted for respiration, and incapable of sup- 
porting either life, or combustion. The memorable history of the Eng- 
lish prisoners in Calcutta, who were crowded into a room eighteen feet 
square, parlly under ground, and having only one small opening to the 
light and air of day, is probably familiar to our readers. Of the whole 
number, 146, who were confined in that single apartment, only from 
eight o'clock at night until six tho next' morning, but 23 were living. 
In this case, the heat which was generated, produced a sudden and high 
fever, and the carbonic acid given out by the crowd in breathing, pro- 
duced the awful effects above related. Few persons can estimate the 
importance of pure air to a healthy state of the system, or to persons 
who are suffering under disease, especially fevers. Apartments in 
which the sick are confined, should in general be well ventilated, and 
this may be easily effected, without exposing the patient to a current of 
air, which is always to be avoided. 

SLEEP. If exercise be important and even indispensable to health* 
as has been remarked in a preceding article, not less so is sleep ; and 
constituted as we are, it is a wise provision of the Author of Nature, 
that night comes at proper intervals, when the exhausted energies of 
the system may be revived by " tired nature's sweet restorer." And 
here it may be observed, in borrowed language, that " night is evidently 
the period appropriated by nature for repose, and general experience has 
proved that it is the only one during which we can, with certainty, ob- 
tain that sound, sweet, and refreshing slumber, so necessary for the 
preservation of health. Sleeping during the day is, indeed, on many 
accounts, a pernicious practice, which should be carefully avoided, ex- 
cepting under particular circumstances of disease, or when a sufficient 
amount of repose cannot be obtained at the natural periods. This, 
however, does not apply to infants. For the first months after birth, a 
healthy child sleeps full two thirds of its time. This propensity re- 
quires to be indulged by day as well as by night ; but, with judicious 
management, it may be brought, in a short time, to require and enjoy 
repose during the latter period only. Young children, when fatigued 
by exercise, will also, in general, be found inclined to sleep during the 
day ; from indulging them in a short repose, under such circumstances, 
no bad effects can result, provided their clothing be perfectly loose, so 
that every part of their bodies is freed from bands or ligatures. 

" The popular maxim, l early to bed and early to rise,' is one which 
should be rigidly observed by every individual. It has been remarked 
that, in the natural state, the disposition to sleep usually comes on soon 
after the commencement of darkness ; and, according to the oldest and 
most accurate observers, three or four hours' sleep before midnight, is 
very nearly as refreshing as double that portion in the morning. Per- 



sons who spend the day in manual labor, or active exercise in the open 
air, with great difficulty keep awake for a few hours after the night 
has closed in ; and this disposition to early sleep is, perhaps, one of the 
strongest indications of perfect health. 

u Early rising is equally important to the health of the system as 
early rest. On no account should any one permit himself to again 
slumber, after the moment of his first awaking in the morning, whether 
this happen at the early dawn, or before the sun has risen ; even though 
from accident or unavoidable causes he may not have enjoyed his six 
or eight hours of repose. It is much better to make up the deficiency, 
if necessary, at some other time, than to attempt taking another nap. 
Whoever shall accustom himself thus to rise, will enjoy more undis- 
turbed sleep during the night, and awake far more refreshed, than those 
who indolently slumber all the morning. 

" Even this second nap is, however, by no means so injurious to 
health, as the practice of continuing in bed of a morning, long after 
waking ; nothing tends, especially in children, and young persons gen- 
erally, more effectually to unbrace the solids, exhaust the spirits, and 
thus to undermine the vigor, activity, and health of the system, than 
such a practice. 

" Let any one, who has been accustomed to lie in bed till eight or nine 
o r clock, rise by live or six, spend an hour or two in walking, riding, or 
any active diversion in the open air, and he will find his spirits more 
cheerful and serene throughout the day, his appetite more keen, and 
his body more active and vigorous. 

" No one should retire to rest immediately after a full meal, or in an 
agitated state of mind. Indeed, after a light supper, at least two hours 
ought to elapse before bed-time ; and as a requisite for sound and invi- 
gorating repose, it is necessary to banish all anxious, gloomy, or de- 
pressing ideas and thoughts, and every species of mental exertion. To 
the same intent, every circumstance calculated to excite the senses 
should be removed. The pernicious practice, adopted by many, of 
reading in bed until they fall asleep, is particularly to be avoided. In 
place of this dangerous expedient to invite sleep, it would be more salu- 
tary to walk up and down the room for a few minutes, or to partake of 
any other gentle exercise. Fortunately, however, the individual who 
lives a life of temperance and virtue, and partakes daily of sufficient 
active exercise, requires no opiate to lull him to repose : 

On him the balmy dews 

Of sleep with double nutriment descend." 

SLEEPING APARTMENTS. A sleeping apartment is one of the 
most important rooms in a house ; and cannot well fail to have either a 
beneficial or injurious influence upon the health, as it is well or ill suited 
to the purpose to which it is appropriated. 

" It is all important," observes the Journal of Health, " that the lar- 
gest and most lofty room, upon the second floor, be appropriated for the 
sleeping apartment, and that it be freely ventilated, during the day 
time, at all seasons, when the weather is not rainy, or otherwise very 
humid. There are few houses, the rooms of which are so situated as 
to render the latter impracticable ; and the influence of the practice up- 



on the health of the inmates is too important to permit its being neg- 
lected from any slight cause. 

" A bed-chamber should be divested of all unnecessary furniture, 
and, unless, of considerable size, should never contain more than one 
bed. There cannot be a more pernicious custom, than that pursued in 
many families, of causing the children, more especially, to sleep in 
small apartments, with two or three beds crowded into the same room- 

"The practice of sleeping in an apartment which is occupied during 
the day is extremely improper. Perfect cleanliness and a sufficiently 
free vcntillation cannot, under such circumstances, be preserved, espe- 
cially duiing cold weather ; hence, the atmosphere becomes constantly 
more and more vitiated, and altogether unfitted for respiration. 

"A person accustomed to undress in a room without fire, and to 
seek repose in a cold bed, will not experience the least inconvenience, 
even in the severest weather. The natural heat of his body will very 
speedily render him even more comfortably wann, than the individual 
who sleeps in a heated apartment, and in a bed thus artificially warmed, 
and who will be extremely liable to a sensation of chilliness as soon as 
the artificial heat is dissipated. But this is not all — the constitution of 
the former, will be rendered more robust, and far less susceptible to the 
influence of atmospherical vicissitudes, than that of the latter. 

" All must be aware, that in the coldest w T eather, a fire in the bed- 
chamber can only be necessary during the periods occupied in dressing; 
and undressing. When the individual is in bed, it is not only altoge- 
ther useless, but to a certain extent injurious. It might be supposed* 
however, that bad effects would result from rising out of a warm bed, 
of a morning, in a cold chamber. We are assured, however, that if the 
business of dressing be performed with rapidity, and brisk exercise be 
taken, previously to entering a warm apartment, they who would pur- 
sue this plan would render themselves less dependent for comfort up- 
on external warmth — a circumstance of very great importance as a 
means of guarding against colds, coughs, and consumptions. 

" We would advise those who are so excessively delicate as to be in- 
capable of passing a few minutes, morning and evening, in a cold room, 
to seek some more genial climate — to such our winter cannot fail to be 
a season of constant suffering, if not of actual danger, 

u A practice equally imprudent with that of occupying a heated bed- 
chamber during cold weather, is the one very commonly pursued, of 
attempting to reduce the temperature of this apartment in summer, by 
leaving the windows open at night. Many persons have experienced 
serious and irreparable injury to their health, by being in this manner 
subjected, whilst asleep, to a current of cold air from without. 

" While a free admission of air is permitted throughout the day, the 
direct rays of the meridian sun, being, however, at the same time, as 
much as possible excluded, the windows of the bed chamber should be 
invariably closed after night." 

BEDS. Writers on the means of preserving health, have much to* 
say, and not without reason, upon the subject of beds. Few, perhaps,, 
are sufficiently aware of the enervating tendency of feather beds, espe- 
cially for youth ; and even for persons of maturer years, it cannot rea- 
sonably be doubted, that they greatly impair the strength, especially u* 



the warmer season, by increasing the heat to an unnatural degree, and 
inducing a more profuse perspiration, than is consistent with the con- 
tinuance of health. 

The best bed, under almost any circumstances, is a mattrass compos- 
ed of hair or moss. Cotton, however, will answer well. With a pro- 
per amount of covering, such a bed will be found sufficiently warm for 
health and comfort, during even the severest nights of winter. 

Should it be said that an exception should be made in respect to in- 
fants, it may be observed that during infancy a greater degree of warmth 
is at all times demanded than is necessary, or would be proper, in after 
life ; but, as an infant should never be allowed to sleep alone, it can al- 
ways be preserved of a sufficient temperature, without having recourse 
to the doubtful expedient of subjecting it to immersion in a bed of 

u Doctor Darwin has advised that young children " should not lie on 
very hard beds, as it may occasion them to rest on too few parts at a 
time, which hardens these parts by pressure, and prevents their propor- 
tionate growth." A bed, such as is here described, would most un- 
doubtedly be improper at any period of life. There is a very material 
difference, however, between a soft and elastic mattrass, and a bed so 
hard as to occasion uneasiness to the parts with which it is in contact. 
From sleeping on the former, even the most delicate need not be de- 
terred, by any apprehensions of the injurious consequences to which the 
doctor alludes. 

" If ever feather beds be admissible, it is in the case of the aged, who 
are nearly as susceptible to the influence of cold as infants ; to such, 
therefore, a warm bed is often a matter of indispensable comfort. 

" Feather pillows are not less injurious than feather beds* By pre- 
serving the head of an immoderate warmth, they are apt to induce ca- 
tarrhs, and, in the young, may become the remote or exciting cause of 
inflammation in the ear — eruptions — pain of the head, or even more 
serious diseases. For the same reason, all coverings for the head at 
night, excepting in the instance of females who are accustomed to wear 
a cap during the day, are productive of bad effects. Children, there- 
fore, of both sexes, should be accustomed from an early age to sleep 
with the head bare — the covering with which nature has, in general, so 
plentifully supplied this portion of the body, being amply sufficient to 
protect it from cold. 

" After what has been said above, upon the injurious tendency of sub- 
jecting the body to an undue degree of heat, during the period of re- 
pose, cautions against an excess of bed clothes would appear unnecessa- 
ry. It is all important that the body be covered with a sufficiency of 
clothing to preserve it comfortably warm ; and this may be effected 
during health, and in individuals accustomed to exercise, by fewer blan- 
kets, coverlets, aud comfortables than many are accustomed to pile upon 
the bed. 

" So injurious is an excess of heat, during repose, esteemed by Dr. 
Beddoes, that he has advised, and with great propriety, that young 
persons, especially when they present symptoms of languor and debili- 
ty, or complain of unrefreshing sleep, should be examined when in bed, 
■* and if found too warm, awakened without compunction." — The bed 




clothes should then be thrown off, " or if the dry heat of the surface be 
considerable," he adds, "it will be best to walk up and down the room 
in a dress so contrived as to guard the extremities from chill, while it 
permits the residue of the body to be freely ventilated." Cool rooms 
— mattresses, and light bed clothes, will in all cases prevent the neces- 
sity of having recourse to the expedient here directed. 

w A proper night-dress is an object of no little importance. — A loose 
flannel gown for winter, and one of muslin for summer, will be found 
the most proper, more especially for children. No part of the clothing 
worn during the day ought, in fact, to be retained at night. Those, in 
particular, who are accustomed to wear flannel will find it advantageous 
to dispense with it whilst in bed — or to exchange it for an under-dress 
of cotton. Whatever dress is adopted, it should be free from every 
species of ligature, particularly at those parts which encompass the 
neck or the extremities. This is an all important caution, from a neg- 
lect of which serious injury has repeatedly resulted. 

" Closely shrouding a bed with curtains, is one of those numerous 
instances in which the requisitions of fashion are found to be opposed 
to health. By preventing a free circulation of the air, they oblige the 
individual who reposes within them, to breathe an atmosphere vitiated 
by repeated respiration. They become likewise receptacles for fine 
particles of dust, which are liable to be inhaled during sleep, whenever 
disturbed by the motion of the curtains or of the bedstead : this alone 
according to Wiliich, is a cause to which many young persons may re- 
fer the first developement of a consumptive attack. 

" Equally pernicious is the practice of sleeping with the face envel- 
oped in the bed-clothes, as well as that most ridiculous custom, so pre- 
valent in this country, of suspending a curtain over the front of an in- 
fant's cradle. 

u Their own feelings might be supposed sufficient to induce all to as- 
sume in bed that position, in which every portion of the body will be 
left the freest from constraint ; yet in the case of children, some cau- 
tions may be necessary, in order to prevent an awkward position from 
being indulged in, calculated to produce a prejudicial effect upon the 
symmetrical growth arid perfect developement of the system. Hence 
it is prudent when young persons lie upon their backs, to reduce the 
size of the pillows, in order to guard against a contortion of the spine ; 
while lying on the side requires pillows sufficiently large to fill up the 
space between the head and point of the shoulder. A constrained po- 
sition, if it have no other bad effect, is a certain preventive to sound 
and refreshing sleep. 

" Beds should never be placed upon the floor, as it is well known that 
in all apartments occupied by living beings, the inferior portions of the 
atmosphere are always the most impure. The most wholesome situa- 
tion for the bed is in the middle of the room, and raised some feet from 
the floor. From the vitiated state of the atmosphere immediately 
above the latter, and the great importance of a free ventilaton, the 
practice of placing the children's bed beneath another bedstead during 
the day, cannot be too severely reprobated." 

CLEANLINESS. It would be quite idle to attempt to prove, in a 
formal manner, the importance of cleanliness to individual comfort and 



health ; because he who should soberly maintain the contrary, would 
be entitled to no better appellation than that of a fool, or a madman. 

On viewing the surface of the skin, even with the naked eye, we find 
it porous; but, by means of a good glass, these pores will be discovered 
to be very numerous. The object of these pores is to give out perspi- 
ration, and when abundant, it appears in what is called sweat. Besides 
this, there is also a discharge of an oily fluid, also carbonic acid gas, 
and nitrogen or azote. These discharges are all essential to health. 
Hence, when the pores become closed by the disuse of water, or from 
any other cause, colds, rheumatisms, eruptions, &c. are the conse- 
quence, i 

Shall we wonder, therefore, that medical writers insist so much on 
the importance of frequent ablutions, and on a change of linen in re- 
spect to our persons, beds, &c. Hufeland, a distinguished writer, gives 
us the following rules for preserving cleanliness, and a sound state of 
the skin, and which, in his opinion, if properly observed, would tend to 
the prolongation of life. 

1. " Remove carefully every thing that the body has secreted, as cor- 
rupted or prejudicial. This may be done by changing the linen of- 
ten ; daily, if it be possible, and also the bed clothes, or at least the 
sheets; by using instead of a feather bed, a mattress, which attracts 
less dirt; and by continually renewing the air in apartments, and par- 
ticularly in one's bed-chamber. 

2. " Let the whole body be washed daily with cold water, and rub 
the skin strongly at the same time, by which means it will acquire a 
great deal of lite and vigor. 

3. " One ought to bathe once a week, the whole year through, in te- 
pid water ; and it will be of considerable service to add to it some 

BATHP< T G. Bathing is a practice coeval with mankind. The an- 
cient Greeks, Romans, and Germans, as well as the Persians, Turks, 
and especially the modern Egyptians, enjoy the comforts and luxuries 
procured by bathing, in a degree of which we can scarcely form an ad- 
equate conception. Considered as a species of universal domestic reme- 
dy, as one which forms the basis of cleanliness, bathing, in its differ- 
ent forms, may be pronounced one of the most extensive and beneficial 
restorers of health and vigor. Baths may be considered as cold, cool, 
warm, and hot. 

COLD BATHS. Cold baths are those of a temperature varying 
from the 33d to the 55th degree of Fahrenheit's thermometer. The 
general properties of the cold bath, consist in its power of contracting 
the animal fibres, and imparting action and energy to the system. It 
cannot be resorted to, however, with advantage and safety in certain 
cases, as — 1. "In a full habit of body, or what is called general pletho- 
ra, on account of the frequent febrile disposition attending such indi- 
viduals. 2. In hemorrhages or fluxes of blood, open wounds or ul- 
cers, and every kind of inflammation, whether external or internal. 3. 
In obstructions of the intestines, or habitual costiveness. 4. In affec- 
tions of the breast and lungs, such as difficult respiration, short and dry 
coughs, &c. 5. When the whole mass of the fluids appears to bevitta- 



ted, or tainted with a peculiar acrimony, which cannot be easily defin- 
ed, but is obvious from a sallow color of the face, slow healing of the 
flesh when cut or bruised, and from a scorbutic tendency of the whole 
body. 6. In gouty and rheumatic paroxisms. 7. In cutaneous erup- 
tions, which tend to promote a critical discharge of humours by the 
pores. U. During pregnancy. And, 9. In a distorted or deformed 
state of the body, except in particular cases to be ascertained by profes- 
sional men." 

In respect to the cold bath, the following things should be observed. 
1. " Itis a vulgar error, that it is safer to enter the water when the bo- 
dy is coo/, and that persons heated by exercise, and beginning to per- 
spire, should wait till they are perfectly cooled. Thus, by plunging in- 
to it, in this state, an alarming and dangerous chillness frequently seizes 
them, and the injury sustained is generally ascribed to their going into 
it too warm ; while it doubtless arises from the contrary practice. 
Dr. J. Currie, of Liverpool, in his valuable " Treatise on the effects of 
Water in Fevers" says, with equal truth and precision, that " in the 
earlier stages of exercise, before profuse perspiration has dissipated the 
heat, and fatigue debilitated the living power, nothing is more safe, 
according to my experience, than the cold bath. This is so true, that I 
have, for some years, constantly directed infirm persons to use such a 
degree of exercise, before immersion, as may produce some increased 
action of the vascular system, with some increase of heat, and thus se- 
cure a force of reaction under the shock, which otherwise might not al- 
ways take place. But, though it be perfectly safe to get into the cold 
bath in the earlier stages of exercise, nothing is more dangerous than 
this practice, after exercise has produced profuse perspiration, and ter- 
minated in languor and fatigue ; because, in such circumstances, the 
heat is not only sinking rapidly, but the system parts more easily with 
the portion that remains. 5 ' In short, it is a rule, liable to no exception, 
that moderate exercise ought always to precede cold bathing, to pro- 
mote the re-action of all the vessels and muscles, on entering the wa- 
ter ; for neither previous rest, nor exercise to a violent degree, are pro- 
per on this occasion. 

2. The duration of every cold bathing applied to the whole body 
ought to be short, and must be determined by the bodily constitution, 
and the sensations of the individual ; for healthy persons may continue 
much longer in it than valetudinarians ; and both will be influenced by 
the temperature of the air, so that in summer they can enjoy it for an 
hour, when, in spring or autumn, one or two minutes may be sufficient. 
Under similar circumstances, cold water acts on aged and lean persons 
with more violence than on the young and corpulent ; hence the former, 
even in the hottest days of summer, can seldom with safety remain in 
the bath longer than a quarter of an hour, while the latter are generally 
able to sustain its impressions for double that time. 

3. The head should first come in contact with the water, either by 
immersion, pouring water upon it, or covering it for a minute with a 
wet cloth, and then diving head foremost into the water. 

4. As the immersion will be less felt when it is effected suddenly ; 
and as it is of consequence that the first impression should be uniform 
over the body, we must not enter the bath slowly or timorously, but 
with a degree of boldness. A contrary method would be dangerous ; 



as it mi^ht propel the blood from the lower to the upper parts of the 
body, and thus occasion a fit of apoplexy. For these reasons the show 
nrbalk'is attended with considerable advantages, because it transmits 
the water quickly over the whole body ; and, consequently, is more 
consistent with the rules before mentioned. 

5. The morning is the most proper time for using the cold bath, un- 
less it be in a river : in which case the afternoon, or from one to two 
hours before sunset, will be more eligible ; as the water has then ac- 
quired additional warmth from the rays of the sun, and the immersion 
will not interfere with digestion ; on the whole, one hour after a light 
breakfast, — or two hours before, or four hours after dinner, are the best 
periods of the day for this purpose. 

6. While the bather is in the water, he should not remain inactive, 
but apply brisk general friction, and move his arms and legs, to pro- 
mote the circulation of the fluids from the heart to the extremities. It 
would, therefore, be extremely imprudent to continue in the water till 
a second chillness attacks the body ; a circumstance which would not 
only defeat the whole purpose intended, but might, at the same time, 
be productive of the most injurious effects. 

Immediately after the person leaves the bath, it will be necessary for 
him to wipe and dry his body with a coarse and clean cloth. He should 
not afterwards sit inactive, or enter a carriage, unless warmly clothed 
and wearing flannel next the skin ; if season and circumstances permit, 
it will be more proper, and highly beneficial, to take gentle exercise 
till the equilibrium of the circulation be restored, and the vessels, a* 
well as the muscles, have acquired a due degree of re-action. 

The best place for cold bathing is in the invigorating water of the 
sea, or a clear river ; and where neither of these can be conveniently 
resorted to, we recommend the Shower Bath. Its effects are doubtless 
more powerful than those of the common bath : and though the latter 
covers the surface of the body more uniformly, yet this circumstance 
by no means detracts from the excellence of the former : because those 
intermediate parts, which the water has not touched, receive an elec- 
tric and sympathetic impression, in a degree similar to those brought 
into actual contact. As every drop of water from the shower bath op- 
erates as a partial cold bath, its vivifying shock to robust individuals is 
more extensive and beneficial than from any other method of bathing. 

Hence this bath is possessed of the following important advantages ; 
1. The sudden contact of the water may be repeated, prolonged, and 
modified at pleasure. 2. The head and breast are tolerably secure, as 
it descends towards the lower extremities : thus, the circulation is not 
impeded, breathing is less affected, and a determination of blood to the 
head and breast is effectually obviated. 3. As the water descends in 
single drops, it is more stimulating and pleasant than the usual immer- 
sion, and can be more readily procured and adapted to circumstances. 
And, 4. The degree of pressure from the weight of water is here, like- 
wise, in a great measure prevented ; nor is the circulation of the fluids 
interrupted so as to render the use of this bath in any degree danger- 
ous ; — a circumstance of the highest importance, because, by the ordi- 
nary immersion, persons are often exposed to injuries which they least 



COOL BATHS may be called those which arc of a temperature be- 
tween the 56th and 76th degrees of Fahrenheit's scale. They are of 
great service in all cases where cold bathing has before been recom- 
mended, and require nearly similar precautions. As their influence, 
however, on first entering them is less violent, though their subsequent 
effect may be attended with equal advantages, it follows, that even 
persons of a more delicate organization may resort to them with great- 
er safety. 

With respect to rules for cool bathing, we refer the reader to those 
stated in the preceding article ; and shall only remark, that notwith- 
standing its effects are less perceptible while the body continues in 
the water, it is necessary that the bather, on coming out of it, should 
be wiped dry with the greatest expedition, to prevent catarrhal affec- 

WARM BATHS, are such as have the temperature above the 76, 
and not exceeding the 96 or 98 degree of Fahrenheit's thermometer. 
" Physicians, as well as patients, have hitherto been too generally ac- 
customed to consider a warm bath as weakening the body, and useful 
only for the removal of certain diseases, especially those of the skin. 
Experience, however, has amply proved, that there can be no safer and 
more efficacious remedy, in a variety of chronic or inveterate com- 
plaints, than the warm bath, if properly used, and continued for a 
sufficient length of time. Instead of heating the human body, as has 
erroneously been asserted, it has a cooling effect, insomuch as it obvi- 
ously abates the quickness of the pulse, and reduces the pulsations in 
a remarkable degree, according to the length of time the patient con- 
tinues in the water. After the body has been overheated by fatigue 
from travelling, violent exercise, or from whatever cause, and likewise 
after great exertion or perturbation of mind, a tepid bath is excellently 
calculated to invigorate the w T hole system, while it allays those tem- 
pestuous and irregular motions, which otherwise prey upon, and at 
length reduce the constitution to a sick-bed. Its softening and assua- 
sive power greatly tends to promote the growth of the body ; on which . 
account it is peculiarly adapted to the state of such youth as manifest 
a premature disposition to arrive at a settled period of growth; and it 
has uniformly been observed to produce this singular effect in all cli- 

HOT BATHS are those which have a temperature above 93 or 100 
degrees of Fahrenheit, and are occasionally increased to 110 or 120 de- 
grees, and upwards, according to the particular nature of the case, and 
the constitution of the patient. There can be no stated rules laid 
down for its use, as every thing depends upon the particular circum- 
stances of each patient. No prudent person will, we trust, have re- 
course to a hot bath without medical advice. 

CONTAGION, or infection, is the communication of disease from 
one body to another. Without entering into the disputed points on 
this subject, it is probable, without debate, that some diseases are con- 
tagious ; and hence the propriety of certain rules to be observed in the 
apartments of those who are confined by infectious disease. 

1. It is of the utmost importance to the sick, and their attendants, 
that there be a constant admission of fresh air into the room, and es^ 



pecially about the patient's bed. The door, or a window, should there- 
fore be kepf open both day and night, care being taken to prevent the 
wind from blowing directly on the patient. 

2. An attention to cleanliness is indispensable. The linen of the 
patient should be often changed ; and the dirty clothes, <fcc. should be 
immediately put into fresh cold water, and afterwards well washed. 
The floor of the room should be cleansed every day with a mop, and 
all discharges from the patient should be immediately removed, and 
the utensils washed. 

3. Nurses and attendants should endeavour to avoid the patient's 
breath, and the vapor from the discharges ; or, when that cannot be 
done, they should hold their breath for a short time. They should 
place themselves, if possible, on that side of the bed from which the 
current of air carries off the infectious vapors. 

4. Visiters should not come near to the sick, nor remain with them 
longer than is absolutely necessary ; they should not swallow the spit- 
tle, but should clear the mouth and nostrils when they leave the room. 

4. No dependence should be placed on vinegar, camphor, or other 
supposed preventives, wmich, without attention to cleanliness and ad- 
mission of fresh air are not only useless, but by their strong smell ren- 
der it impossible to perceive when the room is filled with bad air, or 
noxious vapors. 

If these rules be strictly observed, an infectious disease will seldom 
if ever, be communicated; but, if they be neglected, especially where 
the patient is confined to a small room, scarcely one person in fifty who 
may be exposed to it can resist the contagion ; even infants at the 
breast do not escape it, though providentially less liable to be affected 
than adults. 

Since infection originates in close, crowded, and dirty rooms, those 
who make a practice of admitting the fresh air, at some convenient 
time, every day, and of frequently cleansing and fumigating their 
apartments, bedding, furniture, &c, and washing the wall w T ith quick- 
lime, mixed with water, in the room, may be assured they will preserve 
their families from malignant fevers, as well as from other diseases. 
The process of fumigation is as follows : 

Take an equal quantity of powdered nitre, and strong vitriolic acid, 
or oil of vitriol, (about six drams of each are sufficient) ; mix them in 
a tea-cup, stirring them occasionally with a tobacco-pipe, or piece of 
glass; the cup must be removed occasionally to different parts of the 
room, and the fumes will continue to arise for several hours. The oil 
of vitriol should be in quantity not iveig/it. 

with the above observation on contagion, it may be proper in this place 
to state, that certain purifying and disinfecting agents have within a 
few years been discovered, and which promise to be of the utmost im- 
portance to the world. These are the chlorides of soda and lime. Al- 
ready have they been extensively used on the Continent, and are be- 
ginning to be used in the United States. By means of these, gutters, 
vaults, sinks, sewers, hospitals, alms-houses, may be entirely purified ; 
and even putrefaction disarmed of its noxious and destructive inrlu- 
t ence. 



The chloride of soda, which is liquid, is more expensive, and more 
powerful than the chloride of lime, which is in form of a white powder, 
and hence the former is applicable to disinfecting 1 operations on a small 
scale. They are both used, mixed with more or less water, according 
to the intention in view. If a body is to be preserved before burial, 
add about a pint of the concentrated chloride of soda to a bucket-fuil 
of water, and cover the body with a sheet dipped in this solution, 
which must be sprinkled occasionally over the corpse. Or if the chlo- 
ride of lime is emplo} 7 ed, make a mixture of about a pound of the 
chloride with two buckets-full of water, and proceed as before. 

For Vaults, take two ounces of the chloride of lime to three or four 
pints of water, and sprinkle from time to time, by means of a watering- 

To preserve the health of workmen employed in common sewers, a 
pound of the chloride of lime should be dissolved in three buckets-full 
of water, and a bucket-full of the solution should be placed by the side 
of the workmen, to be employed by them in washing their hands and 
arms, and moistening their nostrils, and for sprinkling on the filth. 

For Ships, take a spoonful or more of either chloride, add it to a 
bottle of water, and sprinkle the solution in the hold, and over the 

For purifying 1 offensive Water, mix it with the chloride of lime in 
the proportion of one or two ounces of the latter to about sixty-five 
gallons of the former. After being thus disinfected, the water must be 
exposed to the air, and allowed to settle for some time before it can be 

TOBACCO. The chewing of tobacco has been and is still very 
extensive throughout our country, and indeed throughout the world, 
wherever it is known. Extensive however as its use is, and " bewitch- 
ing" as Sir Hans Sloan says it is ; it no longer remains doubtful that 
it is a practice, fraught with almost innumerable evils. Were other 
testimony insufficient, that of the ablest physicians of the country 
should decide the question. M The chewing of tobacco'- says Dr. John 
C. Warren, as quoted by the author of Dyspepsia forestalled and resist- 
ed — u is not necessary or useful in any case, that I know of: and 1 
have abundant evidence to satisfy me, that its use may be discontinued 
without pernicious consequences. The common belief, that it is bene- 
ficial to the teeth, is, I apprehend, entirely erroneous. On the contra- 
ry, by poisoning and relaxing the vessels of the gums, it may impair 
the healthy condition of the vessels, belonging to the membranes of 
the socket, with the condition of which the state of the tooth is closely 

Similarly strong is the testimony of the editors of the Journal of 
Health. '• Tobacco," say they, " is, in fact, an absolute poison. A 
very moderate quantity introduced into the system— even applying the 
moistened leaves over the stomach — has been known very suddenly 
to extinguish life. The Indians of our own country were well aware 
of its poisonous effects, and were accustomed, it is said, on certain oc- 
casions, to dip the points of their arrows in an oil obtained from the 
weaves, which being inserted into the flesh, occasioned sickness and 
tainting, or even convulsions and death. 



It must be evident to every one. that the constant use of an article 
possessing such deleterious properties, cannot fail, at length, to influ- 
ence the health of the system. 

In whatever form it may be employed, a portion of the active princi- 
ples of the tobacco, mixed with the saliva, invariably finds its way into 
the stomach, and disturbs or impairs the functions of that organ. 
Hence, most, if not all, of those who are accustomed to the use of to- 
bacco, labour under dyspeptic symptoms. They experience, at inter- 
vals, a want of appetite — nausea — inordinate thirst — vertigo — nains 

and distention of the stomach — disagreeable sensations of the head 

tremors of the limbs — disturbed sleep, and are more or less emacia- 

Of smoking and snuffing, it will only be necessary to add that the 
practice is followed in general by the same evils which afflict the to- 
bacco chewer. Nor is there any safety or immunity for such pen 
but abstinence — resolute and entire abstinence. 

paid great attention to the subject, has presented us with the follow- 
ing view of the physical, moral and immoral effects of certain liquors 
upon the body and mind of men, which we appropriately assign to this 






--«-■• - - • * — * — * 
Liquors. Upon his body. Upon his mind. Upon his condh 

tion in Society. 

Water, (to which 

' Good appetite, 

A peaceable dispo- 


may be added 



j Reputation 



Sound sleep, 

Serenity of mind, 
•J Industry and 


Molasses and wa- 

■ -§ 

. An agreeable com- 

^ Wealth. 



plexion and long 

Domestic happi- 


Molasses-beer & 



Small beer, 


) f Strength and a 



power in the sys- 

tem to resist the 


extremes of heat 






and cold, provid- 

< Good humour, 




. ed they are taken 

Generosity and 

"j Public and pri- 

Porter and 

in small quanti- 

Social pleasures. 

vate confidence- 

Strong beer, 


ties, and chiefly 
with meals. 


'Tremors in the 

Sickness and puk- 

Quarrelling and 

ing in the morn- 


Poverty, discov- 



Obscene conver- 

ered in a filthy 




house, and in 




ragged cloth- 



Black eyes from 



Red eyes andnose, 




Rose-buds over the 

Broken bones 

Detestation b}' 


whole face, and 

from falls, 

family and 


after a while a 



Bitters made with 


pallid face, 




-a . 

Fetid breath, 





Cursing, blasphe- 

Hard-labour, ' 


A short cough, 



Whiskey and 

Sore and swelled 


A solitary cell. 

Spirits in the 





Pains in the limbs, 


Universal con- 

The same two or 

Burning in the 



three times a 

palms of the 

Picking pockets, 



hands and soals 

House breaking, 

for life, 

The same every 

of the feet, 

Assaults on the 

The Gallows. 

hour in the day, 



and in the 




Loss of memory 
and self respect, 
Palsy, Apoplexy, 
Madness, Death. 


OPIUM AND LAUDANUM. In the hands of the judicious physi- 
cian, opium is a valuable medicine, and both that and laudanum in 
certain cases indispensable. But when taken habitually as they fre- 
quently are to mitigate unpleasant feelings, or remove melancholy, the 
habit is to be placed along side of the disgusting practice of chewing 
tobacco, and what is worse, the awful vice of drinking to excess. In 


"•• ' f 


point of morality it can make little difference whether a person stupi- 
ries his faculties by the use of brandy or opium ; and among men, the 
infamy which is now attached to excess in the use of the former, 
should alike follow excess as to the latter.^ 

" We have indeed few genuine opium eaters among us," observes the 
author of M Dyspepsy Forestalled and Resisted" — more we believe, 
than this author seems to be aware of — "but," continues he " the lau- 
danum and paregoric phial are considered almost indispensable in eve- 
ry family. Nor does the mother hesitate night after night, to quell the 
cries of her infant child, by administering increasing doses of these 
poisons." Less danger, it is believed, results from this practice, than 
this author imagines. It is not that children are so often injured : it is 
older folks. It is " the nervous invalid" and M the delicate votary of 
fashion." And in respect to their habitual use of opium and lauda- 
num, no terms of condemnation are too severe. Truly and even elo- 
quently have the Editors of the Journal of Health expressed their ab- 
horrence of this practice. " However repugnant to our feelings," say 
they, u as rational beings, may be the vice of drunkenness, it is not 
more hurtful in its effects than the practice of taking laudanum." 
" This is not the language of exaggeration or speculative fear. We 
speak from a full knowledge of facts. We repeat it— the person who 
gives into the habit for weeks, (he may not reach to months, or if he 
pass these, his years will be but few and miserable,) of daily measuring 
out to himself his drops of laudanum, or his pills of opium, or the de- 
leterious substance, call it tincture, solution, mixture, potion, what you 
will, is destroying himself, as surely as if he were swallowing arsenic, 
or had the pistol applied to his head. The fire of disease may for a 
while be concealed — he may smile incredulous at our prediction : but 
the hour of retribution will come, and the consequences will be ter* 

WOUNDS are recent divisions of the soft parts of the body, occa- 
sioned by external causes. They are generally divided into five classes, 
viz. incised, lacerated, contused, punctured, and poisoned wounds. We 
propose to offer a few remarks upon the first and last kinds of wounds. 

Incised wounds are those which are cut with a sharp instrument. 
These wounds generally occur suddenly and accidentally ; and not 
unfrequently are of so severe a nature, as to demand immediate atten- 
tion, even before a surgeon can be procured. In such a case, what 
shall be done ? The first step is to stop the bleeding. If an artery be 
cut, the blood is of a bright scarlet color, and gushes from the bleeding 
vessel in a jet, with great force. In this case, the pressure of the 
thumb, or palm of the hand, must be on the side of the wound, next 
the heart ; and if this be not sufficient, pass a handkerchief round the 
limb above the wound, tie its two ends together, and twist it, by means 
of a cane, or stick, until the blood ceases to flow, so as to endanger the 
life of the patient. Now send immediately for a surgeon. 

But, if a surgeon be not to be obtained, and the life of the patient 
be in danger, any discreet person may wax together three or four threads 
of a sufficient length, cut the ligature they form, into as many pieces 
as you think there are vessels to be taken up, each piece being about a 
foot long. Wash the parts with warm water, and then with a sharp 



hook, or a slender pair of pincers in your hand, fix your eye steadfast- 
ly upon the wound, and direct the handkerchief to be relaxed by a turn 
or two of the stick ; you will now see the mouth of the artery from 
which the bl6od springs, seize it with }^our hook or pincers, draw it a 
little out, while some one passes a ligature round it, and ties it up tight, 
with a double knot. In this way, take up in succession every bleeding 
vessel you can see, or get hold of. 

If the wound is too high up a limb to apply the handkerchief, don't 
lose your presence of mind, the bleeding can still be commanded. If 
it is the thigh, press firmly in the groin, if in the arm, with the hand 
end, or ring of a common door-key, make the pressure above the col- 
lar bone, and about its middle against the first rib, which lies under it. 
The pressure is to be continued until assistance is procured, and the 
vessel tied up. 

If the wound is on the head, press your finger firmly on it, until a 
compress can be brought, which must be bound firmly over the artery 
by a bandage. If the wound is in the face, or so situated that pressure 
cannot be effectually made, or you cannot get hold of the vessel, and 
the blood flows fast, place a piece of ice directly over the wound, and 
let it remain there, till the blood coagulates, when it may be removed, 
and a compress and bandage be applied. 

But, if a vein only be cut, and this will be known by the running of 
the blood in an unbroken stream, and of a dark purple, red color* 
cleanse the wound with a soft sponge, and warm water, dry the skin 
with a warm soft cloth, bring the parts neatly and closely together,, 
keeping them in that position by narrow strips of sticking or adhe- 
sive plaster. The number of straps should be in proportion to the ex- 
tent of the wound, and at some little distance from one another, to 
allow the escape of any fluid, which may run from the wound. A soft 
compress of old linen, or lint may be laid over the wound, thus dres- 
sed, and the whole bandaged agreeably tight. Under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, this dressing should not be removed, until the third or 
fourth day, or longer. If pain or heat ensue, wet the part with spirit 
and water. A cooling diet and regimen should be observed, and every 
kind of motion and disturbance of the part avoided. 

Poisoned wounds. By these are meant wounds occasioned by 
the bite of the mad dog, rattle-snake, or by the sting of the wasp, 
hornet, &c. 

The signs of madness in a dog are as follows. At the commence- 
ment he becomes sullen — retires from the family, ceases to bark, but 
growls continually at strangers, and without any apparent cause refu- 
ses to eat, or drink. His gait is unsteady, nearly resembling that of a 
man almost asleep. At the end of three or four days, he abandons 
his dwelling, roving continually in every direction ; he walks or runs* 
as if tipsy, and frequently falls. 

His hair is bristled up ; his eyes haggard, fixed, and sparkling ; his 
head hangs down ; his mouth is open, and full of frothy slaver ; his 
tongue hangs out, and his tail is between his legs. He has for the 
most part, but no* always, a horror of water, the sight of which 
seems generally to redouble his sufferings. He experiences from time- 
to time transports of fury, and endeavors to bite every object v 



presents itself, not even excepting his master, whom, indeed, he begins 
not to recognize. Light and lively colors greatly increase his rage. 
At the end of thirty or thirty-six hours, he dies in convulsions. 

The instant a person is bitten by a mad dog, rattle-snake, or any 
rabid animal, or reptile, he should apply a ligature, by means of the 
stick, above the wound, as tightly as he can well bear it, and without 
hesitation, or delay, cut out the parts bitten, taking along with them a 
portion of the surrounding sound flesh. The wound should then be 
freely touched with caustic, or have turpentine poured into it. A de- 
coction of Spanish flies, in turpentine, may also be applied to the skin 
surrounding the w r ound. By these means inflammation will be exci- 
ted, and suppuration follow, which may prevent the usual dreadful 
consequences of such accidents. As soon as the parts are cut out, 
take off the ligature. 

Should the patient be too timid to allow the use of the knife, burn 
the wound very freely with caustic, and place in it a tuft of tow or 
cotton, well moistened with the above decoction. The discharge of 
matter that follows should be kept up for some time. The only rea- 
sonable chance for safety, is found in the above plan. 

The use of the chlorurets, however, in treating wounds from rabid 
animals, is now becoming general, in France and Germany, and many 
satisfactory cases are recorded. M. Schoenberg, a German surgeon, 
states, that of three persons who w T ere bitten by a dog, two who used 
the chloruret of lime, recovered from their wounds, whilst the third, 
who refused to submit to the treatment, died raving mad. This gen- 
tleman applies to the wounds, twice a day, a piece of lint dipped in a 
solution of the chloruret, and orders his patients to take three times a 
day, from two drachms, to one ounce of the chloruret in water. 

A medicine, highly recommended in hydrophobia, is said to have 
been lately adopted in France, viz. the injection of warm water into the 
veins. To make the employment of the remedy safe, and to prevent 
pressure of the brain, the same quantity of blood should be previously 
abstracted, as it is intended there should be w r ater injected ; with this 
precaution, it is believed the remedy is a very proper one. The blood 
may be set flowing from one vein, while the water is injected at another. 
For the stings of bees, wasps, and hornets, the part may be plunged 
into extremely cold water, where it should be held for some time, or 
which, perhaps is still more effectual, an application may be made of 
hartshorn, or of laudanum. 

Musquito bites may be treated in the same manner, or a solution of 
common salt and water made very strong, will speedily remote the 
pain. Camphorated spirits, vinegar, &c, may also be used for the 
same purpose. A solution of Prussian blue in soft water, with which 
the parts are to be kept constantly moist, is a highly celebrated remedy 
for the stings of bees, w r asps, &zc. &c. 

STRAINS or SPRAINS. An experienced physician holds the 
following language on the subject of strains. 

" Strains are often attended with w T orse consequences than broken 
bones. The reason is obvious ; they are generally neglected. When 
a broken bone is to be healed, the patient is compelled to keep quiet, 




because he cannot do otherwise. Bat when only a joint is strained, 
th-e person finding he can still make a shift to move, is sorry to lose his 
time, for so trifling an accident. In this way he deceives himself, and 
converts into an incurable evil, what might have been removed bv 
keeping the part easy for a few days. 

Country people generally immerse a strained limb in cold water. 
This is very proper, provided it be done immediately, and not continu- 
ed too long ; in which case the parts are relaxed, instead of being- 

Wrapping a bandage around the strained part is also of use. It 
helps to restore the proper tone of the vessels, and prevents the action 
of the pr.rts from increasing the disease. It should not, however, be 
applied too tight. But what we would recommend above all is ease. 
It is more to be depended on, than any medicine, and seldom fails to 
remove the complaint. 

A great many external applications are recommended for sprains, 
some of which do good, and others hurt. The following are such as 
may be used with the greatest safety, viz. camphorated spirit, volatile 
liniment, common fomentations of bitter herbs, with the addition of 
spirit or brandy. 

Previous to other applications, the sprained joint should be immersed- 
in warm soap suds, and rubbed for an hour lightly with the balls of the- 
fingers. The evening is the best time for this operation. 

TREATMENT OF FROZEN LIMBS. To thaw frozen limbs., 
they should be rubbed in snow or water, with ice in it, until sensibility 
and motion return. Dae care should be taken not to break slender 
parts, such as fingers, ears, &c. When feeling and the power of mo- 
tion are restored, continue the friction with brandy, oil of amber, tinc- 
ture of myrrh, or camphorated spirit. Put the patient to bed in a room 
with a fire in it ; give mulled wine ; and in this situation let him re- 
main until a perspiration appears, and a perfect recover}'' of sensibility 
takes place. If the whole body be frozen, the above prescription is tc 
be observed. When signs of life appear, strong volatiles should be 
applied to the nose ; blow into the lungs. Tobacco injections should 
never be used, in cases of suspended animation. 

BURNS and SCALDS. For these, some persons make use of cot- 
ton bats ; and, if the parts are not blistered, and the injury not very 
extensive, the remedy is a good one ; yet children will seldom endure 
the application of cotton wool to any serious burn. It is well to cover 
the surface of the cotton, which is applied to the burn, with olive oil. 

Others recommend the constant application of brandy, vinegar, and 
water mixed together, the bathing to be continued till the pain is gone. 
The celebrated Mr. Abernethy, however, recommends the use of the 
oil of turpentine mixed with basilicon ; at the same time, to give the 
patient some warm wine and a few drops of opium, and afterwards to 
place him in a warm bed. This stimulating plan of treatment, how- 
everts not to be continued after the equilibrium of the temperature is- 
restored. The following application for a burn has been used with 
great success ; viz. olive oil, three ounces ; lime water, four ounces — 
the mixture to be applied to the affected part with a feather, or earners- 
hair pencil. 



Burns produced by gunpowder should have the cause removed by the 
point of a needle to be followed by an emollient poultice to the part af- 
fected. In order that the most correct treatment for burns and scalds 
should be known, Mr. Abernethy lately recommended his pupils to dip 
two of their fingers in boiling water, and let them be fairly scalded ; 
and then take them out, and dip one into a basin of cold water, and 
dress the other with the turpentine and basilicon. M I do not want to 
try, (remarked Mr. A. ;) I have decided already, and therefore have no 
occasion to scald my fingers." In addition to the opinion of Mr. Aber- 
nethy, we beg to subjoin that of Sir A. Cooper. "Lime water and 
milk have been commonly used ; but oil of turpentine is the best appli- 
cation. Give opium and wine, as long as the chilly state continues ; 
but as soon as the heat is developed, and the pulse has recovered its 
power, do not continue it any longer; other means must then be em- 
ployed to reduce the inflammation."' 

DRESS OF CHILDREN. The dress of children should be warm, 
but so soft and pliable as not to obstruct the easy motion of the joints-. 
" The absurd custom,'" observes the Book of Health, M of confining the 
body of the infant by heavy bandages, formerly prevalent, is yielding 
to the more rational dictates of nature and common sense ; but the ri- 
diculous length of clothing in the earlier periods of infancy, still keeps 
its ground, though equally absurd. To the child it is a continual 
source of considerable uneasiness; obstruction is continually made to 
the freedom of circulation and breathing; and the more the child en- 
deavors to relieve itself, the more it wastes its power, and, consequent- 
ly, interferes with its growth. Be careful, therefore, not to increase the 
perspiration to an unnecessary degree. A short shift, and a flannel 
waistcoat tied behind, with a short petticoat sewed to it, and a short 
gown, rather stouter in winter than in summer, are all the clothes which- 
a child requires. If the child be weakly, a flannel shirt may be useful ; 
otherwise, too many clothes will render it tender, and susceptible of the 
least cold. Stockings are an unnecessary appendage, until the child 
be seven or eight months old ; for it is beneficial to expose the legs, arms, 
and breasts of healthy children to the open air : the clothing of infants 
cannot be made too short." 

DIET OF CHILDREN. " Remember, (says Mr. Abernethy,) it is 
not the quantity of food we eat, but the quantity we digest, which af- 
fords the nourishment to our bodies." Over-feeding, as well as im- 
properly feeding of children, is highly injudicious ; therefore the strict- 
est attention ought to be paid to dieting. Fortunate is the child who 
(during the first four months of its existence) is nourished with no oth- 
er aliment than the milk of its mother ; but, if the child be weakly, and 
the mother's milk insufficient, a cup of beef tea, and a crumb of bread 
may be daily given. At four months old, the child may be fed twice 
in the day ; once with biscuits or stale bread, boiled in an equal mix- 
ture of milk and- water, and once with light broth and bread, arrow- 
root, or rice. After the first six months, weak veal or chicken broth 
may be given ; and, progressively, with broth, vegetables which are not 
very flatulent ; viz. carrots, endive, spinage, parsnips, k.c. "When the 
infant is taken early from the breast, the diet should principally con- 
sist of cow's milk warmed, and poured on bread, f first soaked in wa- 
ter,) and of light broth with bread : should the child be purged, the milk 



must be boiled. When the child is weaned, and has acquired its pro- 
per teeth, it will be necessary to let it have small portions of meat and 
vegetables ; also, dishes prepared of flour, as the most simple food is the 
most nutritive. Pastry, confectionary, heavy or compound dishes, 
ought to be withheld, particularly from delicate children. Potatoes 
should be allowed only in moderation, and those not eaten with butter, 
but mashed up with other vegetables. It is advisable to accustom chil- 
dren to a certain regularity in their aliment, by giving them their meals 
at stated periods of the day ; which will render them less subject to de- 
bility and disease, give the stomach time to recover its tone, and to 
collect the juices necessary for digestion. To children of four or five 
years old, animal food may be allowed at dinner; and bread and milk 
night and morning; due regard being, at all times, paid to the health 
and habits of the child. 

SLEEP. "Infants, from the time of their birth, should be encour- 
aged to sleep in the night in preference to the day ; therefore, mothers 
and nurses ought to remove every thing which may tend to disturb 
their rest, and not to attend to every call for taking them up and giving 
food at improper periods. Infants cannot sleep too long; when they 
enjoy a calm, long-continued rest, it is a favorable symptom. Until the 
third year, children generally require a little sleep in the middle of the 
day ; for, till that age, half their time may safely be allotted to sleep. 
Every succeeding year, the time ought to be shortened one hour; so 
that a child seven years old may sleep about ten hours. Children ought 
to rise at six o'clock in the summer, and at seven in the winter. It is 
extremely injudicious to awaken children with a noise, or to carry them 
immediately from a dark room into the glaring light, or against a daz- 
zling wall : the sudden impression of light may debilitate the organs of 
vision, and lay the foundation of weak eyes. — Wet clothes or linen 
should never be allowed to be hung to dry in the bed-room, as an im- 
pure atmosphere is attended with various and often fatal consequences. 
" Banish (says Professor Hufeland) feather beds, as they are unnatural 
and debilitating contrivances." The bedstead should not be placed too 
low on the floor ; and it is highly improper to suffer children to sleep 
on a couch which is made without a sufficient elevation from the 

EXERCISE. "The effort at exercise is both pleasant and service- 
able to a child ; and as it grows up, it is proper to regularly exercise it. 
Children who are perfectly healtjiy are in almost uninterrupted mo- 
tion ; but if exercise, either from its violence or too long duration, ex- 
ceed the proper limits, it naturally quickens the circulation and respi- 
ration, which may occasion the rupture of small blood-vessels and in- 
flammatory diseases. A weakly child ought not to be allowed to stand 
or walk long together ; but should be alternately carried, drawn in a 
vehicle, and invited to walk. If a child seek to put its feet on the 
ground, let it do so ; but do not force it to walk. In the first period of 
life, the exertion of crying is almost the only exercise of the infant; by 
which the circulation of the blood, and all the other fluids, are render- 
ed more uniform ; digestion, nutrition, and the growth of the body, are 
thereby promoted, and the different secretions of the skin (together 
with insensible perspiration) are duly performed. The loud complaints 
of infants deserve attention ; for if their cries be violent and long con- 



tinued, and they draw their legs towards the belly, it may safely be 
concluded, they are troubled with colic pains ; and no time should be 
lost in yielding relief. To endeavor to prevent an infant from crying 
on e7ery occasion, is to do it an irreparable injury ; for, by such mis- 
management, it never acquires a perfectly formed breast, and frequent- 
ly the foundation is laid in the pectoral vessels for obstructions and 
other diseases. If children have been properly exposed to the air from 
infancy, they may, if healthy, be safely exercised in it in all seasons. 
The sooner infants are taken into the air, they become less subject to 
cold, convulsions, disordered bowels, and the rickets, — diseases so fre- 
quent among those who are reared in nurseries." 

WASHING and BATHING. " The benefit to be derived from the 
daily practice of washing a child with cold water from head to foot, is 
almost incredible ; it strengthens the nerves, maintains a sound and 
healthy state of the pores of the skin, and renders the surface of the 
body less susceptible of external impressions. In general, a child may 
be begun to be washed in this manner in the third or fourth week, 
warm water being used till that period, which must be changed for 
cooler, until it be gradually reduced to cold. In frosty weather, a lit- 
tle warm water may be added to the cold. It is highly imprudent to 
wash children directly after they rise from their bed, as the pores are 
then open ; but, in about half an hour afterwards, if they be cool, they 
should be washed quickly. Avoid wetting the skin gradually ; else the 
skin is not excited by the friction. After washing, rub the body until 
it be dry and warm. Delicate children should be washed in the eve- 
ning, and placed in bed immediately afterwards. — In a striking manner 
does the cold bath preserve and promote the health of children; it re- 
freshes and invigorates the organs of the skin, and considerably miti- 
gates the diseases of measles and small-pox. It is proper to begin the 
practice in warm weather, and to continue it through every season af- 
terwards. Delicate and weakly children must be bathed in luke-warm 
water ; but, as they increase in strength, the degree of warmth may be 
diminished. For the first two or three months, the child should re- 
main in the bath for a few minutes only at a time ; which as it grows 
older, may be gradually increased to a quarter of an hour. The body, 
while in the bath, should be gently rubbed with the hand, or a piece of 
sponge, and the greatest care taken in rubbing it dry. If the shock of 
a cold bath appear too powerful for the constitution, bathing in salt 
and water may be substituted. If a child after bathing should feel dis- 
posed to sleep, it may be indulged ; and weakly children using the cold 
bath, may wear a flannel shirt. A child should not be bathed directly 
after eating ; nor, in cold weather, after coming out of the bath, exposed 
to the cold air." 

TEETHING. This is an important and critical period of a child's 
life, and the danger generally increases in proportion to the delay of a 
child's getting its teeth. In general, children begin to cut their teeth 
between the fifth and eighth month. The symptoms attendant upon 
teething are well known ; but many of the evils may be prevented by 
a strict attention to the bowels of the patient ; for if the child be of a 
full habit of body, it is essential to have hem j a lax state. If there 
be considerable fever, the gums may be scarified, and leeches applied 
behind the ears ; but blisters have been used instead of leeches, with 



considerable effect. With strong healthy children, the process of teeth- 
ing" passes off without the least difficulty ; but it is generally the con- 
trary with those who are weak or unhealthy. The practice of giving a 
child a coral, or other hard substance into its hand, cannot be too se- 
verely reprobated; a crust of bread, or a piece of wax candle, will be 
found much better. Opium is sometimes given in order to allay the 
pain and irritation ; but as it is attended with some danger, it ought to 
be prohibited from being used in the nursery, and a tea-spoonful of sy- 
rup of poppies substituted ; and this only in cases of urgency. To ena- 
ble a child to pass easily through this dangerous period, every thing 
that has a tendency to promote general health, and prevent fever, 
should be resorted to ; such as pure air, exercise, nutritious food, &c. 

SUMMER COMPLAINT. This is a disease which is said to de- 
stroy nearly one fourth of all the children who die, in the Middle and 
Southern States. Its chief causes are, doubtless, heated and impure 
air, and errors in regard to diet. Hence, as might be supposed, the dis- 
ease is most prevalent in crowded cities, and among the poorer classes, 
whose children are badly nursed, and especially neglected as to clean- 
liness of their persons and clothing. 

One of the most effectual means, therefore, of preserving children 
from an attack of this complaint, is to seek for them a healthy situa- 
tion in the country, where they can enjoy the benefit of pure air. This, 
however, cannot always be effected — still much may be done by pa- 
rents, who are confined with their families to the city, to prevent this 
disease. In such cases, the children should occupy, always, the largest 
and most airy room in the house ; if possible, on the second|iloor. The 
room should be guarded from exposure to the direct ray- of the sun, 
while a constant and free ventilation is kept up. The utmost cleanli- 
ness must also be observed in the room, as well as in the person and 
clothing of the children. 

During the summer months, the daily use of the cold or tepid bath, 
while it ensures the cleanliness of the skin, is a very powerful means 
of preventing this disease. It should not, therefore, be neglected, pro- 
vided there is no circumstance connected with the health and constitu- 
tion of the child to forbid its employment. 

In clear weather, and in the cool of the day, children should be fre- 
quently carried abroad, in the most open and Healthy parts of the neigh- 
borhood ; or, when the parents have it in their power, a considerable 
benefit will be derived from repeated rides in an open carriage, into the 
neighboring country. 

HOOPING COUGH. This is a disease distinguishable from all 
others by its shrill whoop, and which is terminated by vomiting; and 
is also indicated by a slight difficulty of breathing, hoarseness, &c. 

In general, it is sufficient to guard the child from taking cold, and 
from eating to repletion. If the attack, however, be more than ordina- 
rily severe, an emetic of ipecacuanha in the morning, and a gentle pur- 
gative during the day, will prove extremely serviceable. Small doses 
of elixir paragoric with ipecac orantimonial wine may be occasionally 
and beneficially administered. It is recommended, also, to give roasted 
apples, stoned prunes, &c, and frequently to bathe the feet in warm 
water. The vapor arising from a quantity of hot water, into which a, 



little vinegar or ether has been put, may be beneficially inhaled. A 
teaspoonful of equal portions of linseed oil and flour of sulphur is some- 
times found useful. This quantity may be given to a child under four 
years of age. Vaccination is now often practised as an effectual reme- 
dy for the hooping cough. Change of air is at all times important, and 
if practicable, the sea-coast should be visited in severe cases. Flannel, 
next the skin is very beneficial; a light diet should be used ; and when 
the patient is in bed, his head and shoulders must be raised. Parents 
ought to pay the greatest attention, when the cough comes on, by bend- 
ing the patient a little forward, which will be of great service, and guard 
against suffocation. Cold bathing has been attended with the most 
beneficial results. 

CROUP. This is a disease generally confined to children, and which 
comes on, imperceptibly and suddenly. The first indications of it are 
a hoarse dry cough and wheezing, which is followed by rattling in the 
throat. No time should be lost in obtaining medical aid ; yet while the 
physician is coming, something should be attempted. A distinguished 
physician recommends the giving of emetics of ipecac, and oxymel of 
squills between ; the former as often as every two hours at least ; 
warm bath often repeated ; a blister put between the shoulder blades : 
calomel two grains, doses every two hours. For children above eight 
years old, the calomel may be increased to six, eight and ten grains, 
according to the severity of the disease. A strong decoction of seneca 
(or snaked root, frequently taken into the mouth in small quantities, 
has been successfully used to promote a separation of the films and co 
agula that form and adhere to the windpipe and cells of the lungs. 
The decoction is made by boiling an ounce of seneca root in two pints 
of water down to a pint, and then straining. In all cases of croup, the 
child must be kept nearly upright in bed, to guard against suffocation. 
If the child be threatened with suffocation, sneezing may be excited by 
introducing strong snuff up trie nostrils by means of a camel-hair pen- 

MEASLES. This disease is contagious, and spreads widely by its 
effluvia. It commences, observes Dr. Clutterbuck, with symptoms of 
sneezing, red and watery eyes, and a short, dry, hoarse cough ; which 
symptoms continue for some time, after the eruption has disappeared. 
Frequently the inflammation extends to the substance of the lungs, giv- 
ing rise to difficulty of breathing, with a pain in the chest, and a founda- 
tion is often laid for the pulmonary consumption. As the inflammation 
of the nose, eyes^ and- throat declines with the other symptoms, it is of 
little consequence ; and unless the habit or mode of treatment be bad, 
the disease seldom proves fatal. It differs much in different seasons ; 
and its most frequent consequences are the various forms of scrofula, 
obstinate sores, and a weak and inflamed state of the eyes : the continu- 
ance of inflammation in the chest, in a chronic form, is another source 
of danger, which ought to be carefully guarded against. On the fourth 
day small red pimples appear, first on the face, spreading over the whole 
body ; the pimples hardly elevated above the surrounding skin, but by 
the touch are found to be a little prominent. On the fifth or sixth day, 
they turn brown, and disappear with the peeling otf of the scarf-skin, 
,Mild cases of measles require only careful nursing, and a free expecto* 




ration, by means of mild purgatives, diluting drinks, and a spare, low 
diet. Barley water, tamarind tea, and any thing of a simple nature 
should be taken freely ; but fermented liquors, and every kind of animal 
food, must be avoided. All the drink should be tepid. When the 
measles suddenly disappear, every exertion must be made, in order to 
restore the eruption. The patient must be placed in a warm bath, and 
warm wine and water, with ten drops of antimonial wine, frequently 
given. It may, also, be necessary to apply blisters to the inside of the 
thighs or legs, and to the throat. After the patient has recovered, it 
will be expedient to give two or three doses of cooling, opening medi- 
cines, and to cautiously avoid exposure to cold. 



POISONS may be denned substances which prove fatal to the life of 
animals, whether taken by the mouth, mixed with the blood, or applied 
to the nerves by friction of the skin, or other means. Most of the sub- 
stances called poisonous are only so in certain doses ; when given in 
smaller quantities, they are, many of them, active medicines. Others 
are fatal in the smallest quantities ; such are those of hydrophobia and 
the plague. 

As we cannot treat of poisons at large, we think our object will be 
best accomplished by the following tabular statements ; the first column 
containing the names of the poisons ; the second the symptoms, and the 
last the remedies. But we nevertheless advise, in every case where 
poisons have been taken, recourse to the best medical assistance at 




CONCENTRA- Burning pain, vomiting ; Calcined magnesia ; one ounce 

TED ACIDS: , matter thrown up effer- to a pint of warm or cold water. A 

The vitriolic or sul- vescing with chalk, salt glassful to be taken every two mi- 

phuric, nitric, muri- of tartar, lime or mag- nutes, so as to excite vomiting. 

atic, oxalic, &c. nesia. Soap, or chalk and water : muci- 

laginous drinks afterwards, such as 
lint-seed tea or gum-arabic and wa- 

ALKALIES: Nearly the same: the Vinegar or lemon-juice; a spoon- 

Potash, Soda, am- ejected matter does not ful or two in a glass of water very 

.monia, lime, &c. effervesce with alkalies, frequently ; simply warm water. ' 
but acids. 







MERCURIAL Sense of constriction in White of e°-gs ; twelve or fifteen 

PREPARA- the throat ; matter vomit- eggs beaten up, and mixed with a 

TIONS: ed sometimes mixed with quait of cold water. A glassful 

Corrosive subli- blood. every three minutes ? milk, gum 

mate,&c. water, lintseed tea. 

ARSENICAL Extreme irritation, Warm water with sugar, in large 

PREPARA- pain, sickness, and speedy quantities, to excite vomiting. 

TIONS : death, if the poison be not Lime-water, soap and water, pearl- 

White arsenic, &c. soon counteracted. ash and warer.mucilaginous drinks. 


Brass, verdigris, 
halfpence, &c. 

Symptoms nearly the 
same as from mercury. 

White of eggrs ; mucilaginous 
drinks. See Mercurial Pre- 
parations, above. 

PREPARA- Extreme sickness, with 

TIONS of ANTI- other symptoms of poison, 

MONY : as above stated. 
Emetic tartar, <&c. 

Warm water or sugar and wa- 
ter ; afterwards a grain of opium, 
or fifteen drops of laudanum, every 
quarter of an hour, for two or three 

NITRE, or 

Obstinate vomiting 
sometimes of blood, &c. 

The same as for arsenic, with 
the exception of lime-water and al- 


Like mineral acids. 

Like mineral acids. 


Sugar of lead, Gou- 
lard's extract, &c. 

Great pain in the sto- Large doses of Glauber's or Ep- 
mach. with constriction of som salts, in warm water, 
the throat. <£c. 


The carbonate, mu- 
riate, &c. 



Vomiting, convulsions, Half an ounce of Epsom or Glau- 

palsy, pain in the sto- ber's salts dissolved in a quart of 

mach, &c. water. Several glasses to be taken. 

In place of these salts, large 

draughts of hard well-water. 

The most virulent poi- Emetics; afterwards oil of tur- 
son, producing almost in- pentine, ammonia, brandy, with 
stant death, when applied warmth, friction, and blisters. 
even in small quantities to 
the surface of the body. 

Excessive vomitings, Vomiting to be rendered easy by 
convulsions, pain in the large draughts of warm sugar and 
bowels, alteration in the water. If vomiting be notprodu- 
features: death. ced by the poison, it must be ex- 

cited by the finger. Afterwards 




GLASS, or 





If taken in coarse pow- Large quantities of crumb of 
der, produces irritation bread should be eaten ; afterwards 
and inflammation of the an emetic of white vitriol, and de- 
bowels, mulcent drinks. 


Brandy, rum, gin, 
wine, &c. 

Intoxication ; when ta- A powerful emetic of white vi- 

ken in large quantities, in- rriol, or emetic tartar ; vomiting to 

sensibility, apoplexy, or be encouraged by warm water, and 

paralysis ; countenance large clysters of salt water ; bleed- 

swoln, and of a dark red ing ; if the head be very hot, cold 

colour ; breathing difficult ; wet cloths may be applied ; if the 

often death. extremities be cold, friction. 




Monk's hood, mea- 
dow saffron, ipeca- 
cuanha, hellebore, 
bear's foot, savine, 

Acrid taste; excessive 
heat ; violent vomiting ; 
purging ; great pain in 
the stomach and bowels. 
Externally applied, many 
of them produce inflamma- 
tion, blisters, pustules. 

If vomiting be produced by the 
poison, large draughts of warm 
water, or thin gruel, to render it 
easier. If insensibility be present 
white vitriol, or other active eme- 
tic ; after the operation of which, a 
brisk purgative ; then a strong 
infusion of coffee or vinegar dilu- 
ted with water. 

Four or five grains of emetic 
tartar in a glass of water. If this 
dose does not succeed, four grains 
of blue vitriol as an emetic. Do 
not give large quantities of water. 
After the poison has been ejected,, 
give vinegar, lemon juice, or cream 
of tartar and strong coffee. 

ACRID Nausea; heat; pain in Three grains of emetic tartar in 

NARCOTICS : the stomach and bowels : a glass of water : in fifteen minuter 
Mushrooms. vomiting ; purging ; thirst ; the dose to be repeated. After 

convulsions ; cold sweats ; vomiting, frequent doses of Glau- 
death. ber's or Epsom salts, and stimula- 

ting clysters. 

NARCOTICS : Stupor ; desire to vomit ; 

Opium, henbane, heaviness in the head ; di- 
hemlock, night- lated pupil of the eye ; de- 
shade, &c. -^ lirium ; speedy death. 

Nux vomica, 'St. None of these inflame 
Ignatius's bean, the the parts they touch. In- 
upas, coculus indi- troduced into the stomach, 
eus, <fcc. or applied to wounds, they 

are rapidly absorbed, pro- 
ducing generally rigidity, 
convulsions, and death. 

The emetic as under Mush- 
rooms : lungs to be inflated. Two 
ounces of water, one drachm of 
ether, two drachms of oil of turpen- 
tine, and half an ounce of sugar, 
mixed together ; two spoonfuls of 
which to be taken every ten min- 







POISONOUS In an hoar or two, or An emetic ; vomiting to be ex- 

FISH : sooner, after some fish have cited by tickling the throat with 

Oldwife, lobster, been eaten, more especially the finger, and by' draughts of 
crab, dolphin, con- if stale, weight at the sto- warm water. After vomiting, an 
£er eel, muscle, &c. mach, sickness, giddiness, active purgative ; afterwards vine- 
thirst, &c. come on: in gar and water, or water sweetened 
some cases, death. with sugar, and an addition of 

ether. After the evacuations, lau- 


The viper, or adder, 
prattle-snake, &c. 

A sharp pain in the 
wounded part, soon extend- 
ing over the body ; great 
swelling ; first hard and 
pale, then reddish; faint- 
ings, vomitings,' convul- 
sions ; inflammation, often 
extensive suppuration, gan- 
grene, and death. 

A moderately tight ligature to 
be applied above the bite, and the 
wound left to bleed, after being 
washed with warm water. The 
actual cautery, lunar caustic, or 
butter of antimony to be applied ; 
then lint dipped in equal parts of 
olive oil and spirit of hartshorn. 
Ligature to be removed if the in- 
flammation be considerable. Warm 
diluting drinks, with small doses 
of ammonia or hartshorn, to cause 
perspiration. The patient should 
be well covered in bed, drinking 
occasionally warm wine. If gan- 
grene threaten, wine and bark 
must be freely given. 

SPANISH Nauseous odor of the Vomiting freely excited by 
FLIES. breath ; burning heat in sweet oil, sugar and water, or lint- 
the throat and stomach ; seed tea ; emollient clysters. Cam- 
vomiting, often bloody ; phor dissolved in oil may be rub- 
painful priapism, heat in bed over the belly and thighs, 
the bladder, convulsions, 
delirium, death. 

VENOMOUS In general only a slight Hartshorn and oil, salt and wa- 

INSECTS: degree of pain and swell-' ter : a few drops of hartshorn may 

Tarantula, scorpi- ing ; sometimes sickness be taken internally in a glass of wa- 

oti, hornet, wasp, and fever. ter. The sting may, in general, 

bee, gnat, &c. be removed by making a strong 

pressure over it with the barrel of a 
small watch key. 

In many cases of poisoning, emetics are necessary, in order to remove 
the poison from the stomach. It has, however, been proved, that a late 

The STOMACH PUMP, is much more expeditiously effectual than 
emetics, and is now very often resorted to by medical practitioners for 
such purposes; but the use of this instrument can scarcely be confided 
to inexperienced hands. 

POISON from the inhalation of, or being imfnersed in noxious Gas. 
Whenever persons are found in a state of apparent death from being 



immersed in, or having inhaled noxious gas, whether from the fumes of 
burning charcoal, the exhalations of lime-kilns, the gas from fermenta- 
tions, the choak-damp of mines, the gas from wells, or the gas in the 
lower parts of caverns, the following method must be pursued for their 

Expose the patient to atmospheric air without any fear of the cold ; 
remove all his clothes and place him upon his back, with the head and 
breast somewhat elevated so as to promote respiration. On no ac- 
count administer tobacco fumigations or place the sufferer in a warm 
bed. Give a few glasses of lemon-juice and water, or vinegar weak- 
ened by the addition of three parts water; sprinkle the body, particu- 
larly the face and breast, with cold vinegar ; after this rub the body 
with cloths steeped in vinegar, camphorated spirits of wine, or any 
other spirituous fluid ; at the end of two or three minutes wipe the 
parts which have been wetted with a warm towel, and after the interval 
of two or three minutes recommence the sprinkling and rubbing with 
cold vinegar and spirits. These means must be persevered in for some 
time. Irritate the soles of the feet, and palms of the hands, and the 
whole course of the back with a brush ; administer a clyster consisting 
of one part vinegar and two parts water ; after a few minutes admin- 
ister another prepared with two ounces of common salt and one ounce 
of Epsom salts dissolved in water. Irritate the nostrils by a little roll 
of paper or a feather ; or burning matches, or volatile alkali, taking 
care that the phial containing this last article be not held long at the 
nose. The lungs should also be inflated. All these methods failing, 
the patient should be bled in the foot if the face continue red, the lips 
swoln, and the eyes as it were starting from their sockets. Emetics 
should be avoided, except where persons recovering are troubled with 
excessive nausea; when the patient is restored to his senses, he may 
be put into a warm bed in an apartment having all the windows open. 
He may then take a few spoonfuls of some good wine, as sherry, or 
Madeira ; the wine may be warmed and sugar added. It has often 
happened that five or six hours have elapsed before persons have been 

A well attested account has recently been published, of the speedy 
recovery of a person, who had become insensible by reason of noxious 
vapor, at the bottom of a well, by means of cold water dashed from 
above on his head. 

DROWNING is the act of suffocating or being suffocated, by a to- 
tal immersion in water. The length of time during which a person 
may remain in this element, without being drowned, is very unequal 
in different individuals, and depends as much on the temperature of 
the water as on the particular constitution of the subject : in general, 
however, there is less prospect of recovery, after having continued 
fifteen minutes in a watery grave. In such cases, death ensues from 
impeded respiration, and the consequent ceasing of the circulation of 
the blood, by which the body loses its heat, and with that the activity 
of the vital principle. Dr. Goodwyn justly observes, that the water 
produces all the changes which take place in drowning, only indirect- 
ly, by excluding the atmospheric air from the lungs, as they admit but 



a very inconsiderable quantity of fluid to pass into them during im- 
mersion. Hence we find, that inflation of the lungs is one of the 
principal means of restoring life. 

Previous to any active measures being "taken for recovering drowned 
persons, the following circumstances ought to be duly weighed by those 
engaged in this humane office : — 1. The season and weather. 2. 
Length of time the person has continued under water. 3. The state 
of his mind when the accident happened ; whether he was intoxicated, 
frightened, &c. 4. Constitution of the body, and whether he was in 
a state of perspiration. 5. The height from which he fell, and whether 
his head plunged foremost. 6. Depth of the water ; whether it was 
cold or warm, sea, or river water, and how he was dressed. Lastly, 7. 
The manner in which he was taken out, whether by the legs, and with- 
out receiving any injury, or by instruments ; and whether he was rolled 
about in a tub, or what other methods were pursued for his restoration. 
Few improvements appear to have been made in the treatment of 
the drowned, since this important branch of medical science was first 
discussed. We shall briefly state the principal rules of conduct to be 
observed, with respect to persons in that deplorable situation. 

Symptoms of Apparent Death by Drowning. — Coldness ; pale- 
ness of the whole body ; the lips of a livid hue ; the mouth either 
open or firmly closed ; the tongue blue, swelled and protruded ; the 
eye-lids closed, the eyes turned, and their pupils dilated ; the face 
swelled and blue ; the lower belly hard and inflated. The first signs 
of returning animation are, convulsive starting of the muscles of the 
face, or feet ; motion of the eye-lids ; a spasmodic shivering of the 

Treatment. — 1. After having been carefully taken out of the water 
by the arms, so as to prevent the least injury to the head and breast, 
the body ought to be carried to the nearest house, in a bier if possible, 
with the head somewhat raised ; or, in fine warm weather, the resus- 
citative process may with more advantage be performed in the open 
air,es pecially in sun-shine. 

2. When the subject is deposited, the upper part of the body should 
be supported half-sitting, with the head inclining towards the right 

3. The clothes are to be taken off without delay, but with the great- 
est precaution ; as violent shaking of the body might extinguish the 
latent spark of life. 

4. The mouth and nose must be cleansed from the mucus and froth, 
by means of a feather dipped in oil. 

5. The whole body should now be gently wiped and dried with warm 
flannel cloths, then covered with blankets, feather-beds, hay, straw, 
&c. In cold or moist weather, the patient is to be laid on a mattress 
or bed, at a proper distance from the fire, or in a room moderately heat- 
ed ; but in the warm days of summer, a simple couch is sufficient. 

6. If the patient be very young, or a child, it may be placed in bed 
between two persons, to promote natural warmth. 

7. In situations where the bath cannot be conveniently procured, 




bladders rilled with lukewarm water should be applied to different 
parts of the body, particularly to the pit of the stomach ; or a warm- 
ing-pan wrapped in flannel gently moved along the spine ; or aromatic 
fomentations frequently and cautiously repeated. 

8. As the breathing of many persons in an apartment would render 
the air rnephitic, and thus retard, or even prevent the restoration of 
life, not more than five or six assistants should be suffered to remain in 
the room where the body is deposited. 

Stimulants generally employed. 1. Moderate friction with soft 
warm flannel at the beginning, and gradually increased by means of 
brushes dipped in oil till pulsations of the heart are perceptible. 

2. Inflation of the lungs, which may be more conveniently effected 
by blowing into one of the nostrils, than by introducing air into the 
mouth. For the former purpose, it is necessary to be provided with a 
wooden pipe, fitted at one extremity for filling the nostril, and at the 
other for being blown into by a healthy person's mouth, or for receiv- 
ing the muzzle of a pair of common bellows, by which the operation 
may be longer continued. At first, however, it will always be more 
proper to introduce the warm breath from the lungs of a living person, 
than to commence with cold atmospheric air. During this operation, 
the other nostril and the moulh should be closed by an assistant, while 
a third person gently presses the chest with his hands as soon as the 
lungs are observed to be inflated. 

3. Stimulating clysters, consisting of warm water and common salt, 
or a strong solution of tartar emetic, or decoctions of aromatic heibs, 
or six ounces of brandy should be speedily administered. We do not 
consider injections of the smoke of tobacco, or even clysters of that 
narcotic plant, in all instances safe or proper. 

4. Let the body be gently rubbed with common salt, or with flannels 
dipped in spirits ; the pit of the stomach fomented with hot brandy, 
the temples stimulated with spirits of hartshorn, and the nostrils oc- 
casionally tickled with a feather. 

5. Persons of a very robust frame, and whose skin after being dried 
assumes a rigid and contracted surface, may be put into a sub-tepid 
bath, of about 65° which must be gradually raised to 75° or 80° of 
Fahrenheit's scale, according to circumstances ; or the body carried 
to a brewhouse. and covered with warm grains for three or four hours ; 
but these expedients generally require medical assistance. 

6. Violent shaking and agitation of the body by the legs and arms, 
though strongly recommended, and supposed to have often forwarded 
the recovery of children and boys, apears to us a doubtful remedy, 
which can be practised only in certain cases. 

7. Sprinkling the naked body of a drowned person with cold water ; 
submitting it to the operation of a shower-bath, or the sudden shocks 
of the electric fluid ; as well as whipping it with nettles, administering 
emetics, and blood-letting, are desperate expedients, which should be 
resorted to only after the more lenient means have been unsuccessfully 

It is, however, a vulgar and dangerous error to suppose that persons 
apparently dead by immersion under water are irrecoverable, because 



life does not soon re-appear ; hence we seriously entreat those who are 
thus employed in the service of humanity to persevere for three or four 
hours at least in the application of the most appropriate remedies 
above described ; for there are many instances recorded of patients 
who recovered after they had been relinquished by all their medical 
and other assistants. 

Treatment ox the return of life. As soon as the first symp- 
toms of that happy change become discernible, additional care must 
be taken to cherish the vital action by the most soothing means. All 
violent proceedings should, therefore, be immediately abandoned, no 
farther stimulants applied, nor even the ears of the patient be annoyed 
by loud speaking, shouting, fee. At that important crisis, moderate 
friction only is requisite. And, if the reviving person happen to be in 
the bath, he may either remain there, provided his sensations be easy 
and agreeable, or be removed to a comfortable bed, after being expe- 
ditiously dried with warm flannels : fomentations of aromatic plants 
may then be applied to the pit of the stomach ; bladders filled with 
warm water, placed to the left side ; the soles of the feet rubbed with 
salt ; the mouth cleared of froth and mucus, and a little white wine, or 
a solution of salt in water, dropped on the tongue. But all strong 
stimulants, such as powerful electric shocks, strong odors of volatile 
salts, ice. are at this period particularly injurious. Lastly, the patient 
after resuscitation, ought to be for a short interval resigned to the 
efforts of Nature, and left in a composed and quiescent state : as soon 
as he is able to swallow, without compulsion or persuasion, warm 
wine, or tea, with a few drops of vinegar, instead of milk, or gruel. 
warm beer, and the like, should be given in small quantities frequently 

CHOKING. As soon as any person is observed to be choked^ and 
more particularly children, the obstructing body should be felt for with 
a finger at the top of the throat ; it is possible many times to remove 
it directly, and should we fail in this, the puking excited by the finger 
frequently removes the offending body. 

Food, and foreign substances are sometimes lodged in the top of the 
wind-pipe and produce immediate suffocation ; help in this case must 
be afforded at the moment, by introducing the finger. Sometimes, 
however, a bunch of thread with several small nooses, secured upon the 
end of a piece of whalebone, will frequently be serviceable, in remov- 
ing sharp pointed bodies, as fishbones, needles, &c. Should this fail, 
a piece of sponge may be fastened to the whalebone, and passed into 
the stomach, and when it becomes enlarged by moisture, it most fre- 
quently brings away any foreign substance which may be present : the 
enlargement of the sponge may be forwarded by the patient swallow- 
ing a little water. Vomiting will sometimes succeed ; though this 
should not be attempted when the substance is sharp and pointed. 

Unless the offending body can be seen, any apparatus is unsafe ex- 
cept in the hands of an experienced surgeon. 

Presence of mind will enable any person to do much, in all cases of 
casualty, and particularly in this, and the directions above, are suifi- 
cient. The finger, and the vomiting it is sure to produce, will do much 
more at the instant than is commonly thought. 



LIGHTNING. Persons apparently dead from lightning may be 
frequently restored by proper means. Sprinkling or affusion of cold 
water, and in general the means laid down for aerial poisons, are to be 
persevered in. A rigidity of thp limbs usually attends persons recov- 
ering from a stroke of lightning ; sprinkling, and rubbing the parts 
with cold water should often be used. 

The means to be used for the recovering of persons suddenly depri- 
ved of life, are nearly the same in all cases. They are practicable by 
every one who happens to be present at the accident, and require no 
great expense, and less skill. 

The great aim is to preserve or restore the vital warmth and motion. 
This may in general be attempted by heat, frictions, blowing air into 
the lungs, administering clysters, cordials, <fcc. These must be varied 
according to circumstances. Common sense and the situation of the 
patient, will suggest the means of relief. Above all we would recom- 
mend perseverance. Much good may, and no harm can result ; who 
would grudge pains in such a case ? * 



Every family should know something about the weights and meas- 
ures which are used by apothecaries, and the signs by which they are 


The pound - Ife contains twelve ounces, 

- ounce - 3 - eight drachms, 

- drachm -3 - three scruples, 

- scruple - B - twenty grains. 

- grain - gr - 

The grain weights are stamped with punch marks, indicative of the 
number of grains each is equivalent to. 

The gallon - cong. contains eight pints. 
, - pint - (octavus.) - sixteen fluid drachms. 

- fluid ounce f 3 eight fluid drachms. 

- fluid drachm f 3 sixtv minims. 

- minim or drop TT[ 

A table spoonful is supposed to be equal to half an ounce, or four 
drachms — yet many of the modern spoons will contain five drachms. 
A tea spoonful will equal sixty or seventy drops. A drop will contain 
a quantity proportioned to the size of the mouth of the vial from which 
it falls. A common ounce vial should be a medium size. 

Where the dose furnished for an adult is a certain quantity, the 
proper dose for a person of fourteen years will be two thirds of that 



quantity — for seven years, one half — for live years, one third — for 
three years, one fourth — for twenty-eight months, one fifth — for four- 
teen months, one eighth — for seven months, one twelfth — for two 
months, one fifteenth — for one month, one twentieth — under, one 
twenty -fourth. 

It is recommended that laudanum, antimonial wine, and other active 
fluids, should not be given to young children after there is a cloud in 
them, as the strength is then uncertain. In such cases, the substance 
having fallen to the bottom, the top of the fluid is weaker, and the 
bottom stronger. 

Laxative Pills. Take of powder of cinnamon, 10 grains ; socoto- 
rine aloes in fine powder, and castile soap, of each one drachm. Beat 
them together in a stone or iron mortar, adding one or two drops of 
sirup or molasses. Make into 32 pills. Dose for grown persons, two 
at bed time. 

Pills of Aloes and Fetida. Take socotorine aloes, assafcetida, 
and soap, equal parts. Pill with gum arabic. These pills are good in 
indigestion, attended with costiveness, and wind in the stomach and 

Hull's Colic Pills. Take cinnamon, cloves, mace, myrrh, saffron, 
ginger, castile soap, of each one drachm, socotorine aloes one ounce, 
essence of peppermint sufficient to moisten it. Make common sized 
pills, and take them till they operate. 

Purging Pills. Take rhubarb one part, cream tartar three parts, 
grind together, and take a tea-spoonful in molasses occasionally to 
prevent costiveness. 

Sir H. Halford's Aperient Pills. Take of blue pill, twenty 
grains ; compound extract of colocynth, half a drachm : mix and di- 
vide into twelve pills. One or two to be taken for a dose every second 
or third night. 

Strengthening Pills. Take of subcarbonate of iron, two drachms ; 
ipecacuanha, in powder, one scruple ; extract of gentian, two scruples ; 
socotorine aloes, powdered, eight grains ; simple sirup or mucilage, 
enough to form a mass ; divide into forty pills. Take two or three 
twice or thrice a day. 

To Excite Perspiration. Take of opium, six grains ; camphor, 
twelve grains ; James' powder, twelve grains ; conserve enough to 
form into twelve pills. One to be taken at bed time, occasionally. 

Adhesive Plaster. Take of yellow resin, half a pound ; lead 
plaster, three pounds ; melt the lead plaster by a gentle heat, then add 
the resin in powder, and mix. This is the plaster commonly applied 
to cuts, and to hold together the edges of recent wounds. 

Anodyne Plaster. Take of hard opium, powdered, half an ounce ; 
resin of spruce fir, powdered, three ounces ; lead plaster, a pound, melt 
the plaster and resin together, and then add the opium and mix. 

Strengthening Plaster. Take of litharge plaster, four ounces; 
white resin, one ounce ; yellow wax, olive oil, of each half an ounce : 



rub the iron with the oil, and adding the other ingredients, mix the 

Picra. Socotorine aloeg, one pound ; white canella, three ounces; 
separately powdered and then mixed. Good purgative. Dose be- 
tween a scruple and a drachm. May be taken in sirup or molasses. 

Sweating Powder, or Dover's Powder. Ipecac in powder ; 
opium, (dry,) of each one part ; sulphate of potash, eight parts ; grind 
them together to a fine powder. Dose from five to twenty grains, as 
the stomach and strength will bear it; lessen the dose if it threatens to 
puke. This is a powerful sweating remedy in fevers, rheumatisms, 
and dropsy, excellent in colds and suppressed respiration. In general, 
this is the best opiate, as the Ipecac lessens the danger of a habitual 
use of opium — a tiling- to be avoided next to habits of intoxication. 

Elixir Proprietatus, Elix. Pro., or Tincture of Myrrh and 
Aloes. Take of myrrh in powder, two ounces ; alcohol, one pound 
and a half; water, half a pound; mix the alcohol with the water and 
add the myrrh. Steep four days, and then add, socotorine aloes, an 
ounce and a half; saffron, an ounce. Steep three days, and pour off 
the clear liquor from the sediment. Laxative and stomachic. 

Tincture of Bark, or Huxham'S Tincture. Take of Peruvian 
bark in powder, two ounces ; orange peel dried, half an ounce ; Vir- 
ginia snake root bruised, three drachms ; saffron, one drachm ; proof 
spirits (rum,) two pounds ; steep fourteen days and strain. Good pre- , 
paration of the bark taken as a bitter, a tea-spoonful to a glass of wine 
before eating ; useful in low fevers. 

Tincture of Guaiao. Take of gum guaiac, one pound ; alcohol, 
two pounds and a half; steep for seven days, and strain. A powerful 
sweating remedy in rheumatism and old gouty affections. Dose, a tea- 
spoonful in spirit. 

Laudanum. Take of opium, two ounces ; diluted alcohol, two 
pounds ; digest seven days. This is an elegant opiate, but separates 
by keeping. 

Elixir Asthmatic. Take liquorice root, (pounded pretty fine,) one 
pound ; common honey, one pound; Benzoic acid, or flowers, half an 
ounce ; gum opium (good,) half an ounce ; gum camphor, a third of 
an ounce ; oil of annise, two drachms ; common pearlash, half an 
ounce ; best old spirits, eight pints. To the liquorice pounded pretty 
fine, add the other ingredients, taking care to pulverize the opium. 
When prepared, it should be kept in a warm place ten or twelve days, 
and decanted clear. The remaining liquor must be squeezed from the 
roots and filtered through a piece of unsized paper. 

Linseed Meal Poultice. Scald your basin by pouring a little hot 
water into it ; then put a small quantity of finely ground linseed meal 
into the basin, pour a little hot water on it, and stir it round briskly, 
until you have well incorporated it ; add a little more meal and a little 
more water, then stir it again. Do not let any lumps remain in the 
basin, but stir the poultice well, and do not be sparing of your trouble. 

Bread and Water Poultice. Put half a pint of hot water into 



a pint basin, add to this as much of the crumbs of bread as the water 
will cover, then place a plate over the basin, and let it remain about 
ten minutes ; stir the bread about in the water, or, if necessary, chop 
it a little with the edge of the knife, and drain off the water by hold- 
ing the knife on the top of the basin ; but do not press the bread as is 
usually done ; then take it out lightly, and spread it about one third of 
an inch on some soft linen, and lay it Jfc)on the part. If • the part to 
which it is applied be a wound, a bit ofnnt dipped in oil may be pla- 
ced beneath the poultice. " This poultice/' says Mr. Abernethy, u may 
be made with poppy water, if thought necessary ; it may be made with 
hemlock juice, if recently expressed, which is a very good application 
to irritable sores ; but there is nothing better, that I know of, than the 
bread poultice to broken surfaces." 

Mustard Povltice. Take of mustard seed, and linseed, of each, 
(in powder,) half a pound ; hot vinegar, a sufficient quantity ; mix 
them to the consistency of a poultice, and the poultice will be fit for 

Yeast Poultice. Take of flour, a pound ; yeast of beer, half a 
pint ; mix, and expose the mixture to a gentle heat, until it begins to 
swell, when it is fit for use. 

Simple Ointment. Take olive (sweet) oil, five parts ; white wax, 
two parts ; melt together. May be used for softening the skin, and 
healing chaps and excoriations. 

Golden Ointment. Take of purified quicksilver, an ounce ; nitric 
acid, eleven drops ; lard, six ounces ; olive oil, four ounces ; dissolve 
the mercury in the acid, then mix the hot solution, with the oil and 
lard melted together. This is an excellent ointment for sore eyes, scald 
head and most sorts of ulcers. When first used, it should be mixed 
with an equal quantity of simple ointment. 

Sulphur Ointment. Take of hog's lard, four parts ; flowers of 
sulphur, one part ; to each pound of this ointment may be added, vol- 
atile oil of lemons, or oil of lavender, half a drachm. A certain reme- 
dy for the cure of itch. A pound serves for four unctions. The pa- 
tient should be rubbed four nights in succession, each time one fourth 
part of the body. 

Sir H. Halford's Pile Ointment. Take one ounce of golden oint- 
ment, and the same quantity of almond oil ; mix them carefully in a 
mortar. Apply this ointment to the part affected once or twice daily. 

Yellow Basilicum Ointment. Take of yellow wax, white resin, 
and frankincence, of each one quarter of a pound ; mix, and melt over 
a gentle fire, then add lard, one pound : strain the ointment while 
warm. This ointment is the best dressing for all heathy ulcers. 

Simple Sirup. Take of double refined sugar, fifteen parts ; water, 
eight parts. Let the sugar be dissolved by a gentle heat, and boiled a 
little, so as to form a sirup. 

Sirup of Ginger. Take of best ginger, three ounces; boiling wa- 
ter, four pounds ; double refined sugar, seven and a half pounds ; steep 
the ginger in the water, in a close vessel, for twenty-four hours, then 



to the strained liquor add the best sugar, so as to make a sirup. This 
is an agreeable and mqderately aromatic sirup ; impregnated with the 
flavor and the virtues of the ginger. 

Sirup of Lemons. Take of juice of lemons, suffered to stand till 
the sediment falls, then strain oft' the liquor, three parts ; double refined 
sugar, five parts ; dissolve the sugar in the juice till it forms a sirup. 
In the same way, are prepared sirup of mulberry juice ; sirup of rasp- 
berry juice, and sirup of black currant juice. All these are pleasant 
cooling sirups ; quenching thirst ; and may be used in gargles for sore 

Volatile Liniment. Take spirit of hartshorn, one part ; sweet oil, 
or fresh butter, two parts ; mix, and shake in a viol. Sometimes a lit- 
tle landanum or camphor is added. 

Liniment of Oil and Lime. Take of linseed oif, lime water, of 
each equal parts ; mix them. This liniment is extremely useful in 
burns and scalds; efficacious in preventing inflammation after such ac- 

Camphorated Oil. Take of olive oil, two ounces; camphor, half 
an ounce ; dissolve the camphor in the oil. Good, applied to local 
pains ; to glandular swellings, and to the bowels in tympany. 

Opodeldoc. Take of the best hard soap, two ounces ; camphor, 
one ounce ; very strong spirit, one pint : mix the soap with the spirit, 
and let them stand in a moderate heat, until the soap is dissolved, occa- 
sionally shaking the vial ; then add the camphor, and continue to shake 
the vessel frequently until the whole is dissolved. Useful in sprains, 
bruises, and in rheumatic pains. Good to disperse swellings, tumors 
and the like. 






COTTON. The rearing of cotton, and 
the manufacture of it into various fabrics, 
have of late years become objects of so 
much attention, in several parts of the 
world, that we shall devote the greater 
space to a notice of these two subjects, 
than our limits would otherwise seem to 

The plant which produces cotton is cul- 
tivated in the East and West Indies, in 
North and South America, of which it is a 
native, and in Egypt, and other parts of 
the world. It is an annual plant, propaga- 
ted from seeds. It grows to a considerable 
height, and has leaves of a bright green 
color marked with brownish veins, and 
each divided into five lobes. The pods 
which contain the cotton, are triangular in 
shape, and have each three cells. These, 
on becoming ripe, burst, and disclose their 
snow white contents. 

The cotton which is cultivated in the southern parts of the Uniteu 
States is of three kinds — the nankeen cotton, so called from its color; 
the green seed cotton, producing white cotton, and green seeds; and 
the black seed cotton. The two first kinds are cultivated in the middle 
and upper country, where they go by the name of short staple cotton ; 
the last is raised in the lower country near the sea, and on the islands 
adjacent to the continent. This is denominated sea island cotton ; it is 
stronger, finer, and longer than the short staple cotton, and bears a high- 
er price in market. 

The manner of raising cotton, upon which it will be proper to make 
a few observations, is as follows : — 

If the land has been recently cleared, or has long remained fallow, 
turn it up deep in winter; and in the first week in March, bed it up in 
the following manner. Form 25 beds m 105 square feet of land, (be- 
ing the space allotted to each able laborer for a day's work) ; this 
leaves about four feet two and one-half inches from the centre of one 
bed to the centre of the next. The beds should be three feet wide, 
and flat in the middle. About the 15th of March, in the latitude of 
from 29° to 30°, the cultivator should commence sowing, or as it is 
generally termed planting. The seed should be well scattered in open 
trenches, made in the centre of the beds and covered ; the proportion 
of seed is one bushel to an acre ; this allows for accidents occasioned 
by worms, or night chills. The cotton should be well weeded by hoes 
once every twelve days, until blown, and even longer, if there is grass, 




observing to hoe up, that is, to the cotton, till it pods ; and hoe down, 
when the cotton is blown, in order to check the growth of the plant. 
From the proportion of seed mentioned, the cotton plants will come 
up plentifully, too much so, to suffer all to remain. They should be 
thinned moderately at each hoeing. When the plants have got 
strength and growth, which may be about the third hoeing, to disre- 
gard worms, and bear drought, they should be thinned according to 
the fertility of the soil, from six inches to near two feet between the 
stocks or plants. In rich river grounds, the beds should be from five 
to six feet apart, measuring from centre to centre ; and the cotton 
plants, when out of the way of worms, from two to three feet apart. 
It is adviseable to top cotton once or twice in rich low grounds, and also 
to remove the suckers. The latter end of July is generally considered 
a proper time for topping. 

The month of August in South Carolina and Georgia, is the season 
for commencing the business of picking cotton. 

The quantity of black seed cotton produced on an acre of Georgia 
sea island, is about 200)bs. ; in Carolina, from 130 to 150lbs. ; an acre 
of upland will commonly produce 3001'os. of green seed cotton. 

The preparation of the ground for cotton is almost entirely effected 
by the hoe. The plough is scarcely used. 

For many years the separation of the seeds was a work of great labor. 
But this is now much diminished by means of gins, of which there are 
two kinds — the roller-gin and the saw-sin. 

The first of these gins consists of two small cylinders, which revolve 
so closety, that while the cotton passes through, the seeds are prevent- 

The second kind, or saw-gin, was the invention cf Mr. Whitney of 
New Haven, Connecticut, and is one of the most important labor sav- 
ing machines ever introduced into the country. It is used in disenga- 
ging the seeds of the black seeded cotton, which adhere too strongly to 
be separated by the roller-gin. This machine consists of a. receiver, 
one side of which is covered with strong parallel wires, about an eighth 
of an inch apart. Between these wires pass a number of circular saws, 
revolving on a common axis. In the revolutions of the-e saws, the cot- 
ton becomes entangled, and is drawn through the grating, while the 
seeds are, from their size, denied a passage. 

The earliest seat of the manufacture of cotton w r as Hindoostan, 
where it is still carried on, as at the first, by hand labor. But by means 
of the inventions of Hargreaves and Ark \v right, between the years of 
1768 and 1780, the manufacture of cotton has so far outstripped that 
of the East, that the countries of the latter are now receiving the pro- 
ducts of British manufactories at a cheaper rate than they can manu- 
facture for themselves. Cotton fabrics are also beginning to be export- 
ed from the United States to the East to advantage. 

Next to the facilities for preparing cotton for the loom, which have 
arrived to an astonishing degree of perfection, nothing has contributed 
to extend the manufacture more than the invention of the power-loom, 
by which the laborious process of weaving is converted into the mere 
superintendence of two and sometimes three of these machines, each 



one of which is capable of producing from thirty to fortv yards of cloth 
per day. Added to this, is the discovery of a process for transferring 
in the manufacture of calicoes, the most delicate patterns from copper 
cylinders, instead of from wooden blocks; by means of which the la- 
bor and expense are surprisingly diminished. 

We shall next speak of the process observed in the manufacturing 
of cotton into cloth, which we abridge from the Encyclopedia Ameri- 

"After the cotton has been ginned and picked or batted, the first op- 
eration of the manufacturing, is carding. The carding engine consists 
of a revolving cylinder covered witli cards, which is nearly surrounded 
by a fixed concave framing, also lined with cards, with which the cylin- 
der comes in contact. From this cylinder, called the breaker, the cotton 
is taken oil by a comb called the dotfing-p\a.te, and passes through a se- 
cond carding in the finishing cylinder. It is then passed through a 
kind of funnel, by which it is contracted into a narrow band or sliver, 
and received into tin cans, in a state of uniform, continued carding. 
The next step in the process, is called drawing the cotton. This is ef- 
fected by the drawing-frame, which in principle is similar to the spin- 
ning-frame. Roving the cotton, which is the next part of the process, 
gives a slight twist, which converts it into a soft and loose thread, call- 
ed the roving. The machine for performing this operation is called the 
roving-frame, or double-speeder. In order to wind the roving upon the 
bobbins of the spindles, in even, cylindrical layers, the spindle rail is 
made to rise and fall slowly by means of heart- wheels in the interior 
of the machine. And as the size of the bobbins is augmented by each 
layer, the velocity of the spindles -and of the spindle-rail is made to di- 
minish gradually, from the beginning to the end of the operation. This 
is effected by transmitting the motion to both, through two opposite 
cones, one of which drives the other with a band, which is made to pass 
slowly from one end to the other of the cones, and thus continually to 
alter their relative speed, and cause a uniform retardation of the velo- 
city. The bobbins are now transferred to the spinning frame. The 
twist is given to the thread when drawn out by flyers driven by 
bands, which receive their motion from a horizontal fly-wheel. The 
yarn produced by this mode of operation is called twist, from 
the circumstance that the machinery from which it is obtained was at 
first generally put in motion by water. In 177.5 the m>ve-jenny or 
mule was invented by Samuel Crompton of Bolton. The spindles are 
mounted on a moveable carriage, which recedes when the threads 
are stretched, and return when they are to be wound up. By means 
of this machine the size and twist of the thread become uniform 

The following process of a pound of cotton may not be uninteresting 
to our readers. It appeared originally in the English Monthly Maga- 
zine. " There was sent to London lately, from Paisley, a small piece 
of muslin, about one pound weight, the history of which is as follows. 
The wool came from the East Indies to London ; from London it went 
to Manchester where it was manufactured into yarn ; from Manches- 
ter, it was sent to Paisley, where it was woven. It was sent to Ayr- 
shire next, where it was tamboured ; it was then conveyed to Dunbar- 
ton, where it was hand-sewed, and again returned to Paislev, whence it 



was sent to Glasgow and finished, and then sent per coach to London. 
It took three years to bring this article to market, from the time that it 
was packed in India till it arrived complete in the merchant's ware- 
house in London ; whither it must have been conveyed 5,000 miles by 
sea, and nearly 1000 by land, and contributed to reward the labors of 
nearly 150 persons, whose services were necessary in the carriage and 
manufacture of this small quantity of cotton, and by which its value 
was advanced more than 2000 per cent." 

SILK MANUFACTURE. Silk is a very soft, fine, bright, delicate 
thread, the production of an insect or moth, called by the ancients bom' 
byx ; by the moderns, phalcena mori, or silk worm. Silk is manufactur- 
ed into a variety of fabrics, of which we shall notice the following : 

SATIN is a kind of thick silken stuff, very smooth and shining; the 
warp is very fine and prominent, the woof coarser and hidden under- 
neath : on which depends its gloss and beauty. Some satins are quite 
plain, others wrought, some flowered with gold or silk, others striped. 
The finest satins are those of Florence and Genoa, yet the French will 
not allow those of Lyons to be at all inferior. Indian satins, or satins 
of China, are silken stuffs, much like those manufactured in Europe. 
Of these some are plain, others worked, either with gold or silk, flow- 
ered, damasked, striped, &c. They are mostly valued because of their 
bleaching easily, without losing any thing of their lustre. In other re- 
spects they are inferior to those of Europe. Some very good satins are 
made in England. 

VELVET ; a rich kind of thick, shaggy stuff made of silk ; the nap, 
or velveting, of this stuff is formed of part of the threads of the warp, 
which the workman puts on a long narrow-channelled ruler, and which 
he afterwards cuts by drawing a sharp steel tool along the ruler to the 
end of the warp. The principal and best manufactures of velvet are 
in England and France ; there are others in Italy, as at Venice, Milan, 
Florence, Genoa, and Lucca, and in Holland at Haerlem ; those in Chi- 
na are the worst of all. A good imitation of silk velvet is now to be 
obtained, made of cotton ; but the dyes are less permanent on cotton 
than on silk. 

TAFFETY ; a kind of fine, smooth, silken stuff, having usually a 
remarkable gloss. There are taffeties of all colors, some plain, others 
striped with gold, silver, silk, &c. others chequered or flowered. There 
are three things that contribute to the perfection of taffeties, the silk, 
the water, and the fire. The silk should not only be of the finest kind, 
but must be worked a long time aud very much before it is used. The- 
watering seems only intended to give it that fine lustre, by a peculiar 
property not found in all waters ; and lastly, the perfection of the stuff 
depends greatly on a particular application of the fire. 

GAUZE, a transparent kind of stuff, which is woven sometimes of 
silk, and at other times only of flax. There are figured gauzes, .some 
with flowers of gold and silver, on a silk ground ; these last are chiefly 
brought from China. The gauze loom is much like that of a common 
weaver's, though it has several appendages peculiar to itself. 

TABBY: in commerce a kind of coarse taffety, watered. It is ma- 
nufactured like the common taffety, excepting that it is stronger and 



thicker both in the woof and warp. The watering is given to it by 
means of a calender; the rollers are of iron or copper variously engra- 
ven, which, bearing unequally on the stuff, render the surface thereof 
unequal, so as to reflect the rays of light differently. It is usual to tabby 
mohairs, ribbons, Szc. Tabbying is performed without the addition of 
any water or dye^ and furnishes the modern philosophers with a strong 
proof, that colors are only appearances. 

BROCADE, in commerce, a sort of stuff made of cloth, of cr ld, sil- 
ver, or silk, raised and enriched with flowers, foliage, or other figures, 
according to tiie fancy of the manufacturer. Formerly the term was 
applied only to cloths woven either wholly of gold, both woof and 
warp, or of silver, or both together; but by degrees it came likewise to 
pass for such as had silk intermixed, to fill up and terminate the flower3 
of gold and silver. At present any stuff or silk, satin, or even simple 
tapestry, when wrought and enriched with raised flowers, &c. obtains 
the appellation of brocade. 

STOCKINGS. Anciently the only stockings in use were made of 
cloth, or milled stuffs sewed together ; but since the invention of knit- 
ting and weaving stockings of silk, wool, and cotton thread, the use of 
cloth stockings is laid aside. The modern stockings, whether woven 
or knit, are a kind of plexus, formed of an .infinite number of little 
knots, calied stitches, loops, or meshes, intermixed. Knit stockings are 
wrought with needles made of polished iron, or brass wire, which in- 
terweave the threads, and form the meshes of which the stocking con- 
sists. This operation is called knitting, the time of the invention of 
which it is difficult to fix precisely, though it is commonly attributed to 
the Scots, because the first works of this kind came from Scotland. 
Woven stockings are manufactured on a frame or machine made of 
iron, the structure of which is exceedingly ingenious, yet complex. 
On this account it is not easily described. 

HISTORY OF SILK. The silk worm is a native of China. The 
Seres, who inhabit the northern part of that country, cultivated the 
precious article. Having been expelled by the Huns, A. D. 93, they 
settled in Little Bucharia. Silks were first brought from China to Sy- 
ria and Egypt by traders, who in caravans performed journies of 243 
days through the deserts of Asia. The price was far beyond the reach 
of any but the rich; and for a long time the use of silk among the 
Romans was confined to women of fortune. The emperor Aurelian 
refused his queen a garment of silk, by reason of the high price it bore 
— its weight in crold. In the sixth century, two monks, who had been 
employed as missionaries in the East, penetrated into the country of the 
Seres, and observed the labors of the silk worms, and the manner of 
working their production into elegant fabrics. They imparted the 
secret to the emperor Justinian, at Constantinople, who 'induced them, < 
by a great reward, to return and bring away a quantity of the silk worms' 
eggs. • They put the eggs into the hollow of a cane, and brought them 
safely to Constantinople, about the year 555. The eggs were hatched, 
and the worms were fed with mulberry leaves ; and the insects produ- 
ced from this cane full of eggs were the progenitors of all the silk worms 
of Europe, and the western parts of Asia. The people of the Morea, 




and of the cities of Athens and Thebes enjoyed the profit of the culture 
and manufacture of silk upwards of 400 years ; but in 1146, the king 
of Sicily made war upon Greece, and carried off a great number of silk 
weavers, who taught the Sicilians to raise silk worms, and weave silk 
stuffs. The Saracens introduced the silk manufacture into Spain and 
Portugal ; and subsequently the Italian States, France and England 
engaged in it. 

It 'will not consist with our limits to enter minutely into the history 
of the silk business in foreign countries. Much of the silk used in the 
manufactures of France is raised at home ; yet it is stated that that 
country pays nearly twenty millions of dollars annually for raw silk, 
raised in other countries. 

The art of reeling silk from the cocoons, so as to convert it into a 
saleable article, is known only in China, in Bengal, in the Turkish do- 
minions, in Italy, and in the south of France. It is not known in Great 
Britain, where the climate is not suited for that culture. Her manu- 
facturers are obliged to depend upon foreign countries for the raw and 
thrown or twisted silk, which they use, and of which several millions of 
pounds are annually imported into that country. 

The manufacture of this silk into various fabrics, employs a large 
capital, and many thousands of men and women. " I calculate," said 
Mr. Wilson, a well informed and extensive silk manufacturer, while 
under examination before a committee of the House of Lords, M that 
40,000 persons are employed in throwing silk for the weaver, whose 
wages will, I think, amount to £350,000. I estimate that half a mil- 
lion pounds of soap, and a large proportion of the most costly dye- 
stuffs are consumed, at a further expense of £300,000 ; and 265,000 
more are paid to 16,500 winders to prepare it. The number of looms 
may be taken at 40,000 ; and including weavers, warpers, mechanics, 
harness-makers, enterers, twisters, cane-spreaders, quill-winders, and 
draw boys, at two hands to a loom, will employ 80,000 more persons, 
and the wages amount to £3,000,000. If we include infants and de- 
pendents, about 400,000 mouths will be fed by the silk manufacture, the 
value of which I estimate at ten millions." Mr. Hale, of Spital- 
fields, estimates the number of persons supported by the silk manufac- 
ture, at 500,000 ; but Mr. Bell, and some other intelligent gentlemen 
engaged in the trade, do not carry their estimate so high as Mr. Wil- 
son ; perhaps his, which is the medium, may be regarded as the most 

Since the settlement of the United States by the English, several 
experiments have been made on the subject of raising silk. The cul- 
ture of it first commenced in Virginia. As early as 1666, the rearing 
of silk w T orms was a part of the regular business of many of the far- 
mers. One man had 70,000 mulberry trees growing in 1664. Georgia 
sent eight pounds of raw silk to England, in 1735, and 10,000 pounds 
in 1759. Some attention was paid to the culture of silk in South Car- 
olina, and in 1755, Mrs. Pinckney raised and spun silk enough for three 
complete dresses. In Pennsylvania and New Jersey, the culture of silk 
began in 1771, but was suspended by the war of the revolution. 

Mulberry trees and silk worms were introduced into the town of 
Mansfield, in the county of Windham, Conn., about the year 1760 ; 



and in 1789, two hundred pounds of raw silk were made in that town. 
At present, three-fourths of the families in Mansfield are engaged in 
raising silk, and make annually from live to ten, twenty, and fifty 
pounds in a family, and one or two have made, each, one hundred 
pounds in a season. It is believed that there are annually made in 
that town and the vicinity, from three to four tons of silk. 

From the experiments which have already been made, ample evi- 
dence exists that the culture of silk may be profitably pursued in the 
United States to almost any extent, since the mulberry tree grows indi- 
genously throughout the country : and it is a fact well ascertained that 
American silk is decidedly superior to that, of any other country on 
the globe. In France, twelve pounds of cocoons are required to 
produce one pound of raw silk, while eight pounds are amply suffi- 
cient to produce the same quantity in this country. 

Were the culture of silk only equal to our home consumption, an 
immediate attention to it would be a saving to the country of not 
less than ten millions of dollars annually, as may be seen by the fol- 

Statement of the value of silk goods imported and exported in the years 
1821/0 1825 inclusive. 

Years. Imported. Exported. 

1821 $4,486,924 $1,057,233 

1822 6,480,928 1.016,262 

1823 6,713,771 1,512,449 

1824 7,203,344 1,816,325 

1825 10,271,527 2,565,742 

$35,156,494 $7,968,011 

Yet there cannot be a doubt that a quantity may be annually produ- 
ced, which shall not only meet the home demand ; but, in a few 
years, leave a surplus for exportation. The most important step to- 
wards this state of things is the extensive cultivation of the white 
mulberry tree, the leaves of which form the p-oper aliment of the 

Mulberry tree. All practical writers agree that the proper soils 
for the mulberry tree are dry, sandy or stony. Indeed, a soil which is 
of little value to the farmer, on account of its sterility, will answer 
well for the mulberry tree. The methods of propagating the tree are 
.various. A writer in the New England Farmer speaks as follows of 
four methods. 

First, From the seed ; 2d from roots ; 3d from layers, and 4th from 
cuttings. The 1st and 4th can at present be alone generally resorted 
to in this country. An ounce of good, well cleaned seed, well mana- 
ged, will probably produce ten or twelve thousand plants. It should 
be sowed towards the last of April. The ground being properly pre- 
pared, by previous ploughing, or digging, and manuring, is to be clean- 
ed, levelled, and divided into beds of four or five feet in width. Drills 
from six to ten inches asunder, and from one to two inches deep, must 
then be made by a line. The seed may be sown in these drills dry, or 
having been steeped two days in water, rub it on pack thread to which 



it will adhere, lay the thread in the bottom of the drill and cover it 
with earth. In two or three weeks, if kept moist, the young plants 
will appear. Keep the beds clear of weeds. On the approach of 
winter it may be well to cover them with leaves. H the seedlings 
grow the first season to the height of one foot or more, take them up 
in the spring following, cut the top so us to leave about three inches 
above ground, cut off the lower part of the root, and set them in nur- 
series in rows, like other fruit trees, where the following spring. they 
may or may not be grafted, pruned and cultivated, until they become , 
sufficiently large to set in hedges or planlatv.ns. Cuttings should be 
taken from perpendicular shoots, and particularly from those which 
terminate branches: They should be of the last summer's growth, and 
from 6 to' 15 inches in length. Plant them in shady borders, early in 
the spring, about tw T o-thirds of their length in the ground ; close the 
earth well about them, and in dry weather let them be watered. After 
a year, they may be transplanted in open nursery rows, if well rooted. 

Another mode of cultivating the mulberry, and one which has been 
to some extent adopted in New England is to sow the seed broadcast* 
like turnips in the spring ; and in the following season to cut the plants 
with a scythe when wanted. The mowing is regularly prosecuted 
every morning, in the quantities required, and unless the season is one 
of severe drouth, the field will be cut twice or thrice before the worms 
begin to wind up. 

The advantages of this last mode are stated to be 

1. The leaves are gathered with less labor and expense, being cut 
and taken together like hay, or grain. 

2. The leaves are larger and more tender, than on the grown tree, 
and the worms eat with more appetite and produce more silk. 

3. The time of gathering the supply is so short, that the leaves are 
got with the morning dew upon them, which is deemed by practical 
men an essential advantage. Other writers say that the leaves when 
given to the worms should be thorougly dry. 

4. , More worms can be supported from a given space of ground, and 
the mulberries are ready after one season, instead of waiting several 
years for the formation of an orchard. 

The importance of the culture of silk will be our apology forgiving 
at some length, directions for the raising of silk worms, for which we 
are indebted to a valuable work entitled " Essays on American Silk, 
&c. by John D. Homergue." 

EGGS OF SILK WORMS. The eggs of silk worms so strongly 
resemble the seeds of the poppy, that they may easily be taken for 
them ; and the contrary. In Europe, the latter have sometimes been 
sold for the former. Pure water, however, is an effectual test ; good 
eggs sinking to the bottom, while poppy seeds and bad eggs will swim. 
Eggs, which have been washed, should be dried by exposure to cool 
and dry air. They should be kept in a cool place until the hatching 
season. Cold does not injure them provided that they do not freeze. 

HATCHING THE EGGS. The general rule in Europe is to put 
the worms to hatch, as soon as the mulberry trees begin to bud. In this 
country, this happens usually about the 21st of May. Should the 



j season of budding, however, be delayed, the hatching should be pro- 

' portionally deferred. 

The manner of putting the eggs to hatch, according to M. D'Ho- 

i merguc, is as follows : — M They should be put in a pasteboard or wood- 

I en box, not covered at the top, and the sides not more than half an inch 
high, so that the worms, when hatched, may easily crawl out, as will 
be presently mentioned. The size of the box should be suited to the 
quantity of eggs to be hatched, so that they be not on the top of one 
another ; but they may touch each other. The box should be covered 
with paper, perforated with holes of the size of a large pin's head, so 
that the worms, when hatched, may easily pass through them. They 
are usually hatched in three days, after being put into the box. When 
they are near coming out, young mulberry leaves should be put on the 
top of the box, leaving spaces. The worms as soon as hatched, will 
smell those leaves, crawl up to them through the holes in the paper 
cover, and begin feeding. Now remove such leaves as are covered 
with worms, gently, to the table or hurdle, which has been prepared 
to receive them. It should be added that a warm place should be pro- 
vided for the eggs to hatch iu, where the temperature is at least 80 de- 
grees Fahrenheit. 

REARING SILK WORMS. The worms, after being hatched as 
above described, are to be laid on wicker hurdles, which are to be kept 
quite clean. Pine tables will answer well. 

During the first day, the room should be kept in the same degree of 
heat ; but, afterwards, as the strength of the insect increases, a lower 
temperature is admissible. Dry air from the north and west may be 
let in ; but all dampness should be carefully excluded. 

The greatest cleanliness should be maintained. In order to clean a 
table, place another table close to it, on which lay fresh mulberry leaves. 
The worms will immediately crawl to them, leaving the first table 
empty. This shifting of the worms, however, should not take place, 
until after their first moulting. They generally moult, or shed their 
skin, four times. During the moulting, which lasts twenty-four hours, 
they lie torpid, and do not feed. They should then be left quiet. 

RISING OF THE SILK WORMS. " When the silk worms are 
ready to make their cocoons, which in this country, generally, is on 
the 31st day after they have been hatched, a kind of artificial hedge, 
not above one foot high, must be prepared, by means of some brush- 
wood without any leaves, which is to be fixed along the wall, behind 
the table on which the worms are. They crawl of themselves in this 
hedge, which is called rising, and there make their cocoons. This 
brushwood must not be fixed straight up along the wall, but should be 
inclined above and below, m the form of a semicircle towards the table 
on which it is to rest, because the worms always move in a circular di- 
rection ; and also in order that, if they should fall, they may not fall 
upon the table or floor, but on some part of the artificial hedge, whence 
they may crawl up and carry on their work. 

It is easy to know when the worms are ready to rise. They crawl on 
the leaves without eating them ; they rear their heads, as if in search 
of something to climb on, their rings draw in, the skin of their necks 



becomes wrinkled, and their body becomes like soft dough. Their 
color also changes to a pale yellow. When these signs appear, the 
table should be cleaned, and the hedge prepared to receive them. 

From the moment that the cocoons begin to rise, they cease to eat; 
they must not be touched, nor their cocoons, until they are picked off, 
as will be presently mentioned. " 

PICKING OFF THE COCOONS. « The worms generally form 
their cocoons in three days after their rising ; but they are not perfect 
until the sixth day, when they may be picked off from the hedge. In 
Europe this is not done until the eighth day, nor should it be done 
sooner in this country, if during the six days there have been violent 
thunder-storms, by which the labors of the moth are generally inter- 
rupted. The cocoons must be taken down gently, and great care taken 
not to press hard on them ; because, if in the least flattened, they fall 
into the class of imperfect cocoons, and are greatly lessened in value. 

In picking the cocoons from the hedge, the floss or tow with which 
they are covered must be delicately taken off, always taking care not to 
press too hard on the cocoons. 

After the cocoons are thus taken down, some are preserved for eggs 
and others kept for sale." 

COCOONS KEPT FOR USE. "In order that the farmer may 
judge of the quantity of cocoons that it will be proper or advisable for 
him to put aside and preserve for eggs, it is right that he should be told 
that fourteen ounces of cocoons will produce one ounce of eggs, and 
one ounce of eggs will produce a quintal of cocoons. 

In selecting the cocoons to be kept for eggs, it is recommended to se- 
lect the white ones in preference, and keep the colored ones for sale ; 
attention should be paid to having an equal number of males and fe- 
males, and they are generally known by the following signs : the male 
cocoons, that is to say those which contain the male insects, are in gen- 
eral smaller than the female, they are somewhat depressed in the mid- 
dle, as it were w T ith a ring ; they are sharp at one end and sometimes 
at both, and hard at both ends; the female cocoons, on the contrary, 
are larger than the male, round and full, little or not at all depressed in 
the middle, and not pointed at either end. They may easily be dis- 
cerned by a little habit. 

It is particularly recommended to take off all the floss or tow from 
these cocoons, so that the moth may find no difficulty in coming out. 

After the cocoons have been taken down from the hedge, those which 
are intended for eggs should be laid, but not crowded, on tables, that is 
to say, the males on one table and the females on another, that they 
may not copulate too soon, and before they have discharged a viscid 
humor, of a yellow reddish color, which prevents their fecundity. 
They discharge this humor in one hour after coming out of the co- 
coons, which is generally ten days after these have been taken down 
from the hedge ; but this may be accelerated by heat. 

At the expiration of one hour after the moths have come out of their 
cocoons, the males and females may be put together on tables or on tho 
floor ; the tables or floor ought to be previously covered with linen or 



cloth, on which, after copulation, the females lay their eggs. One fe-' 
1 male moth or butterfly generally lavs 500 eggs ; the male and female 
■ remain about six hours together, during which time they copulate ; 
after which they separate, and the female is 48 or 50 hours laying eggs ; 
ibut the greatest quantity during the first 40 hours. 

From the moment the moths have come out of their cocoons until 
the females have laid all their eggs, the room must be kept entirely 
dark ; the light debilitates them and makes them produce but few eggs, 
and the worms that come from them are weak and puny. 

When the female moths have done laying eggs, all the insects must 
be taken away, and may be given as food to the fowls. The eggs must 
remain on the cloth where they have been deposited during fifteen or 
twenty days, until they shall have become of an ash or slate color, 
when they are perfectly ripe, and may be considered as good eggs. 
Then the cloth or linen must be folded, and kept in a cool and dry 
I place, until it shall be thought proper to take off the eggs, which is 
done by putting the cloth into pure water, and when thoroughly wet- 
ted, scraping gently the eggs from the cloth, taking care not to injure 
them. When thus scraped into the water, all the good eggs will go to 
the bottom, and the bad, if any, will swim at the top. 

The eggs being thus washed, must be dried in the open air, and when 
perfectly dry, the best mode to preserve them is to put them into hollow 
reeds, or cane's, perfectly dry, and closed at the two extremities with a 
thin piece of flaxen or cotton linen well fastened. It is also the best 
means to transport them from one place to another." 

COCOONS INTENDED FOR SALE. " In order to prevent the 
cocoons from being perforated by the moths escaping from them, which 
greatly lessens their value, it is necessary to kill the moths. This is 
generally done by baking in an oven or by steam, but the best mode, 
which is peculiarly well adapted to warm climates, is to lay the cocoons 
on linen or cotton sheets, but not too close, or one upon another, and 
to expose them thus to the heat of the sun in open air, when it is per- 
fectly dry, during four days, from 11 A. M. to 4 P. M. taking great 
care in handling them not to crush or flatten them, which is of the 
highest importance. In that time there is no doubt that the moths will 
be killed. 

The processes of steaming and baking are not always safe, because 
they may be overdone and the silk greatly injured. Yet if the weath- 
er should prove obstinately damp or rainy, those processes must be re- 
curred to, but not in dry sunshiny weather, when they can be avoided. 

The last thing to be spoken of is the packing of the cocoons to send 
to market. They must be put in boxes with great care, not pressed too 
close, lest they should be flattened, and close enough that they should 
not suffer in like manner by striking hard upon each other in conse- 
quence of the motion of carriages or stages. The boxes being dry 
and well conditioned may be transported by steam-boats; if transport- 
ed by sea, they should not remain longer than fifteen days on salt wa- 
ter, lest they should become mouldy. On river water, and particular- 
ly by steam boats, there is not the same danger. The boxes in ev2ry 
case should be covered with a tarpaulin or good oiled cloth, that they 
may in no case suffer from dampness or rain. 



The priee of good cocoons in France is from twenty-five to thirty- 
five cents per pound of sixteen ounces ; I mean of perfect cocoons. 
Perforated cocoons, from which the moth has escaped, those which are 
spotted, and the imperfect ones, called chiques, command no price, and 
are generally given away by the silk culturists. There are but few of 
them, because those who raise silk worms being: experienced in the bu- 
siness, produce hardly any but good cocoons. "When these are sold, 
the bad ones are thrown into the bargain. 

The price of cocoons in this country cannot yet be settled ; but it 
will be the interest of the silk culturist to sell them in the beginning as 
cheap as possible, to encourage the silk manufactures, which alone can 
procure them regular purchasers, and without which their produce must 
lie upon their hands." 

LINEN. Lixien cloth, it is well known, is manufactured from flax, 
an annual plant, with a slender hollow stem usually about two feet 
high, the bark of which consists of fibres, which when dressed, are ex- 
tensively worked into this cloth, and other articles, in various countries 
of the globe. Linens are manufactured for exportation to the greatest 
extent, and of the finest quality, in Ireland, Holland, Bohemia, Sile- 
sia, Moravia, and the Netherlands. The linen manufacture is the sta- 
ple branch of Irish industry ; and in Bohemia alone, it is said to em- 
ploy more than three hundred thousand persons. The annual value of 
it in Silesia is 1,500,000/. sterling ; and there are whole villages and 
towns occupied by weavers. Russia has three hundred factories of 
linen ; and this forms the most important manufacture and export of 
the Hessian States in Germany. In other parts of Europe, and in the 
United States, it has been carried on to a limited extent, and chiefly 
for home-consumption. A late writer remarks, that " the length and 
comparative rigidity of the fibres of flax, present difficulties in the way 
of spinning it by the machinery which is used for cotton and wool. It 
cannot be prepared by carding, as these other substances are, and the, 
rollers are capable of drawing it but very imperfectly. The subject of 
spinning flax by machinery, has attracted much attention ; and the 
Emperor Napoleon, at one time, offered a reward of a million of francs 
to tne inventor of the best machine for this purpose. Various individ- 
uals, both in this country and in Europe, have succeeded in construct- 
ing machines which spin coarse threads very well, and with great rapid- 
ity. But the manufacture of fine threads, such as those used for cam- 
brics and lace, continues to be performed by hand upon the ancient 
spinning wheel." 

CAMBRIC is a species of linen made of flax, very fine and white, 
the name of which was originally derived from the city of Cambray, 
where it was first manufactured. It is now made at other places in 
France, as well as in different parts of England, Scotland, and Ire- 
land ; but French cambrics are still preferred for their extreme fineness 
and durability. 

LACE is a complicated, ornamental fabric, formed of fine threads 
of linen, cotton, or silk. It consists of a net work of small meshes, 
the most common form of which is hexagonal. In perfect thread lace, 
four sides of the hexagon consist of threads which are twisted, while 
in the remaining two, they are simply crossed. Lace is commonly 



made upon a cushion or pillow, by the slow labor of artists. A piece 
of stiff parchment is stretched upon the cushion, having- holes pricked 
through it, in which pins are inserted. The threads previously wound 
upon small bobbins, are woven round the pins and twisted in various 
ways, by the hands, so as to form the required pattern. The expen- 
siveness of the different kinds of lace, is proportioned to the tedious- 
ness of the operation. Some of the more simple fabrics are executed 
with rapidity, while others in which the sides of the meshes are plait- 
ed, as in the Brussels lace, and that made at Valenciennes, are difficult, 
and bear a much higher price. 

The cheaper kinds of lace, have long been made by machinery. And 
recently the invention of Mr. Heathcoat's lace machine, has effected 
the fabrication of the more difficult or twisted lace, with precision and 
despatch. This machine is exceedingly complicated and ingenious, 
and is now in operation in this country and in France, as well as in Eng- 

The best white lace has usually been made of flax ; but cotton can 
now be spun so neatly and finely, that the use of it, even in Lone-lace, 
has completely, in England, superseded the use of flax ; and indeed 
woven lace is now got up in that country, so neatly as to have also su- 
perseded in a great degree, the use of that made by the hand. Gold and 
silver thread is also wrought into lace. This is a stout fabric, common- 
ly close, but wrought so as to exhibit some sort of figure. It is made 
of different widths, but all narrow like ribbon. There is also a worsted 
lace, of a similar texture, commonly wrought with various patterns in 
colors. This was formerly much used on liveries, and may still be seen 
occasionally on the lining of carriages. 

CULTURE OF FLAX. While the people of the United States 
were British colonies, the culture of flax was more attended to than 
since they have become independent. In the year 1770, there were 
exported in one year upwards of 312,000 bushels of flax seed. For 
twenty years preceding 1816, the annual export of this article averaged 
but about 250,000 bushels. The causes of this decrease it is unneces- 
sary in this place to mention. It cannot be doubted, that the cultiva- 
tion might be profitable to the people of this country, and that it will 
be more extensively cultivated in future years, scarcely admits of a ques- 
tion. Much of the soil is excellently well adapted to the raising of 
flax. This is true of considerable portions of the state of Maine, of 
New England, the western parts of the state of New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, and southward to the cotton latitude. In view of the 
importance of this subject to our country, we shall give, at some length, 
directions for the cultivation of flax, for which we are indebted to an 
able essay from the pen of S. W. Pomeroy, Esq. published in the Mass. 
Agricultural Repository. 

£>oil. " The soils which rank first in this country,'' says Mr. Pome- 
roy, are the flat bottoms, that are covered by the fall and spring floods, 
which subside early enough in the season to get in a crop ; those river 
flats on the second banks, that have a depth of strong alluvial soil ; the 
reclaimed marshes and swamps, with a black, unctuous soil, not too 
peaty, with as much clay in the composition, as will permit its being 
rendered soon dry and mellow, and not retain water on or near the sur- 




face ; if it stands two feet below, so much the better, but must be well 
guarded by ditches and dykes against sudden freshets. Such is the 
soil of the province of Zealand, where more flax is raised, and of a bet- 
ter quality, than in any other part of Holland. The next in estimation 
are the strong black loams on clay, or hard pan, that will retain mois- 
ture. Yellow loams, with a holding sub-soil, may be rendered suitable 
for flax, by proper cultivation ; and since the discovery, that plaster of 
Paris is an excellent manure for it, a crop may be obtained with much 
more certainty on lighter land than formerly. Perhaps the character- 
istic of best garden mould may be applied to a flax soil, viz. retaining 
sufficient moisture, and all that falls, without ever being saturated ; but 
on any soils the surface should be completely pulverized, and never 
worked when wet. 

Manures. v " No dung should be applied to the land, when the flax 
is sown ; but may be put on bountifully with the previous crop. The 
objection is, that dung forces the growth so rapidly, that the plants draw 
weak, have a thin harle, and are more liable to lodge. Lime, marie, 
shells, leached ashes, &c. do not produce such effects. Top dressings, 
soon after the plants appear, or plaster, ashes, soot, &c. are highly bene- 
ficial, as they not only encourage the growth, but are a protection 
against worms, which sometimes attack the young plants, and may be 
considered the only enemy they have, except weeds. 

" Salt has been mentioned by the late Dr. Elliott, of Connecticut, as 
an excellent manure to plough in with the flax, at the rate of five 
bushels to the acre ; probably more would be better. Plaster is now- 
much used in Dutchess county, the best cultivated district in New York, 
as a manure for flax, on which its good effects are as apparent as on 

Preparation of the land. u It is not unfrequent in Ireland to ob- 
tain crops of flax from green sward, on which they put lime, shells, 
limestone, gravel, &c. and break up in the fall, cross ploughing and 
harrowing fine in the spring ; but it most commonly succeeds a crop 
of potatoes, which receive the manure. In Flanders, hemp was for- 
merly more used as a preparation for flax than since the introduction 
of potatoes. In Italy, it commonly precedes flax, and although the 
land gets no tillage, as the hemp is well manured it grows strong, and 
is then a powerful destroyer of weeds. In England, on some of the 
fen soils of Lincolnshire, the usual course is hemp two or three years 
in succession, well manured, then flax without manure ; a crop of tur- 
nips is often taken the same season after the flax, and hemp succeeds 
again. In Russia, it is said, that extensive crops of flax are drawn 
from new cleared lands, afterburning them over, and harrowing in the 
seed with ashes. The best preparatory crops in this country, at pre- 
sent, appear to be potatoes, corn, and roots ; they will most generally 
repay the extra manure, and if well managed, check the production of 

" The following rotations may serve as an outline, subject to be 
varied, and hemp or other crop introduced, as circumstances require, 
viz. — ■ 




1st year, Potatoes. 
2d do. Flax, with seed. 

3d do. Herds grass and red top, or tall meadow oat grass, to contin- 
ue three years or more, and the course repeated. 

No. II. — Strong uplands. 
1st year, Potatoes or corn. 
2d do. Cora or roots. 
3d do. Flax with seed. 
4th do. Clover. 

5th do. Orchard grass or Herds grass, to continue three years or 

No. III.— Light Lands. 

1st year, Potatoes or corn. 

2d do. Corn or roots. 

3d do. Flax with seed. 

4th do. Clover, to be mown once, the after growth to be turned in, 
and rye sown, thick on the furrow, which may be soiled or fed in the 
spring by sheep or milch cows, and plowed in ; for 

5th year, Corn. 

6th do. Spring wheal, or barley. 

7th do. Clover, and the course to be pursued as before, when flax 
will occupy the land every seventh ye . . In all cases except when hemp 
is substituted, the tillage crops should receive the dung. 

" If the land is ploughed into beds, or convex ridges like turnpike 
roads, about a rod wide, especially if low and level, the crop will be 
much more secure from injury by heavy rains, and the grass crop will 
be better if it remains in that form. On any soils, fall ploughing in nar- 
row ridges will facilitate its early working in the spring, and should not 
be dispensed with. 

Choice of seed. — " That of the last year's growth should be obtain- 
ed, if possible. The usual marks of good seed are, that it be plump, 
oily, and heavy, of a bright brown color, sinking readily in water, and 
when thrown into the fire to crackle and blaze quick. A very simple 
method of trial is to sprinkle it thin > between two pieces of wet paper, 
which plunge into a hot bod or dung hill, and in less than twenty-four 
hours, the proportion that will vegetate can be discerned, which should 
be ascertained, in order to regulate the 

" Quantity of seed to be sown. On this head no particular direc- 
tions can be given, as it depends on the various qualities of soil, good- 
ness of seed, &c. The rule for seeding small grains is reversed ; flax 
requiring to be sown thickest on a rich soil, as not more than one stalk 
is wanted for a plant. In England and Scotland never less than two, 
nor more than three bushels to the acre are sown. Two and u. naif is 
the most usual portion. In Flanders and Ireland, seldom less than three 
bushels are sown, except when seed is an object. Thick sowing is to 
obtain fine flax. In this country, it will be important, at present, to 
sow at such a rate as will ensure good crops of each ; and experience 
only can determine the exact pcint. 

" If sown very thin, too many lateral branches will be thrown out, 
each producing a boll or pod, affording more seed, but shorter and in- 



ferior flax. If sown too thick, the plants will draw up weak, with a 
single boll on a plant, and, subject as our climate is to heavy showers 
and thunder gusts, very liable to lodge — one of the greatest dangers a 
flax crop has to encounter. The commissioners for promoting flax cul- 
ture in Scotland, considered it as practicable, and strongly recommended 
that the system should be so conducted, as to obtain good flax and good 
seed at the same time. It is so viewed in Ireland ; among the more 
extensive cultivators, except when wanted for fine linen, cambric, lawn, 
&c." Dr. Dean, in the l New England Farmer,' a work of great merit, 
published some thirty years since, when flax culture was more attended 
to than at present, recommends from six to seven pecks. It is probable 
that six pecks is the least, and two bushels the extent that should be 
sown to obtain the most profitable results, till the demand for seed is 
considerably lessened. 

Sowing. " The seed should be got in as early as it is possible to 
prepare the ground. Dr. Deane observes that a slight frost after the 
plants are up will not injure them. For no crop is it more important 
that the seed should be equally distributed. Fortunately what has long 
been a desideratum is now attained. A machine, (Bennet's machine,) 
for sowing small seeds broad cast, with perfect regularity, great expe- 
dition, and in any desired quantity, has lately been invented, and per- 
forms to great satisfaction. 

Weeding. " Weeding is considered in Europe, and by good hus- 
bandmen in this country, as necessary to secure a good crop of flax, 
which is a very tender plant when young, and more easily checked in 
its progress by weeds than any other. It is not supposed to be injured 
by the clover and grass sown with it ; on the contrary, the Flemish far- 
mers think them beneficial, by protecting the tender roots from drouth, 
and keeping the weeds under. It should be carefully wed when the 
plants are three or four inches high ; they are not then injured by the 
laborer going barefooted over them. 

Pulling. " This should be performed as soon as the leaves begin 
to fall, and the stalks show a bright yellow color, and when the bolls 
are turned a little brown. The seed will continue to ripen afterwards. 
When the flax is lodged, it should be pulled immediately, in any stage 
of its growth, or it will be entirely lost ; great care is requisite in sorting 
the different lengths, and keeping them separate till after the flax is 
hackled, or much waste will ensue in that process. 

Saving seed. "As soon as the flax is dry enough to put under 
cover, the bolls should be rippled, as it is termed. A comb resembling 
the head of a rake, but with teeth longer and nearer together, made of 
hickory or oak, is fastened upon a block, and the flax taken in parcels 
no larger than the hands can firmly grrsp, is drawn through, and the 
bolls rippled oft; attention to sorting at the same time should be con- 
tinued. The bolls are to be riddled and winnowed immediately ; spread 
thin on a clean floor, or on sheets, in the sun, and when sufficiently dry, 
and beginning to open, threshed. By this method, the foul seeds are 
.completely separated with little trouble, and good clean seed is ready 
for an early market, often the best, without the use of expensive ma- 
chinery to make it so. 



" The preparation of flax by steeping is very general in the great flax 
growing countries in Europe, but it is not quite finished in the water. 
It remains spread some days on the grass, which is necessary to render 
it soft and give that silvery appearance so desirable. The d ,structive 
process of dew rotting, is most commonly practised in this countrv, and 
when water is resorted to, it is at an improper season, and the p ocess 
imperfect ; which is the cause of its being so harsh and brittle. Per- 
haps no part of the system requires such an allowance for difference of 
climate. In the humid atmosphere of Ireland, it is not very material 
when it is spread ; but in this climate, when exposed to a July or 
August sun, every drop after a shower, beco.. si a burning-glass, and 
literally scorches the fibres ; besides, such a highly putrid ferme tion 
as will then take place in the water, though it separates the hark, more 
speedily, not only injures it, but communicates a stain that renders the 
process of bleaching much more tedious and expensive. 

" The flax should not be put into the water till about the first of Oc- 
tober, and remain from ten to fourteen days, according to the tempe- 
rature of the weather, and should be taken out before the fibres will 
separate freely, spread on the grass, when the frost will very much as- 
sist the operation, and the flax exhibits a gloss and softness, that it is 
impossible to give it otherwise. 

" Clear, soft, stagnant water is preferred in Europe. A canal, forty 
feet long, six broad, and four deep, is said to be sufficient for the pur- 
pose of an acre of flax at one time. It should be formed on a clay, or 
some holding soil, where the water from a spring or brook can be con- 
ducted in with convenience ; the expense would not be great, and on 
most farms suitable sites may be had. May not boiling or steaming be 
found the most advantageous process of preparing flax ? The very su- 
perior sample of thread exhibited at Brighton, in 1818, for which Mrs. 
Crowninshield, of Danvers, Mass. received a premium, was spun from 
flax prepared by boiling 1 It appears by the fc Transactions of the Swe- 
dish Academy,' that a method v/as practised in S wee on of preparing 
flax to resemble cotton, by boiling it ten hours in salt water, spreading 
on the grass, and frequently watering, by which it becomes soft and 
bleached. Boiling or steaming will not appear very formidable or ex- 
pensive, when we examine the subject. A box twenty feet long, six 
feet wide, and four deep, well constructed with stout plank, a boiler, 
from which a large tube extends into, and communicates with the wa- 
ter in the box, will boil the produce of a quarter of an acre in a day, 
that is, if we allow double the room to boil in that is required for steep- 
ing. A steam pipe, instead of a tube, and having the top of the box 
well secured, would permit the process of steaming to go on. It is pro- 
bable that by either method, grassing will be necessary, to obtain soft 
flax. The yarns of which the sail cloth is made at Patterson, are all 
steamed. The navy board expressly forbid their being boiled in alka- 
line lye, as is usual in most manufactures of linen. It is from tins pre- 
caution that their canvass has the pliable, oily feeling, which so n ch 
recommends it. It should not be lost sight of, that by boiling or steam- 
ing, much time and expense will be saved in bleaching. 

Dressing. " In this process our climate gives us a decided advan- 
tage over Ireland, Flanders, or the north of Europe, where the flax is 
dried on hurdles, over a peat fire, in ovens, or in kilns requiring great 




care in regulating the heat, so as to prevent injury. All this trouble 
and hazard is obviated by our dry atmosphere and keen north-west " 
winds. — Dr. Deane estimated the expense of dressing flax by hand at 
one-third the product. I believe the present price does not much vary 
from his estimate. A respectable gentleman from Dutchess county, 
New York, informed me that mills or machines, impelled by water, have 
been erected there, that break and completely dress the flax for the toll 
of one tenth ! It is said that one or more of them are in operation in 
the western part of Massachusetts. These mills were invented in 
Scotland, and are now said to be brought to great perfection. They 
are erected in all directions in the principal flax districts in Ireland, and 
notwithstanding the low price and limited demand for labor, are resort- 
ed to by the poorer classes of people, the dressing by hand being mostly 
abandoned. There are machines in England that dress flax immedi- 
ately from the field, without any preparation whatever. An account 
of them may be found in the 5th volume of the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural Journal. It appears, by the report of a committee of the 
House of Commons, that in 1817 they were in successful operation. A 
man and three children impelled the machines and dressed sixty pounds 
a day. We have no information of any further improvements. Should 
they be susceptible of the application of water or steam power, in any 
degree proportionate, the advantages may be incalculable, but in the 
present enquiry, we place these machines, however desirable, entirely 
out of the question. 

Product. " It is not uncommon in Great Britain and Ireland to ob« 
tain eight hundred pounds of flax from an acre ! Six hundred pounds: 
in some distiicts is estimated as an average ; but it should be observed, 
that little, if any seed is obtained. The average crop in New England, 
as far as our information extends, cannot be estimated at more than two 
hundred pounds, or six or eight bushels of seed. (We do not include; 
the rich bottoms on the Connecticut and some other rivers.) Dr. Deane 
was of opinion that four hundred pounds might be calculated on, with 
proper management. 

wt W^e think that four hundred pounds of good clean flax, and eight 
or ten bushels of seed may fairly be assumed as a medium crop on fa- 
vorable soils, where the culture becomes such an object as to make oth- 
er farming operations subservient to it, and due attention is paid to the 
change of seed. 

" Those who grow flax to any extent are of opinion, that the 
seed, at the price it has been for some years past, pays for all the labor 
bestowed on the crop to the time the flax is ready to be prepared or 

HEMP is an annual plant of great use in the arts and manufac- 
tures, furnishing thread, cloth, and cordage. Hemp bears a near anal- 
ogy to flax, not only in form but also in culture and use. The bark of 
the stalk, as in flax, is the chief object for which it is cultivated. Hemp 
is manufactured into Canvass, Russia Duck, Russia Towelling, Ticks, 
Dowlass, &c. The process of manufacturing these various articles, we 
shall not find room to detail. This portion of our work will be mor? 
usefully occupied by directions as to the best mode of cultivating hemp 
in the United States. 



That the cultivation of hemp is important to the farmers of the land 
can scarcely be questioned. 1 he climate and soil are well adapted to 
it. The annual import of the article from Prussia does not probably 
fall short of half a million of dollars. In addition to this, we annually 
import in Duck, and other manufactures of hemp, exclusive of cord- 
age, to the amount of more than a million and a half of dollars. This 
amount of hemp, and even more, might be b/ought to market in a short 
time, from our own soil, and the manufacture of the various articles 
now imported might be carried on in our country, as well as those of 
cotton or woollen goods. American hemp, to say the least, is equal to 
the best Russia hemp. By an experiment made in 1H24, by direction 
of the commissioners of the Navy, it would appear that American 
hemp justly claims the superiority in respect to strength. M Two ropes, 
each 2% inches, one made of American and the other of Russian hemp, 
broke the former with 3209 ios. the latter with 31 18 lbs." 

Cultivation of Hemp. " Hemp, (says a writer in the New Eng- 
land Farmer,) requires a deep and rich soil. Any attempt to raise it 
upon a light soil, or upon land worn out and exhausted, until it is re- 
cruited by manure, and a fertilizing course of husbandry, will result 
only in disappointment. Nor can it long be continued upon the same 
piece of ground, without an annual supply of manure. But upon a 
£ood soil, with an annual sprinkling of manure, at the rate of eight or 
ten loads to the acre, it may be continued for a succession of years, 
without any material diminution of the value of the crop. 

The ground must be prepared for the seed, much in the same man- 
ner as for flax. It must be ploughed and harrowed sufficiently to break 
the clods, and to render the soil fine and mellow. As different soils 
require different degrees of labor to produce this effect, it must be left 
to the judgment of the cultivator to determine when his ground is in a 
proper state te receive the seed. I can safely say, that few farmers err, 
in ploughing and harrowing too much. 

The time for sowing is about the 10th of May. A few days earlier 
or later will make no difference. It must not be so early as to expose 
the tender plant to severe frosts, and if sown late in May, it will pro- 
duce a light crop — the stalks will have a thin coat. 

No further attention to the crop is required until the season of pull- 
ing and cutting. Although the latter mode of gathering is attended 
with less labor, our farmers almost universally adopt the former as the 
most profitable. This commences about the iOth of August. The 
time of pulling is determined by the appearance of the hemp. There 
are two kinds of hemp in every field, distinguished by the names of 
the male and the female. The latter produces the seed, the former the 
isom and the farina. The male hemp has but few and slender 
branches When this has turned white, or a paJe yellow, has shed its 
leaves, and the farina has chiefly fallen off, then it is time to pull it. 
The female hemp has more and stronger branches, and continues fresh 
and green until the seed is ripe. It is common to leave patches, or 
narrow strips, where the seed hemp is most abundant, until the seed 
has ripened, which will be about a month after the time of pulling ; in 
which case, the economical farmer will pull out the male hemp as far 
as it is practicable ; for the fibres of the hemp that stands in the field 



until the seed is ripe, are always stiff and harsh, and will bring less in 
the market than that which has been pulled at the proper season. 

The pulling is a heavy job. One-fourth of an acre is considered as 
a day's work, though expert hands will pull a third of an acre. No 
precaution is necessary except to guard against breaking the stalks. 
The laborer gathers a few stalks in his hands and pulls them up, and 
having repeated this three or four times, he strikes the roots once or 
twice with his foot, in order to kick off the dirt, then holding the whole 
loose in his hands, lets the roots drop on the ground for the purpose of 
making that end of his handful even. And in spreading his hemp on 
the ground, he is careful to lay the butts stiaight and true. This will 
greatly facilitate the labor of binding. 

Rain upon the hemp after it is pulled, produces the same effect as 
upon mown grass. It discolors it and injures its quality. It must 
therefore be suffered to lie upon the ground no longer than it is neces- 
sary for its preservation. As soon as it is sufficiently dried, w T hich, in 
w rm and drying weather, will be after two days sun, it must be bound 
up in small bundles or sheaves. A little rye straw is the cheapest and 
best thing for bands. Let the band be put on towards the top of the 
bundle, and then shoved 'lown to about the middle, otherwise it will 
be difficult to bind close enough to hold together, through all the sub- 
sequent handlings. Set up 15 or 20 bundles together, well braced at 
the roots to admit a free circulation of air, and to prevent it from blow- 
ing over, and let it lemain in this situation, until it is cured sufficiently 
to put into a stack or under cover. This may be done, in good 
weather, after two or three days. In the construction of the stack, 
great pains must be taken, lest the rain should find a passage into it. 
It is safest to put it under cover, either under sheds about the barn, 
or by erecting one for the purpose. 

It may be asked, why not transport it to the place of rotting and 
immerse it in the water, immediately after it is pulled, or as soon as 
it is dry, and save the trouble of securing it from the weather ? I am 
not prepared to say that this cannot be done with safety, under vigi- 
lant care and attention. It is believed, however, that it would be ex- 
posed to greater hazard of loss, than at a later period. At the time 
of pulling, the weather is hot, and the water warm. Putrefaction 
proceeds with great rapidity. If the hemp should remain in the wa- 
ter a little too long, or if, after it is drawn from the water there should 
be a long rain, or a continuance of damp weather to prevent its dry- 
ing, it w r ould be rotted too much, and the fibre would be materially 
injured, if not destroyed. But when the hemp is immersed later in 
the season, after the weather and water have become cool, there is no 
risk in suffering it to remain in the water a short time longer than is 
necessary. It is also supposed that v/hen the hemp is rotted in hot 
weather, there will be a greater proportion of tow — and after it is 
drawn from the water, the bands must be opened and the hemp spread, 
in order that it may dry quickly. It is also a busy season with the 
farmer, and he can a i I to it at a later period, with less interruption 
to other branches 01 Husbandry. These are the reasons which have 
induced our farmers to postpone the rotting till the latter part of Oc- 
tober. As I have never tried any experiments in reference to this 



part of the process, and indeed have had but little experience in the 
culture of hemp on my own farm, I will not give an opinion whether 
their reasons are well founded or not. I have not undertaken to point 
out the best n'.etkod. in relation to any part of the process, but only to 
describe the course pursued in my own neighborhood. 

It has sometimes been made a question whether running or stagnant 
water was to be preferred. The latter is more generally used in Eng- 
land. The former has been universally applied here. A place is se- 
lected near the margin of some brook or small stream, which will af- 
ford a basin in which the hemp can be deposited, and where, by erect- 
ing a dam across the stream, the hemp can be covered with water. 

In the first place, the dam is built of a sufficient height to secure the 
requisite supply of water, leaving a gale-way in the natural course of 
the stream, and the top of the gate a little lower than the height of the 
dam, to let off the surplus water. After the dam is completed, shut 
the gate and try the dam, in order to ascertain whether it is water 
tight, and will stand against the pressure produced by raising the pond. 
If it proves sufficient, then let off the water and put in the hemp. A 
space of two or three feet should be left between the hemp and the dam, 
so that if a leak should be discovered, there may be room to stop it. 
This precaution may be unnecessary in an old and long tried dam, but 
should not be omitted in a new one. Put down a layer of hemp, laying" 
the bundles compactly, then a second course on the first, in a transverse 
direction, and so on successively, until the whole crop is deposited in 
the bed, or as much as the basin will receive. Weights, consisting of 
long and heavy timber, or plank, or slabs with stones upon them, must 
then be laid across the bed to prevent it from floating. Having de- 
posited the hemp and secured it from rising, the gate way may be clo- 
sed, and the water raised upon the hemp. It will be observed that the 
level of the hemp must be lower than the top of the gate-way, so that 
the whole body may be immersed in water, and continued so until it is 

The length of time necessary to complete the rotting process de- 
pends much on the weather, and the temperature of water. It may be 
ascertained whether it has lain in the water long enough, by taking out 
one of the bundles, drying and braking it. If the seed cracks easily, 
and the rind, or harl readily separates from the wood, it is sufficiently 
rotted. 60 also, if while it lies in the water, the roots will twist off 
easily. Hemp put into the water the last week in October, will gener- 
ally require about three weeks. When put in later, I have known it 
lie seven weeks. If put into stagnant water, soon after it is pulled, 
five or six days is enough. 

When the hemp is rotted, open the gate-way and drain off the pond. 
T'.e hemp must then be removed to a piece of grass land — the bundles upon the ground singly, and, after two or three days, turned over. 
When partially dried, it is carried and set up, inclining against a fence, 
where it remains until it is fit for the brake. It may then be carried 
to the building or shed where it is to be dressed ; or the brake may be 
carried to the hemp, as is generally the case here, and after it is broken, 
it is removed to the barn for the finishing process — or if the weather 
is not too severe, it may be dressed where it is broken. 



A cheap vehicle or sled, for the removal of the hemp from the pond, 
may be made of two pieces of slit work, about nine feet in length, with 
three cross beams of the same material. The stakes, driven closely 
through each beam and runner, will serve the double purpose of hold- 
ing the sled together, and keeping the hemp from falling off. No 
tongue will be necessary. It may be drawn with chains. If however 
the grass ground is at any considerable distance from the pond, wheels 
may be necessary. 

In dressing, two brakes are used. The first, coarser than a common 
flax brake, the second, as fine as a flax brake at the head, with one ad- 
ditional bar in each jaw. If the hemp is well rotted and faithfully 
broke, but little remains for the swingling board. A man, accustomed 
to the business, w T ill brake and dress from 50 to 75lbs. a day. 

The labor required to prepare a crop of hemp for market, is not in- 
considerable. But it will be observed, that but a small portion of the 
labor comes at a season when the farmer is most busily occupied in 
gathering and securing his other crops. The pulling comes on soon 
after the hay and grain are secured. The rotting does not commence till 
after Indian harvest, and the winter grain is sown. The dressing is 
wholly done in cold weather, when the farmer has little occupation be- 
sides that of taking care of his stock and providing fuel. Every con- 
siderable farmer who has land suitable for hemp, might raise a few 
acres, without greatly interfering with his ordinary course of husbandry. 

The average crop is six or seven hundred pounds to the acre. I have 
raised nine or ten — but this was an unusual crop. The land w T as strong, 
and in very fine tilth. The hemp grew to a great height, and wa3 very 
uniform throughout the piece. The price of hemp in market, has va- 
ried, of late years, from § 10 to £> 12,50 a hundred. Scarce any crop of 
field culture can be put upon the land, which will produce so great a 

TANNING is the process of converting the skins of animals into 

It is difficult to determine when the art of tanning was first practi- 
sed ; but that it was known at a very early period, there is little doubt. 
The real change, however, which skins undergo by being tanned has 
not been accurately known till of late years. It is now indubitably 
ascertained that a mixture of gelatin and tannin, of which we shall 
presently speak, although each is separately soluble in water, becomes 
insoluble in that fluid, and forms the substance so well known as leath- 
er : hence, as the chief constituent of all animal skins is gelatin, the 
ease with which, by immersion in a solution of tannin, they are con- 
verted into that useful substance. The processes of tanning are nev- 
ertheless numerous, and somewhat complicated and tedious. The 
skins are in general, after being freed from their horns, ears and blood, 
and other impurities, placed in lime-pits for a longer or shorter period, 
in order to their hair and scarf-skins being more readily removed ; af- 
ter which they are immersed in a pit containing water and sulphuric 
acid. This operation is called raising, which disposes the skin more 
readily to combine with the tannin. It is next placed in the tan-pit, 
with a layer of oak -bark, ground fine between each skin ; the pit is 
then filled with tanning ooze prepared from oak-bark and water, 



where the skins remain a month or six weeks, when they are taken out, 
a fresh quantity of bark and ooze is put in as before, and the process is 
thus continued till the skins are completely tanned ; and they will be- 
come so in a shorter or longer time, depending upon the thickness of 
the skin and the manner in which the application of the tannin has 
been made. When sufficiently tanned, they are taken out, and after 
undergoing certain manipulations, are dried and weighed. The time 
required for the processes of tanning varies exceedingly ; the larger 
skins require from six to fifteen months to be effectually tanned. The 
processes are also varied for different skins ; but we cannot detail them. 

TANNIN, to which we have adverted in the preceding article, exists 
in large quantity in various vegetable substances : it is found particu- 
larly in abundance in the bark of oak, Spanish chestnut, willow, elm, 
ash, &c. In this country, however, leather is tanned chiefly by the use 
of the bark of the oak, which is ground in a mill by tanners for the 

CURRYING is the last process to which tanned skins are subjected; 
it is applied to those destined for the upper leather, legs of boots, seats 
of saddles, and such purposes as do not require either great strength 
or impermeability by water, and never to sole leather. Currying leath- 
er consists in shaving or scraping the flesh side of the tanned skin with 
a straight edged two handled knife, against a wooden bench or stock, 
and thus reducing the tanned skin to a uniform and determined thick- 
ness, according to the purpose for which it is designed. After being 
thus shaved (if designed for common shoes and boots,) it is rubbed 
with train oil and rendered soft and flexible, while the shaved side of 
the leather has assumed a shining fibrous appearance. In this state the 
flesh side is waxed or blackened with a mixture of oil and lamp-black. 
But where the leather is not oiled in dressing, the hair side of the skin, 
if it be required to be black, after being duly scoured clean with a 
pumice-stone, is dyed with a solution of sulphate of iron in water, or 
some other dye. 

PAPv.CII.MENT is the skins of sheep or goats, prepared after such 
a manner as to render them proper for writing upon, covering books, 
<fcc. When parchment was first used as a material for the reception of 
writing, is not exactly determined. It is however tolerably certain, 
that it was used long before the Christian era ; and it is said that the 
name parchment, or charta pergamcna, is derived from Pergamus, a city 
of Asia Minor, where it was invented in consequence of Ptolemy ha- 
ving forbidden the exportation of the papyrus from Egypt. Before 
the invention of paper, parchment necessarily formed a considerable 
article of commerce, as, for many centuries, most of the books of Eu- 
rope were written on it. Its use is now confined chiefly to legal instru- 
ments and the covers of books. 

The manufacture of parchment is begun by the skinner, and finished 
by the parchment maker. The skin, having been stripped of its wool, 
and passed the lime-pit, is stretched on a frame, perforated lengthwise, 
with holes furnished with wooden pins, which may be turned at plea- 
sure, like those of a violin. When sufficiently stretched, the flesh is 
pared off with a keen-edged instrument ; the skin is then moistened 
with a white rag, and a kind of white stone or chalk, reduced to fine 



dust, being strewed over it with a large pumice-stone, flat at bottom, 
similar to a muller for grinding colors, the remainder of the flesh is 
scoured off. It is then gone over again with the iron instrument, mois- 
tened as before, and rubbed with the pumice-stone without any chalk 
' underneath. The flesh-side being thus treated, the iron is passed over 
the wool or hair-side : the skin is then stretched again tight on the 
frame by means of the pins, and the flesh side is again gone over with 
the iron. More chalk is now thrown on, and the skin is swept over 
with a piece of lamb-skin that has the wool on ; this smooths it still 
further, and gives it a white down or nap. It is now left to dry, and 
when dried, taken off the frame, by cutting it all round. The skin, 
thus far prepared by the skinner, is taken out of his hands by the 
parchment-maker, who first scrapes or pares it dry on the summer^ a 
calf-skin well stretched on a frame, serving as a support to the skin, 
which is fastened over it with a wooden implement that has a notch 
cut in it, with an iron instrument like that above mentioned, only finer 
and sharper ; with this, worked with the arm from the top to the bot- 
tom of the skin, he takes away about one half of its thickness. The 
skin being thus equally pared on both sides, the pumice-stone is passed 
over each side, to smooth it. This last process is performed on a kind 
of form or bench, covered with a sack stuffed wilh flocks, and leaves 
the parchment in a condition for writing on. The parings taken off 
the leather are used in making glue, size, &c. As there is a great 
waste in reducing the skins to a proper thinness in this mode, an instru- 
ment has lately been invented for splitting each skin into two. 

SHAGREEN, a kind of very hard, grained leather, brought from 
Turkey, Poland, Algiers, &c. ; it is used as covers for cases, books, &c. 
It is made thus : — The skin, having undergone the necessary prepara- 
tions, is covered, while wet, with a layer of small round seeds, which 
are pressed down upon it by weights. In this state it is suffered to dry, 
and then the rising parts are shaved off, till the surface is quite smooth. 
Being w 7 etted, the parts depressed by the seeds swell up, and appear 
like so many tubercles, which retain their figure after the skin is again 
dried. The best is of a brownish color. It is extremely hard ; yet, 
when steeped in water, becomes very soft and pliable, whence it becomes 
of great use among case-makers. It takes any color that is given to it ; 
red, green, black, yellow. The skin of some of the species of shark or 
dog-fish, being very rough, was formerly sold as shagreen, but its pro- 
minences have not the roundness of those of shagreen, and it has long 
been known by its proper name ofjish-skin. The skins of which sha- 
green is made are not exactly known in this country. 

MOROCCO is the skin of a goat, or some othor animal resembling 
it, called menon, common in the Levant ; dressed with sumach or galls, 
and colored with any color, much used in upholstery, book-binding, for 
ladies' shoes, &c. But most of the morocco to be obtained in this coun- 
try is prepared here from sheep-skins. The name is derived from the 
kingdom of Morocco, whence it is supposed the manner of preparing 
this leather was first borrowed. Morocco is however brought from the 
Levant, Barbary, Spain, Flanders, and Russia; red, black, yellow, blue, 
&c. ; the methods of preparing which are too long to be detailed here. 
The process has been latterly greatly simplified, and the brilliancy and 
durability of the Turkey red successfully imitated. The abundance 



and excellence of the Spanish goat skins enabled the Spaniards to take 
the lead in this manufacture ; the Russians followed them : but mo- 
rocco of various colors is now prepared in England equal to any im- 

GLUE, or GELATIN, is a viscid, tenacious matter, soluble in water, 
and used in the arts as a cement, to bind or connect things together. 
There are many kinds of glues ; as common glue, glove glue, parch- 
ment glue. Common glue is used by joiners, cabinet-makers, case- 
makers, hatters, book-binders, &c. The consumption of it is very con- 
siderable. The best glue is made in England, in square pieces, of a 
ruddy brown color. Flanders glue is esteemed next to the English. 
Glue is made of the skins of all kinds of beasts, as oxen, cows, calves, 
sheep, &c The older the beast is, the better the glue that is made of 
its hide. Indeed, it is rare that whole skins are used for this purpose, 
they being too valuable ; but shavings, parings, or scraps of skins, and 
sometimes the feet, sinews, ice. of beasts are used. Glue made entirely 
of skins is the best ; and that of sinews, <Scc. the worst : and hence 
chiefly arises the difference of glues. 

To make glue of parings. They first steep them two or three days 
in water, then, washing them well, boil them to the consistence ot a 
thick jelly. This done, they pass the jelly, while yet hot, through osier 
baskets to separate it from any impurities ; and in order to purify it 
still further, they let it rest some time. "When the impure matter is 
precipitated to the bottom of the vessel, it is dissolved and boiled down 
a second time. It is then poured into flat frames, or moulds, whence 
it is taken out, when rather hard and solid, and cut into square pieces, 
or cakes. Nothing now remains but to dry it in the air, on a sort of 
coarse net, and afterward to string it, to finish the dryingr. The glue 
made of feet, sinews, &zc. is managed after the same manner, with this 
difference only, that they bone and scour the feet, and do not lay them 
to steep. The surest test of the goodness of glue, besides its clearness 
and hardness, is, when it dissolves completely in water, without leaving 
the least sediment. All the glues, when pure, are very nutricious as 

Size is less adhesive than glue, and is obtained from parchment 
vines, fish-skins, and several animal membranes. It is employed by 
book-binders, paper-hangers, kc. 

Fish glue is a sort of glue made of the gelatinous parts offish. It is 
of considerable use in refining liquors, in pastry, and various other arts. 
It is better known by the name of isinglass. 

HATS are chiefly made of hair, wool, &:c., worked, fulled, and fash- 
ioned to the required figure. Hats are said to have been first worn in 
Europe about the year 1400. They now make a very considerable ar- 
ticle of commerce. The finest, and those most valued, are made of the 
fur of the beaver. They are also made either of the wool or hair of 
other animals, as the hare, rabbit, camel, goat, lamb, sheep, seal, mole, 
and of cotton, fee. 

The process is much the same in all ; and we shall therefore give 
that with beaver. The skin of this animal is covered with two kinds 


194 FA MILY 


of hair ; the one long, stiff, and glossy ; the other, short, thick, and soft, 
which alone is used in hats. When the hair is cut off, the whole is 
carded with cards, like those used in the woollen manufacture, only 
finer. The stuff is now laid on the hurdle, which is a square table, 
having longitudinal chinks cut through it ; on this hurdle, with an in- 
strument called a bow, much resembling that of a violin, but larger, the 
string of which is worked with a little bow-stick, and thus made to play 
on the hair or w T ool, it is mixed together, the dust and filth at the same 
time passing through the chinks. This is considered one of the most 
difficult operations of hat-making, as upon the proper bowing and ad- 
mixture of the fur depends greatly the goodness of the hat. The quan- 
tity bowed at once is called a bait, and never exceeds half of that wbich 
is required to make one hat. With this they form gores, or tw r o ca- 
pades, of an oval shape. They are designedly made thicker in the 
brim, near the crown, than towards the circumierence, or in the crown 

Thecapades or batts being finished, they are reduced into closer and 
more consistent flakes, by pressing them down with a hardening skin, 
or leather. This done, they are carried to the basin, a sort of bench 
with an iron plate fitted therein, having a small fire underneath it ; upon 
which, laying one of the hardened capades, sprinkled over with water, 
and a sort of mould applied thereon, the heat of the fire, w T ith the water 
and pressing, embody the wool into a slight hairy sort of stuff or felt; 
after which, turning up the edges all round over the mould, they lay it 
by, and thus proceed with the other. This finished, the two are next 
joined together, so as to meet in an angle at the top, forming one coni- 
cal cap. The hat thus basined, is removed to a large trough, resem- 
bling a mill-hopper, sloping from the edge to the bottom, which is a 
kettle, filled with water and grounds of beer, or water rendered sour by 
sulphuric acid, and kept hot for the purpose. On the sloping side, 
called the plank, the basined hat, being first dipped in the kettle, is 
laid. Here it is worked, by rolling and unrolling it again and aa:ain, 
first with the hand, and then with a little wooden roller, taking care to 
dip it from time to time; till at length, by thus felting or thickening it 
for four or five hours, it is reduced to the extent or dimensions of the 
hat intended. 

After being thus wrought, the proper form is given to it, by laying 
the conical cap on a w T ooden block, of the intended size of the crown 
of the hat, and thus tying it round with a pack-thread, called a com- 
mander ; after which, with a piece of iron, or copper, bent for the 
purpose, and called a stamper, they gradually beat or drive the com- 
mander all around, till it has reached the bottom of the block, and thus 
the crown is formed; what remains at bottom below the string being 
the brim. The hat being now set to dry, they proceed to singe it, by 
holding it over a flare of straw, or the like ; then it is pounced, or rub- 
bed with pumice stone, to tako off the coarser nap ; then rubbed over 
afresh with seal-skin, to lay the nap still finer ; and lastly carded with 
a fine card, to raise the fine down, with which the hat is afterward to 
appear. It is then sent upon its block, tied about with pack-thread as 
before, to be dyed. 

The dyer's copper is usually very large, holding ten or twelve dozen 
hats. The dye or tincture, is made of logwood, verdigris, sulphate of 



iron, and alder bark, to which some add galls, sumach, kc. After the 
hat has been boiled in the coloring liquor about three quarters of an 
hour, it is taken out and set to cool, and then returned to the dye ; 
and this for ten or twelve times successively. The hat being dyed, is 
returned to the hatter, who proceeds to dry it, by hanging it up in a 
suitable stove or oven. When dry, it is stiffened with a solution of 
glue, or gum-senegal. It is next steamed on the steaming-basin, a lit- 
tle fire-place, raised three feet high, with an iron plate laid over it, 
exactly covering it. On this plate they first spread cloths, which being 
sprinkled over with water, to secure the hat from burning, the hat is 
placed, brim downwards, thereon. When moderately hot, the work- 
man strikes gently on the brim, with the flat of his hand, to make the 
jointings incorporate and bind, so as not to appear ; turning it from time 
to time, and at last setting it on the crown. When steamed sufficiently 
and dried, it is again put on the block, and brushed and ironed on a ta- 
ble called the stall-board. This is done with irons like those commonly 
used in ironing linen, and heated like them ; which being rubbed over 
each part of the hat, with the assistance of the brush, smoothens and 
gives it a gloss, which is the last operation. 

Hats are distinguished in trade either as stuff-hats, those which con- 
sist chiefly, if not wholly, of beaver and other fine fur; plale-hotz, 
which consist of wool covered with a better material on the outside 
only ; or, cordies* made wholly of wool, or other coarse material. 
Silk-hats are also now worn ; they are formed of a stout oil case or 
some such material, and merely covered with silk ; these hats are wa- 

A BUTTON is an article of dress, serving to fasten clothes on the 
body, and made in various forms of siik, mohair, thread, metal, horn, 
bone, mother of pearl, wood, <Scc. Metal buttons, which are now the 
most common, are formed in two ways, and are either solid metal, or 
consist of thin plates or caps, bottomed with bone or wood. Metal 
buttons, properly so called, are either white or yellow, gilded or plated, 
and consist of solid metal, generally copper, with more or less alloy of 
zinc. The tops of such buttons are either cut out of sheet metal, or 
cast ; in the latter case the shanks or eyes are fixed exactly in the cen- 
tre of each mould, so as to have their extremities immersed in the melted 
metal, by which means they are firmly fixed in the button when cooled. 
The former method is used for yellow buttons, the latter for those of 
white metal. The shanks or eyes of the former kind are made with 
great expedition ; by a curious engine, they are attached to the bottom 
of each button by a wire clamp, like a pair of sugar-tongs ; solder is 
applied, and they become fixed to the button after exposure on a hot 
iron. The button is then burnished for plating or gilding ; the latter 
is effected by covering the surface with a thin coat of mercury, over 
which is laid an amalgam of mercury and gold, and the mercury evapo- 
rated by heat. Five grains of gold will thus cover 144 buttons one inch 
in diameter. Plating or silvering may be performed nearly in the 
same manner, or with muriate of silver. 

Wrought or figured buttons are made of mohair or silk, and a very 
inferior kind of thread. In order to make a button, the mohair must 
he previously wound upon a bobbin, and the mould fixed upon a board, 



by means of a bodkin thrust through the hole in the middle of it. This 
being done, the workman wraps the mould in three, four, or six columns, 
according to the button. The moulds of horse-hair buttons are covered 
with a kind of stuff, composed of silk and hair ; the warp being bella- 
dine silk, and the shoot horse-hair. 

Gold twist buttons are first covered in the same manner as common 
buttons. Then the whole is covered with a thin plate of gold or silver. 
It is afterwards wrought all over with purl, a kind of thread composed 
of silk and gold wire twisted together, and gold gimp. 

Glass buttons of different colors are made when the glass is in a state 
of fusion, the button being nipped out of it by a pair of iron moulds, 
like those for casting pistol-shot ; the shank having been inserted in 
the mould, so that it may be found imbedded in the glass when cool. 

Mother of pearl buttons are a somewhat ingenious manufacture. The 
mode of fixing the eye or shank is by drilling a hole at the back, which 
is under cut ; that is, larger at the bottom than the top, like a mortise, 
and the shank being driven in by a steady stroke, its extremity expands 
on striking the bottom of the hole, and thus becomes firmly riveted in- 
to the button. Steel studs are thus often riveted into buttons of this 
and other kinds. In cases where stones and foil are used, the shanks 
are usually attached with isinglass glue. 

GOLD. The method of refining gold, and its application to manu- 
factures, are as follows. In separating the gold, the mineral ore is first 
broken with iron mallets, then ground in mills to a fine powder, and 
passed through several sieves. The powder is then placed in troughs, 
with mercury and water. After this the water and earth are forced out 
of the troughs by pouring on a stream of hot water. This done, there 
remains nothing but the mercury and the ore. The mercury is after- 
ward separated by distillation, and the gold is melted and cast into in- 

For refining gold, either antimony, oxymuriate of mercury, ornitro- 
muriatic acid, is used. Gold having the property which no other met- 
al has, except platina, of resisting the action of the simple acids, 
&c. it may be purified by the above agents from all metallic substan- 
ces, and consequently refined. Another method of purifying gold 
and silver consists in adding to the alloyed gold and silver a certain 
quantity of lead, and exposing afterward this mixture to the action of 
the fire. 

Gold wire, as it is called, is most generally made of a cylindrical in- 
got of silver, superficially gilt, and afterward drawn successively 
through a great number of the holes of a wire-drawing iron, each less 
than the other, till it is sometimes no thicker than a hair of the head. 
Before the wire is reduced to this excessive fineness, it is drawn through 
above a hundred and forty different holes ; previously to each time of 
drawing, it is rubbed afresh over with new wax, both to facilitate its 
passage, and prevent the silver appearing through it. 

Gold thread or spun gold, is flatted gold, wrapped or laid over a 
thread of silk, by twisting it with a wheel. To dispose the wire to be 
spun on silk, it is passed between two rollers of a small mill ; the gold 
wire is thus made quite flat, without losing any thing of its gilding, and 



is rendered so exceedingly thin and flexible, that it is easily spun on 
silk thread, by means of a hand-wheel. 

Gold leaf is gold beaten with a hammer into exceedingly thin leaves* 
so that it is computed that an ounce may be beaten into sixteen hun" 
dred leaves, each three inches square. That for the gold wire is left 
much thicker than that for gilding picture frames. The gold is beaten 
between pieces of skin on a block, commonly of black marble, about a 
foot square. The hammers are of polished iron. The gold is first 
formed from the ingot to the thickness of a sheet of paper, then it is 
cut into pieces about an inch square; they are then beaten thinner, and 
again cut into several smaller pieces. 

GILDING is the art of covering a thing over with gold either in the 
state of a leaf or liquid. The art of gilding was not unknown to the 
ancients, though it never arrived at the perfection among them, to 
which the moderns have carried it. Pliny assures us, that the first 
gilding seen at Rome was after the destruction of Carthage, under the 
censorship of Lucius Mummius, when they began to gild the ceilings 
of their temples and palaces, the Capitol being the first place on which 
this enrichment was bestowed. But he adds, that luxury advanced on 
them so hastily, that in a little time you might see all, even private and 
poor persons, gild the very walls, vaults, Sec. of their houses. Tvlodern 
gilders make use of gold leaves of various thicknesses ; but there are 
some so fine, that a thousand do not weigh above four or five drachms. 
The thickest are used for gilding on iron, and other metals ; and the 
thinnest on wood. 

A color of gold is given by painting and varnishes, without employ- 
ing gold, but this is a false kind of gilding. Thus a very fine golden 
color is given to brass and silver, by applying upon these metals a gold 
colored varnish, which, being transparent, shows all the brilliancy of 
the metals beneath. Many ornaments of brass are varnished in this 
manner, which is called gold LA.cauES.UfO, to distinguish them from 
those which are really gilt. Silver leaves thus varnished are put upon 
leather, which is then called gilt leather. Among the false gilding may 
also be reckoned that which is done with thin leaves of copper or brass, 
called Dutch leaf. In this manner are made most kinds of what is 
called gilt paper. 

The gold intended for gilding ought, in general, to be beaten into 
thin leaves, or otherwise divided into very fine parts. As metals can- 
not adhere well merely by contact to any but other metallic substances, 
when gold is to be applied to the surface of some non-metallic body, 
this surface must be previously covered with some gluey and tenacious 
substance, by which the gold will be made to adhere. Such substan- 
ces are in general called sizes, some of which are made of vegetable 
and animal glues, and others of oily, gluey, and drying matters. Upon 
them the leaves of gold are applied, and pressed down with a little cot- 
ton, or a hare's foot ; and when the whole is dry, the work is to be 
finished, polished, or burnished with a hard instrument, called a dog's 
tooth, to give it lustre. 

The method of applying gold upon metals is entirely different. The 
surface of the metal to be gilt is first to be cleaned ; and then leaves are 




to be applied to it, which y by means of rubbing with a polished blood- 
stone, or pumice-stone, are made to adhere perfectly well. In this 
manner silver leaf is fixed and burnished upon brass in the making of 
what is called French platt ; and sometimes also gold leaf is burnished 
upon copper and iron. Gold is applied to metals in several other man- 
ners. One of these is by previously forming the gold into a paste or 
amalgam with mercury, with which the surface of the metal to be gild- 
ed must be covered - r then a sufficient heat is applied to evaporate the 
mercury ; and the gold, which is left on the surface of the copper, is 
lastly, burnished with a blood-stone. 

Some metals, particularly silver, may be gilt in the following man- 
ner :— Let gold be dissolved in nitro-muriatic acid. In this solution 
pieces of linen are dipped, and burnt to black ashes. These ashes be- 
ing rubbed on the surface of the silver by means of a wet linen rag, 
apply the particles of gold which they contain, and which, by this meth- 
od, adhere very well. The remaining part of the ashes is washed off; 
and the surface of the silver, which in this state does not seem to be 
gilt, is burnished with a blood-stone till it acquires a fine color of gold. 
This method of gilding is very easy, and consumes a very small quanti- 
ty of gold. Most gilt ornaments upon fans, snuff-boxes, and other toys 
of much show and little value, are nothing but silver gilt in this man- 
ner. Gold may also be applied to glass, porcelain, and other vitrified 
matters. After the gold leaf is laid on the glass, &:c., the pieces are ex- 
posed to a certain degree of heat, and burnished slightly to give them 
a lustre. A more substantial gilding is fixed upon glass, enamel, and 
porcelain, by applying to these substances powder of gold mixed with 
a solution of gum arabic, or with some essential oil, and a small quan- 
tity of borax ; after which a sufficient heat is applied to soften the 
glass and the gold, which is then burnished. With this mixture any 
figures may be drawn. The powders for this purpose may be made, — 
1. By grinding gold leaf with honey, which is afterward to be washed 
away with water. 2. By distilling to dryness a solution of gold in 
nitro-muriatic acid. 3. By evaporating the mercury from an amalgam 
of gold, taking care to stir well the mass near the end of the process. 
4. By precipitating gold from its solution in nitro-muriatic acid, by ap- 
plying to it a solution of green vitriol in water, or copper, and perhaps 
other metallic substances. 

SILVERING. Wood, paper, Szc. are silvered in the same manner 
as gilding is performed, using only silver leaf instead of gold. For 
common purposes, copper or brass may be plated by dissolving silver 
in nitric acid, neutralizing the acid with alkali, and rubbing the polish- 
ed surface of the article with this mixture, till it assumes a white sil- 
ver color, which will continue for some timo, if not exposed to much 
friction. Dial plates of clocks, barometers, &c, are plated with old 
silver lace dissolved in nitric acid, and then precipitated with common 
salt ; this precipitate is mixed with carbonate of potash and whiting, 
until it forms a dry mass, with which the metal to be plated is rubbed. 
The most permanent plating, however, is performed in the following 
manner : — Take two thin plates of silver and copper, the former in the 
proportion of one to twelve of the latter ; put a little powdered borax 
between them, and expose them to a white heat, when the silver will 
be found firmly united to the copper, after which, it is passed between 



rollers, till it has acquired the proper thickness for the manufacture in- 

COINING is the art or act of making money. Coining is either 
performed by the hammer or the mill. The first method is now little 
used in Europe, although it was the only one known until the year 
1553, when a new coining-mill was invented by Anthony Bruchor ; 
and first tried in the French king's palace at Paris, for coining counters. 
In either kind of coining, the pieces of metal are stamped, or struck 
with a kind of moulds or dies, Therein is engraven the device fixed 
upon. The first operations in cWning are mixing and melting the 
metal : for there are no species of money coined of pure gold or silver. 
but always with a certain quantity of alloy of copper, or other metals, 
mixed with them ; the reasons are partly the necessity of making those 
metals harder, by some foreign admixture, and partly to defray the 
expenses of coining. Melting, if the metal be gold, is performed in 
earthen crucibles ; if silver or copper, in iron ones. When the gold or 
silver is melted, it is poured into moulds for casting into plates or 
sheets ; the method of doing this is exactly the same with that used 
by the founders in sand. 

Coining by the mill. The plates being taken out of the moulds, 
scraped and brushed, are passed several times through the mill, to flat- 
ten them, and brin^ them to the just thickness of the particular species 
to be coined ; with this difference, however, that the plates of gold are 
heated again in a furnace, and quenched in water, before they undergo 
the mill ; which softens, and renders them more ductile : whereas those 
of silver pass the mill just as they are, without any heating; and when 
afterward they are heated, they are left to cool of themselves, without 
water. The plates, whether gold, silver, or copper, thus reduced as 
nearly as possible to their thickness, are cut into round pieces, nearly 
the size of the intended species ; these pieces are adjusted, and brought, 
by filing or rasping, to the weight of the standard, whereby they are to 
be regulated ; and what remains of the plate between the circles is 
melted again. The pieces are adjusted in a fine balance ; and those 
which prove too light are separated from those too heavy ; the first to 
be melted again, and the second to be filed down : for the mill through 
which the plates are passed, can never be so just, but there will be 
some inequality. They are then carried to the blanching or whitening 
house, i. e. the place where the gold pieces have their color given them, 
and the silver ones are whitened ; which is done by heating them in 
the furnace, and afterwards boiling them successively in two copper 
vessels, with water, common salt, and tartar. After scouring them 
well with sand, and washing them with common water, they are dried 
over a wood fire in a copper sieve. They formerly were next marked 
with an engine on the edges, to prevent the clipping and paring of the 
species ; but latterly, the edges and faces of the money are struck at 
once. This marking of the edges is called milling. Some of the 
larger pieces, as crowns, have legends impressed on the edge. A new 
method of coining has been introduced by Messrs. Bolton and Watt. 
which is now the only mode used in England. For this purpose build- 
ings are erected on Tower Hill. The machinery invented by those 
able mechanics has been long used in the manufacture of copper 
money. A steam-engine works the screw presses for cutting out the 



circular pieces of copper, and coins both the edges and faces of the 
money at the same time, with such superior excellence and cheapness 
of workmanship, as will prevent clandestine imitation. By this ma- 
chinery, four boys are capable of striking 30,000, pieces of money 
in an hour ; and the machine acts at the same time as a register, and 
keeps an unerring account of the number of pieces struck. These 
having now all their marks and impressions, both on the edges and fa- 
ces, become money ; but have not currency till they have been weigh- 
ed and examined. 

For t/ie coining of Medals the process is the same, in effect, with that 
of money ; the principal difference consists in this, that money, having 
but a small relievo, receives its impression at a single stroke ; whereas 
for medals, the height of their relievo makes it necessary that the stroke 
be repeated several times. Medallions, and medals of high relievo, 
from the difficulty of stamping them in the press, are usually first cast or 
moulded in sand, like other works of that kind, and are only put into 
the press to perfect them. 

PLUMBERY is the art of casting, preparing, and working lead; 
and using it in building, &c. The lead used in plumbery is furnished 
from the lead-works in large ingots, or blocks, called pigs of lead, each 
weighing generally about 100 pounds. Lead melting very easily, is 
used for figures of any kind, by running it into moulds of brass, clay, 
plaster, Szc. But the chief articles in plumbery are sheets and pipes of 
lead. These constitute the basis of the plumber's work in building: 
the following is the process: — 

For casting large sheets of lead. The lead is melted in a large caul- 
dron or furnace ; near the furnace is a table, or mould, whereon the 
lead is to be cast. Around it runs a frame, consisting of a ledge or 
border of wood, four or five inches high from the table. The table is 
covered with fine, moist, smooth sand. At the end of the table nearest 
to the furnace is adapted a box equal in length to the width of the ta- 
ble ; at the bottom of the box is a horizontal slit to let out the melted 
metal ; the box moves upon rollers along the edges of the projecting 
rim of the table, and is set in motion by ropes and pulleys properly at- 
tached. The box is made to contain as much lead as will cast the 
whole sheet at the same time ; and the slit in the bottom is adjusted so 
as to permit the proper quantity of lead to run out during its progress 
over the table. The lead is taken out of the cauldron with an iron la- 
dle. Over the table is a strike or rake of wood, which bears and plays 
on the edges of the frame ; and so placed, as, that between it and the 
sand, is a space proportionable to the intended thickness of the sheet. 
The use of this strike is to drive the matter, while yet liquid, to the 
extremity of the mould, and give the sheet an equal thickness. The 
sheets thus cast, there remains nothing but to edge them, in order to 
render them smooth and straight. 

This is called cast lead. Milled lead is not made by the plumber, but 
at the lead works ; in the operation of making it, a roller or flatting- 
mill is used, whence its name. Milled lead is a slighter article than 
cast lead. Sheet lead is of different thicknesses, varying in its weight 
from 5 to 91bs. in each square foot. 

For casting thin sheets of lead. The table or mould here used is of 



a length and breadth at discretion. Instead of sand, it is covered with 
a piece Of woollen stuff, nailed down at both ends to keep it tight; and 
over this is laid a very fine linen cloth. These fine smooth sheets of 
lead are sometimes used between the joints of large stone9 in great 
buildings, Szc. 

TLX. The mineral ore, being taken from the mine, is broken into 
pieces with large iron mallets ; then brought to a stamping mill, where 
it is beaten still smaller, and the water, passing through, washes away 
the earthy parts, leaving the metallic ones behind. It is then dried in 
a furnace on iron plates, and ground fine, washed and dried again, and 
in this* state is called black tin. To convert it into white tin, L e. pure 
tin, they carry it to a furnace, where it is melted, and ultimately cast in- 
to large oblong square masses, called blocks. 

Tin plate is iron plated over with tin. 

FOUNDRY is the art of melting and casting all sorts of metals ; 
particularly brass, iron, bell-metal, &c. The word is also used for a 
place or house furnished with furnaces, or forges. 

Foundry of smull works, or casting in sand. The sand used by the 
founders, in casting brass, &c, is yellowish, rather soft, and greasy ; but 
after it has been used becomes quite black, from the charcoal-dust used 
in the moulds. With this sand a mould is made of dimensions suita- 
ble for the things to be cast ; wood or metallic patterns are then placed 
on the mould, and pressed down into the sand, so as to leave their form 
indented. Along the middle of the mould is laid half a little cylinder 
of brass, which is to be the chief conduit, funnel, or canal, for running 
the metal ; being so disposed as to touch the ledge at one side, and only 
reach the last pattern on the other. From this are placed several 
smaller conduits or funnels, reaching to each pattern, whereby the 
metal is conveyed through the whole frame- After the same manner 
they proceed to work the counter-part, or other half of the mould, 
with the same patterns, in a* frame exactly like the former ; excepting 
that it has pins, which, entering holes corresponding thereto in the 
other, make, when the two are joined together, the two cavities of the 
pattern fall exactly on each other. When both parts of the mould are 
sufficiently dried, they are joined together by means of pins ; and to 
prevent their starting or slipping aside by the force of the metal, which 
is poured in a melted state, through a hole contrived as the chief con- 
duit, they are locked in a kind of press. The moulds thus secured in 
the press are ranged near the furnace, to be in readiness to receive the 
metal as it comes out of the crucible. While the moulds are prepar- 
ing, the metal is fused in an earthen crucible, in a furnace adapted to 
the crucible, so that the fire may completely envelope it. The founder 
now takes the crucible out of thefire with a pair of iron tongs, and car- 
ries it to the mould, into which he pours the fluid metal. Thus he 
goes successively from one to another, till his crucible is empiied. 
When sufficiently cool, the mould is opened, the cast matter taken out, 
and the sand and moulds applied again to other castings. 

In casting statues,Jigures, busts, Sco., there are three thingB chiefly re* 
quired, viz. the mould, wax, and core. 

In casting bells, the metal is different ; there being, in bwnze. or the 



metal of statues, from nine to twelve parts tin to 100 of copper, where- 
as bell-metal is generally composed of three parts copper and one tin. 
The mirrors for telescopes consist chiefly of two parts copper and one 
tin, with smaller portions of brass, silver, and arsenic. The dimensions 
of the core and the wax of bells are not left to chance or the caprice 
of the workman, but must be measured on a kind of scale, which gives 
the height, aperture, and thickness necessary for the several tones re- 
quired. It is on the wax also that the several mouldings, and other 
ornaments and inscriptions to be represented in relievo on the outside 
of the bell, are formed. The clapper, or tongue, is not properly a part 
of the bell, but furnished from other hands. In Europe it is usually 
of iron, and is suspended in the middle of the bell. In China, it is 
only a huge wooden mallet, struck by force of arm against the bell : 
whence they can have but little of that consonancy, so much admired 
in some of our rings of bells. 

Bells have been cast in China of an enormous weight : some at Pe- 
kin are said to weigh 120,000 lbs. each ; one at Nankin weighs 50,000 
lbs. Few European bells can compete with these. One at Erfurt, in 
Saxony, weighs 25,400 lbs. ; another at Rouen, in France, weighs 
35,000 lbs. ; the bells of England sink into comparative insignificance 
after those. One at Oxford weighs 17,000 lbs. ; the great bell of St. 
Paul's, London, weighs only 11,474 lbs. ; and Tom of Lincoln, 10,854 
lbs. But, if the testimony of some authors may be relied on, two 
bells at Moscow far exceed all others in size : one is said to weigh 
288,000 lbs. ; and the other, the enormous weight of 432,000 lbs. ; its 
height is said to be 19 feet, its circumference at the bottom 21 yards, 
and its greatest thickness 23 inches. 

The casting of cannons, mortars, and other pieces of artillery, is per- 
formed like that of statues and bells, as to what regards the mould, 
furnaces, &c. Cannons are made of a mixture of brass, copper, and 
tin, or of cast iron, but more commonly with the last. A cannon is al- 
ways shaped a little conical, being thickest of metal at the breech, 
where the greatest effort of the gun-powder is made, and diminishing 
thence to the muzzle ; so that if the mouth be two inches thick of 
metal,, the breech is six. Its length is measured in calibres, i. e. in di- 
ameters of the muzzle. Six inches at the muzzle require twenty cali- 
bres, or ten feet in length ; there is about one-sixth of an inch allowed 
as play for the ball. The guns are cast without any core, and after- 
wards bored with a steel trepan," that is worked either by horses, a 
water-mill, or steam. 

There is a large iron foundry two miles from Falkirk, in Scotland, 
called Carron Works, Above 100 acres of land have been converted 
into reservoirs and pools for water, diverted from the river by magnifi- 
cent dams built about two miles above the works, wmich, after turning 
eighteen large wheels, falls into a tide navigation, that conveys their 
castings to the sea. These works are the greatest of the kind in Eu- 
rope, and were established in 1760. At present the buildings are of 
vast extent ; and the machinery is the first in Britain both in elegance 
and correctness. There are 1600 men employed, who receive weekly 
650/. sterling, which has greatly enriched the adjoining country ; 6500 
tons of iron are melted annually from the mineral, and cast into can- 
non, cylinders, &c. In the founding of cannon these works have lately 



arrived at such perfection, that they make above 5000 pieces a year ; 
and their iron guns of the new construction are the lightest and neatest 
now in use, not excepting brass guns. 

The words Crucible and Forge having been repeatedly used, it may 
be proper to describe them. A Crucible is a vessel commonly made of 
earth, sometimes of iron, plumbago, platina, &c., without any handle; 
considerably higher than wide ; sometimes triangular, sometimes round 
at top, which is the widest part, and assuming a circular figure below ; 
in which chemists, coiners, goldsmiths, and other artificers, melt gold, 
silver, &c. Earthen crucibles are made of potter's clay, and hold from 
one ounce to 800 ; the iron ones are larger, some holding 10,000 ounces. 
Forge signifies a kind of small furnace, wherein smiths and other arti- 
ficers heat their metals. The word forge is also used for a large fur- 
nace, wherein iron ore, taken out of the mine, is melted down, though 
this is not so properly a forge as a furnace. A forge is more properly 
used for another kind of furnace, wherein pigs of metal are heated, 
fused, beaten with large hammers, and thus rendered soft, ductile, and 
fit for use. Of these forges there are two kinds, through which the 
iron successively passes, before it comes to the smith. Forge-mills are 
turned by water, which serves to raise and let fall one or more huge 
hammers, to beat and form the iron into bars, anchors, or other massive 

In LETTER-FOUNDRY, or the casting of printing letters, two 
things are principally to be regarded — the matter and the matrices. 
The matter, or type-metal is composed of lead alloyed with a small 
portion of antimony. Every letter-founder preparing his own metal, 
the proportions of lead and antimony are as various as the founders 
differ in skill and experience. The excellence of type-metal consists 
in hardness, tenacity, and stiffness ; hard, that the face of the type 
may not be disfigured with a slight blow, that it may endure consider- 
able wear ; tenacious, that it may not be too easily broken ; and stiff, 
that the types may not be bent from their rectilinear position. 

The matrices of the letters are pieces of copper or brass whereon the 
impression of the intended character has been cut, or struck in a cavity 
by means of punches. Each letter has its proper matrice ; and there 
are particular ones for points, figures, rules, head-pieces, and other or- 
naments of printing : excepting the quadrats, which being only of lead, 
and not intended to leave any impression, are cast without matrices, 
and only in moulds. Each matrice has its punch made of steel, or 
iron well tempered. The matrices being struck, and touched up, or 
repaired where needful, are put at the end of an iron mould enclosed 
between two thin pieces of board. Every thing belonging to the 
mould being disposed, they begin to prepare the matter. The furnace, 
whereon the basin is placed for the metal to be melted in, is made of 
the same matter as crucibles. Over the furnace is placed the melting 
basin, or copper, which is divided into two equal parts by a perpendic- 
ular partition. This basin contains the melted type-metal. One work- 
man is employed at each furnace. To run the metal into the mould, 
the founder holds in his ladle just enough for one letter. Having filled 
this ladle with liquid metal, he pours it through a jet or funnel into the 
matrice or character. He then opens the mould, and takps out the 
character, and without loss of time shuts it again, replaces the matrice, 


■ ■» _ ■*' ■■■ " ■ ■ — 


and costs a new letter. It is incredible with what expedition all this is 
done \ an expert workman being able to cast 3000 letters in a day. 
The letter being cast, it is examined, to ascertain that it is perfect ; if 
it be not, it is thrown among the refuse of the fount. When the let- 
ters ore cast, they remain to be justified, both as to thickness and height. 
The justification of the height is guided by the m of some body of 
characters already justified. All that remains is to dress the letters, 
and make that sort of groove, which every letter has in its bottom, in 
order that it may stand perpendicular. This is performed by turning a 
long line of them upside down, between two cheeks of wood, which, 
pressing tqtj tight, enable the workman to run his plane along the 
line of letters so inverted, and thus to form the groove. The letters 
are now fit for the printer's use. The perfection of letters thus cast 
consists in their being all square and straight on every side, of the 
same height, evenly lined, well grooved, &c. An inspection of the 
letters themselves will assist the reader in understanding this descrip- 
tion, and afford a clearer idea than can be otherwise conceived. 

FOUNT, or FONT, among printers, is a 6et or quantity of charac- 
ters, ot letters of each kind, cast by the letter-founder and sorted. We 
say a founder has cast a fount of pica, of english, pearl, &c, meaning he 
has cast a set of characters of these kinds. A complete fount includes 
capitals, small capitals, little letters, called lower-case, double letters, 
accented letters, figures, points, characters for reference, spaces, and 
quadrats. The letter founders have a kind of list, by which they reg- 
ulate their founts. Some letters being much more used than others, it 
is necessary to have more of them cast, than of those which occur less 
frequently. Thus the and t, for instance, are always in greater 
quantity than the k or z. In a fount, or bill, of the size called pica, 
weighing in all 800 pounds, the number of the letter e is 12,000 ; of/ 
9,000 ; of a 8,500 ; of e, w, o, and s, 8000 each ; of c there are 3000 ; 
of b 1600 ; k 800 ; x 400 ; s 200. This is for the English language. 
In other languages the comparative frequency must be different. 

Sizes. Different names are given to the various sizes of types, cf 
which the following are most employed in common book printing. 

Pica. — abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz&. 
Small Pica. — abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz&. 
Lotig Primer. — abcdefghijkImnopqr8tuvvvxyz&,. 

Brevier. — abcdefghijklmnopqrBtuvwxyz&. 

Minion. — abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz&. 
Jfbnp ami- ab c d e fglri jjtl m wopqrstu vwxy z& . 

PRINTING is the art of making an impression upon one body by 
pressing it with another. This art, in some way or other, has been 
known in all ages. It has been done upon wax, plaster, and iron, by 
the ancients ; their seals, rings, and money prove it. It has been done 
with wooden blocks upon cotton and silk by the Indians. Printing 
therefore in this unlimited sense was common to all nations. This art 
is now divided into four distinct branches. Common or letter-press 
printing ; rolling-press printing ; Calico printing ; and Stereotype 



Letter -pr^ss printing is the most useful and curious branch of the art. 
To this are chiefly owing our deliverance from ignorance and error, 
the progress of learning, the revival of sciences, many of the modern 
inventions and discoveries, and numberless improvements in the arts, 
which, without this noble invention, would have been either lost to 
mankind, or confined to the knowledge of a few. 

History of printing. — The honor of having given existence to the 
present method of printing has been claimed by the cities of Haerlem, 
Mentz, and Strasburg : and to each of these it may be applied in a 
qualified sense, as they severally made many improvements upon one 
another, in the art. But the origin, however, of printing, was at Haer- 
lem ; the first book was printed in the year 1430; and to Laurence 
Coster, of that city, is this discovery to be ascribed ; although there is 
no doubt, that soon after Guttemberg, as well as Fust and Schoeffer, 
who invented metal types, the first types being of wood, all added ma- 
terially to the perfection of this important discovery. It is said, indeed, 
that Gu'temberg invented moveable types, and that he began his experi- 
ments at Strasburg, and completed them at Mentz ; it is also said that 
Coster's method was to cut out the letters upon a wooden block ; that 
he took for apprentice John Fust or Faustus, and bound him to secrecy, 
but that Fust, notwithstanding his oath, went off, not only with the 
knowledge of the art, but with the types and all the implements of his 
master ; first to Amsterdam, thence to Cologne, and afterwards to 
Mentz. Here, assisted by Schoeffer, they printed a number of Bibles 
in imitation of manuscript, and Fust carried them to Paris for sale. 
The Parisians were astonished at their exact similarity, and accused 
Fust of some diabolical art ; hence the origin of the story of the Devil 
and Dr. Faustus. Wooden types not being found sufficiently durable, 
and not answering expectation in other respects, it caused the first in- 
vention of cut metal types. The honor of completing the dicovery is, 
therefore, due to Peter Schoeffer, who found out the method of form- 
ing the characters in a matrice, that the letters might be cast singly, in- 
stead of being cut. He privately cut matrices for the whole alphabet ; 
and when he showed his master Fust, who appears to have assisted 
Guttemberg in his attempts to bring the art to perfection, the letters 
cast from these matrices, Fust was so pleased with the contrivance, that 
he promised to Peter his only daughter in marriage ; a promise which 
he soon after performed. Fust and Schoeffer concealed this new im- 
provement, by administering an oath of secrecy to all whom they en- 
trusted, till the year 1462, when, by the dispersion of their servants 
into different countries at the sacking of Mentz by the Archbishop 
Adolphus, the invention was publicly divulged. 

Introduction of printing into Britain. — Printing was practised at 
Rome in the year 1467, and the year following, it was introduced into 
England by Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury, who sent 
W. Turner, Master of the Robes, and W. Caxton, merchant, to the 
continent to learn the art. While there they met with one Corsellis, 
an under workman, whom they induced to come to England. This be- 
ing accomplished, a press was set up at Oxford, and the first book 
printed in England in 1468, by Corsellis. Oxford was afterwards found 
inconvenient to be the sole printing place in England, as being too far 




from London and the sea. The king therefore set up a press at St. 
Alban's, and another in the city of Westminster, where several books 
of Divinity and physic were printed. By this means the art grew fa- 
mous. But although Caxton has been heretofore considered the first 
printer in England, and it is now clear that that honor must be conce- 
ded to Corsellis, yet Caxton was the first in England that used fusile 
types, and consequently the first that brought the art to comparative 
perfection ; whereas it is said that Corsellis printed with separate cut 
types in wood, being the only method which he had learned at Haerlem. 
Caxton's printing-office was in the Abbey of Westminster ; he pursued 
his business with extraordinary diligence till 1494, in which year he 
died very old. 

History of printing in the United States — The first printing in New 
England, was done in 1639, by one Day — the proprietor of the press 
was a clergyman, by the name of Glover, who died on his passage to 
America. The first thing printed was the Freeman's oath, the second 
an Almanack, and the third an edition of the Psalms. No other print- 
ing press was established in America, until near the close of the seven- 
teenth century. John Elliot, the celebrated missionary, having trans- 
lated the Bible into the Indian language, had it printed at Cambridge, 
by means of this press, in 1664. 

The first newspaper in North America, called The Boston Weekly 
Neus- Letter, was established in 1704. About the middle of the 18th 
century, ten other printing presses were established — four in New En- 
gland ; two in New York ; two in Pennsylvania; one in South Caro- 
lina ; and one in Maryland. The number of books published at this 
time was also considerable, although they were executed in a coarse 
style, and were generally books of devotion or for the purposes of edu- 

As to the method of printing, we shall only observe, that the types, 
or letters, are distributed each kind by itself, in cases. The composi- 
tor, placing the copy of the work before him, picks up letter by letter, 
and arranges them in order to form words and sentences, till he has 
composed a page, and so on for the whole work ; the degree of expe- 
dition and despatch, with which this is carried on, is not easily to be 
conceived. The instrument in which the letters are set is called a 
composing stick. When full, the compositor empties it on a thin board, 
called a galley, till he has composed a page. When a certain num- 
ber of pages are completed, they are firmly placed in due order in a 
chase, which is a rectangular iron frame. In this condition the work 
is called a/orm; and the next thing is to work it off at the printing- 
press. This press is a very complex machine ; its two principal parts 
are the body of the press, which serves to give the weight or stroke for 
the impression, and the carriage on which the form is laid. 

The wonderful power kf the steam-engine has lately been applied to 
work the printing-press, and two different machines have been invented 
for the purpose, by means of which three boys can perform in one hour 
the work that in the usual way would employ two men eight hours. 
One of the boys lays the paper on the machine, which of itself distri- 
butes the ink on. the forms, and prints first one side of the sheet and then 
the other ; the second boy removes the sheets thus printed ; and the 



third boy lays them evenly on the bank. In this way a thousand sheets 
are printed in an hour. The press is of the rolling kind. Several of 
the daily newspapers are now printed by steam, as well indeed as many 
valuable books. 

Stereotype Printing, although on a principle which was anterior 
to printing by moveable types, was invented in Scotland by Mr. Ged 
and Mr. Tiiloch respectively, carried to France, and at a subsequent 
date was introduced into England. It has arrived at great perfection 
in the United States, within a few years. 

The mode of Stereotype Printing is first to set up a page in the com- 
mon way, with moveable types ; and when correct, a cast of plaster of 
Paris is taken from it; in this cast the metal for the stereotype is pour- 
ed ; and so for every page intended to be stereotyped, each pa^e thus 
forming a single block or plate. When the plates are prepared, they 
are printed off like other works ; if by a rolling press, the plates are 
bent to suit the rotundity of the cylinder. But it is only for standard 
books of very extensive circulation and constant demand, and wherein 
no material additions, corrections, or alterations, as to plan, or size, are 
wanted, that the stereotype can be used to advantage. Such works 
are comparatively very few. It is true, the stereotype plates can be, 
and occasionally are, altered by punching out words or letters, and 
inserting others; but the trouble of doing this is great, and, of course, 

The Ink used in printing is composed of nut or lintseed oil, boiled 
and purified ; w T ith this oil are mixed common resin, to give it tenacity, 
and soap, to destroy the greasiness of the oil, and make the ink easily 
wash oft: these ingredients varying in proportions according to the 
experience of the ink-maker, are ground up with a quantity of lamp- 
black. For red ink, Vermillion is used instead of lamp-black. 

Books are printed in China from wooden blocks, cut like those used 
in printing calico, paper, kc. among us. These blocks are made of a 
smooth, firm wood, and of the size of the leaf required ; upon the face 
side some able penman draws out the several letters with a kind of 
pencil ; when finished, the block is cut by the sculptor, with his sharp 
small instruments, which make all the characters appear in relievo 
on the wood. Their paper is inferior to ours in color. It is made of 
the inner bark or rind of a kind of rushes, beaten up with water into a 
pulp or paste, and formed in moulds much like ours. The advantage 
of the Chinese printing consists in this, that they are not obliged to 
take off the whole edition at once, but print their books as they need 
them. Their blocks are easily retouched and made to serve again, and 
there needs no corrector of the press. Its disadvantages are, that a 
large room will scarcely hold all the blocks of a moderate volume ; the 
color of their ink easily fades ; and their paper is too thin, apt to tear, 
and subject to worms, whence it is that we see so few ancient books in 

Roll in? -press Printing is employed in taking offprints, or impressions 
from copper-plates engraven or etched ; an account of which shall 
appear under the article Engraving. 

VARNISH is a thick, glossy liquor, used by painters, gilders, and 
other artificers, to give a gloss and lustre to their works, and also to 



defend them from the weather. There are several kinds of varnish, 
which are divided into two classes, spirit and oil varnishes. The finest 
of the former class is the copal varnish, made of gum-copal dissolved in 
spirit of wine, or essentia] oils. Shell lac, and the other gum-resins 
are next. The white varnish is made of oil of turpentine, fine turpen- 
tine, and mastic. The transparent varnish, used for window-blinds, is 
made of mastic dissolved alone, or with the addition of Canada balsam, 
in oil of turpentine. Drying varnish is made of oil, turpentine, and 
sandrac, melted together. The common varnish is only yellow or black 
resin dissolved in oil of turpentine. The word varnish is also used for 
the* glossy coat wherewith potters' ware, China ware, &c, are covered 
to give them a lustre ; but the common term, glaze, is more proper, as 
it is in reality a glass. This will be noticed under Pottery. 

JAPANNING is the art of varnishing and drawing figures on wood, 
in the same manner as is done by the natives of Japan. The s lbstan- 
ces which admit of being japanned are almost every kind that are dry 
and rigid, or not too flexible or extensible ; as wood, metals leather, and 
prepared paper. Wood and metals do not require any other prepara- 
tion, but to have their surface perfectly even and clean : but leather 
should be securely strained, either on frames or boards, as its bending* 
or forming folds would otherwise crack and force off the coats of var- 
nish ; the paper should be treated in the same manner, and have a pre- 
vious strong coat of size; but it is rarely made the subject of japan- 
ning, till it is converted into papier mache', that is, reduced to a pulp, 
mixed with gum and size, and dried to hardness, or wrought by other 
means into such form, that its original state, particularly with respect 
to flexibility, is lost. 

Bricks are formed by means of a wooden mould, dried in the open 
air, and then baked or burnt, to serve the purposes of building. The 
first step in the process of brick making is casting the clay. The next 
step is to tread or temper it. This is commonly done by means of ox- 
en who are employed to tread it. The goodness of brick depends chief- 
ly upon this preparation. The clay itself, before it is wrought, is gen- 
erally brittle, but by working and incorporating it together with water, 
the whole becomes a homogeneous paste. Bricks are commonly of a 
red color. Bricks may be made of any clayey earth that is clear of 
stones, but all will not burn red. The clay ought to be dug before 
winter, but not made into bricks before spring. 

Bricks are burnt either in a kiln or clamp. Those in a kiln are burnt 
either with wood or coal, as may suit the particular convenience of the 
spot for obtaining most readily one or the other material ; and as the 
fire can be, in kilns, continued at the pleasure of the superintendant, 
the bricks can be more equally and uniformly burnt. About London, 
however, bricks are chiefly burnt in clamps, built of the bricks them- 
selves, after the manner of arching in kilns, with a vacancy between 
every two bricks for the fire to play through ; but with this difference, 
they span it over by making the bricks project one over another on 
both sides of the place, for the wood and coal to lie in till they meet, 
and are bounded by the bricks at the top, which close all up. The 
place for the fuel is carried up straight on both sides, till about three 
feet high; then they almost fill it with wood, and over that iay a cover- 



. - A 

ino- of coal. They also strew coal over the clamp, upon every row of 
bricks, which are packed loosely, so that the hre may more readily 
communicate with each row ; and lastly thev kindle the wood, which 
gives tire to the coal : when all is consumed, they conclude the bricks 
?ire sufficiently burnt. 

TILE is a sort of thin laminated brick, used for the roofs of houses ; 
or. more properly, a fat clayey earth, moulded into a certain form, and 
dried and burnt like bricks. Tiles are made of better clay than bricks. 
The method of burning is similar to brick, but tiles are always burnt in 
kilns. There are various kinds of tiles for building ; but hollow and 
plain tiles are the chief. Dutch tiles, or, as they are sometimes called 
Flemish tiles, are of two kinds, ancient and modern. The ancient, for 
chimney foot-pieces; they were painted with ancient figures and mo- 
resque devices, but came short, both as to the design and coloring, of 
the modern ones. The more modern Dutch tiles are commonly used 
plastered up in the jambs of chimneys, and are much better glazed and 
painted than the former kind. But these seem to be made of the same 
white clay of which glazed earthenware is made. Both these are now 
fallen into disuse. The blue slate used to cover houses are sometimes 
called tiles. 

A PIPE is a well known machine, used in smokine tobacco, consist- 
ing of a long slender tube, made of clay. Pipes are of various fashions, 
as long, short, plain, worked, white, varnished, unvarnished, and of va- 
rious colors, Szc. The Turks use pipes three or four feet long, made of 
rushes, or wood bored ; at the end of which they fix a kind of nut of 
baked earth, which serves as a bowl, and which they take off after smo- 
king. The clay with which pipes are made is brought to the makers 
in lumps of six or eight inches square. When used, it is thrown into 
a large pan, moistened with water, and beaten and moulded till it is soft 
and mellow, and exceedingly well tempered. Thence it is removed to 
the rolling board, where the workman readily breaks off an exact quan- 
tity for a couple of pipes, rolls out both at once, one in each hand, to the 
proper length and form, leaving a sufficient quantity at one end for the 
bowl ; then lays them on a board by dozens, where they remain till 
they have acquired a greater degree of hardness. The tube is then 
formed by running a wire through the clay. The pipe, before the wire 
is withdrawn, is closed in a mould of polished iron, and now, by the 
help of another machine, the bowl instantly receives its form, and the 
whole pipe is returned in its exact figure. It is now again left to 
harden yet more, before it undergoes its last smoothing and finish, 
which is quickly done by a kind of knife, &c. and thence It is taken to 
the kiln. 

The Kilns are of various sizes ; some hold twentv ^ross. others eighty, 
and even a hundred ; but the more usual size contains forty or fifty 
gross of pipes. Here they are six or eight hours exposed to'a strong 
clear fire. This brings them to their state of whiteness; and is the 
last operation. They are then taken and packed up in boxes for sale. 

POTTERY is the art of making earthen pots or vessels ; or the man- 
ufacture of earthenware. The clay used for this purpose, 
cous earth, of ditferent kinds and properties, and may be found in va- 




rious places. The better kinds of English stone ware are composed of 
pipe clay and pounded flints, in the proportion of four parts of flints to 
eighteen parts of clay. The yellowish white or queen's ware, so gene- 
rally in use, is made of the sanfc materials, with larger proportions of 
clay. The common red earthenware appears to be merely common clay, 
similar to that with which bricks are made. The first is glased, by 
throwing 1 sea-salt into the furnace in which it is baked, when the heat 
is strong : the salt is converted into vapor, and this being applied to 
the surface of the stone-ware, vitrifies it, and forms an excellent glazing. 
The queen's ware is glazed by dipping the baked ware into a mixture of 
the consistence of cream, composed of white lead, ground flint, and 
ground glass, and submitting the ware afterwards to heat. The com- 
position is, however, sometimes varied. But the glaze for most of our 
common earthenware containing so large a portion of lead, such ves-' 
sels should never be employed for acid liquors of any kind, as the acid 
will dissolve the lead, and thus render whatever is contained in the ves- 
sel poisonous. 

Among the instruments used in pottery, the wheel and lathe are the 
principal ; the first for large works, the second, for small. The potter's 
wheel consists principally in its nut, which is its beam or axis, the 
pivot of which plays perpendicularly ona free-stone sole at the bottom. 
From the four corners of this beam proceed four iron bars, which, form- 
ing diagonal lines with the beam, descend and are fastened at bottom 
to a strong wooden circle. On the top of the nut is laid a piece of the 
clay to be turned and fashioned. The wheel, thus disposed, is encom- 
passed on all sides with four different pieces of wood, sustained on a 
wooden frame. The hind piece, which is that whereon the workman 
sits, is made a little inclining towards the wheel. On the fore pieces 
is placed the prepared clay ; by the workman's side is a trough of wa- 
ter, wherewith, from time to time, he wets his hands, to prevent the 
clay's sticking to them. The potter having prepared his clay, and laid 
a piece of it, suitable to the work he intends, on the top of the beam, 
turns the wheel, till it has got the proper velocity ; forming the cavity 
of the vessel, and widening it till it has received its intended form. 
When the vessel is found to be too thick, he pares off what is redun- 
dant with an instrument. When the vessel is finished, he takes it off 
the circular head by a wire passed underneath the vessel. 

The potter's lathe is also a kind of wheel, but simpler and slighter 
than the former. Its three principal parts are an iron beam or axis, 
placed perpendicularly ; a small wooden wheel, placed horizontally at 
the top of the beam, and serving to form the vessel on ; and a thick 
wooden wheel placed horizontally at the bottom. The potters work 
with the lathe with the same instruments, and after the same manner, 
as with the wheel. The lathe and wheel serve only to give the form 
of the body of the vessel ; the feet, handles, and other occasional orna- 
ments are made and set by the hand. If there be any sculpture in the 
work, it is usually done in earthen or wooden moulds, and afterwards 
stuck on the outside of the vessel. 

DELFT-WARE is a kind of pottery of baked earth, covered with 
an enamel, or white glazing, which gives it the appearance of porcelain* 
It is sometimes ornamented with paintings of figures. &c. The basis 



of this pottery is clay, which is mixed in such quantity as to produce 
enough ductility to be worked, moulded, and turned easily, without 
cracking or shrinking too much in drying or baking. The vessels, be- 
ing slightly baked, are covered with an enamel or glazing. They are 
then painted with colors composed of metallic oxides, mixed and ground 
with fusible glass. When dry, they are again baked, and exposed to a 
heat capable of fusing the enamel, and completing the baking. — The 
furnace and colors used for painting this ware are the same as for por- 
celain. For making these enamel* there are many recipes, but all of 
them are composed of sand and flints, vitrinable salts, and oxide of lead 
or tin. The sand must be perfectly vitrified, so as to form a gloss con- 
siderably fusible. The kinds of clay chiefly used for delft-ware are 
blue and green : to give it a greater solidity, some red clay is added; 
which on account of its ferruginous matter, possesses the requisite 
binding quality. Three parts blue clay, two red, and five marl, form 
the composition used in several manufactures. 

PORCELAIN", or CHINA, as it is commonly called, because former- 
ly brought chiefly from that country, is imported occasionally into Eu- 
rope from many other places of the east, especially Japan, Siam, Surat, 
and Persia. But very good porcelain is now made in various parts of 
England, as well as at Dresden, and in France. 

The Chinese call this manufacture tse-ki ; the origin of the term por- 
celain does not appear to be decidedly known : the French call it por- 
c^laine; the Italians porcellana. Whether porcelain was known to the 
Romans is uncertain, as the Roman writers give us no decisive infor- 
mation concerning it. It is not known who was the inventor of this el- 
egant manufacture ; the Chinese annals are said to be silent about it ; 
it appears, however, pretty certain, that porcelain must have been 
known as early as the fifth century. 

It is said that the porcelain of China is made chiefly, if not entirely, 
at Kingteching, which has had the honor of supplying the greatest part 
of the world with this commodity, but England now bids fair to deprive 
China of much of her trarlic in this elegant production. 

The most perfect and beautiful porcelains of Japan and China are 
said to be composed of two distinct earths; a porcelain is produced 
which scarcely vitrifies at the utmost furnace heat which art can ex- 
cite. It is also very hard, beautifully semi-transparent, very white 
when not artificially coloured, tough and cohesive, so that it may be 
made very thin, and bears sudden heating and cooling without crack- 

GLASS is a transparent, solid, brittle body, produced by a mixture 
of earthy or metallic with saline substances melted together by an in- 
tense heat. There are three principal kinds of glass, distinguished by 
the form or manner of working them, viz., round glass, as our vessels, 
phials, drinking glasses. &c. : table or window glass, of which there are 
divers kinds; and crown-glass and plate-glass, or looking-glass. 

which the glass is melted is round, and has several apertures, through 
one of which the fuel is introduced; the others serve to lade out the 
melted metal, which is fused in pots made of tobacco-pipe clay, or some 



other material capable of resisting the heat. When the ingredients 
are perfectly fused and sufficiently hot, part of the melted matter is ta- 
ken out at the end of a hollow tube about three feet long-, which is dip- 
ped into it and turned about till a sufficient quantity is taken up ; the 
workman then rolls it gently upon a plate of iron or marble, to unite 
it more intimately ; he then blows through the tube, till the melted 
mass at the extremity swells into a bubble ; after which, he rolls it 
again on a smooth surface to polish it, and repeats the blowing till the 
glass is brought to the size and form necessary for the required vessel ; 
he shaping it with pincers or scissors, according to circumstances. 

Crown or Window Gla*s is formed in a similar manner, except that 
the liquid mass is blown into large globes, and detached from the first 
iron tube by the assistance of a second person, who fixes his iron tube 
at the opposite side of the globe ; and the man who originally blew it, 
then separates his tube from it ; the mouth of the globe is gradually 
widened till it ultimately becomes, in the hand of the workman a cir- 
cular planisphere. 

Plate Glass for Looking Glasses and some superior windows, is made 
by causing the melted glass to flow upon a table made either of pot- 
metal or of copper, with iron ledges to confine the melted matter ; and 
as it cools, a metallic roller is passed over it, to reduce it to an uniform 
thickness. After being annealed, that is cooled in an oven or furnace 
very gradually, it is ground and polished thus : — The glass is laid hor- 
izontally upon a flat stone table made of a very fine grained free-stone ; 
then taking a smaller piece of rough glass, and fastening it to a heavy 
wooden plank, the workmen continue to rub one glass backwards and 
forwards upon another, till they acquire a great degree of smoothness. 
While they are thus employed, they pour in water and sand, then a 
finer sort of sand, and lastly powder of smalt. When the grinder has 
done his part, by bringing the glass to an exact plainness, it is turned 
over to the polisher, who with the fine powder of Tripoli stone, or em- 
ery, and a putty formed of lead and tin calcined together, brings it to 
a perfect evenness and lustre. 

Glass is colored blue by oxide of cobalt ; red by the oxide of gold ; 
green by oxides of copper or iron ; yellow by oxides of silver or anti- 
mony ; and violet by oxide of manganese. 

BOTTLES. Glass bottles are better for liquors than those of stone. 
Foul glass bottles are cleaned by rolling sand or small shot in them. 
But it frequently happens, that some of the shot are left behind ; and 
when wine or beer is again poured into the bottles, this mineral poison 
will slowly dissolve, and impregnate those vinous liquors with its dele- 
terious qualities. The sweetness which is sometimes perceived in red 
port wine may arise from this cause, when it is neither designed nor 
suspected. It is much better, therefore, to use nothing but sand, or the 
dust of coal, and coarse brown paper, which are very effectual for the 

PUTTY sometimes denotes powder of calcined tin, which is used 
in polishing and giving a lustre to works in marble, glass, iron and 
steel. The putty commonly used by glaziers is composed of lintseed 
oil and whiting, with or without the addition of white lead. The 
whiting is first powdered very fine, then oil and white lead (should an}' 



be deemed necessary for the purpose intended) are well wrought with 
it, and incorporated together. The mixture is beaten till the whole is 
• o roughly blended, and becomes a tenacious mass like dough. 

A PIN is an article well known. It is not easy to trace the invention 
of this useful implement. It is first noticed in the English statute- 
book, in the year 1483, prohibiting foreign manufactures. In the reign 
of Henry VIII. it would seem pins were then considered a new inven- 
tion, and probably brought from France, where they were esteemed ar- 
ticles of luxury. Hence arose the term pin-money, an allowance made 
by the husband to the wife for her own spending. The art, however, 
of making pins from brass wire, was not known in England before 
1543 ; before that period they were either made of bone, ivory, or box. 
Pins are made in the following manner : — The brass wire, reduced 
to its proper dimensions by drawing, is straightened, and afterwards 
cut into lengths of three or four yards, and then into smaller ones, ev- 
ery length being sufficient for six pins ; each end of these is ground to 
a point, upon grind-stones by boys, who will point 16x00 pins in an 
hour. When the wire is thus pointed, a pin is taken off from each 
end ; and this is repeated, till it is cut into six pieces. The heads are 
next formed by means of a spinning wheel ; one piece of wire being 
thus with astonishing rapidity wound round another, and the interior 
one being drawn out, leaves a hollow tube between the circumvolu- 
tions ; it is then cut with shears, every two circumvolutions or turns of 
the w T ire forming one head ; these are softened by placing them in a 
furnace till red hot. When cold they are distributed to children, w r ho 
sit with anvils and hammers before them, which they work with their 
feet by means of a lathe, and taking up one of the lengths, they thrust 
the blunt end into a quantity of the heads which lie before them, and 
catching one at the extremity, they apply them immediately between 
the anvil and the hammer, and by a motion or two of the foot, the pin 
and the head are fixed together in a very expeditious manner. The pin 
is now thrown into a copper containing a solution of tin, and the lees 
of wine. Here it remains for some time, when it assumes a white, 
though dull appearance ; to give it a polish, it is put into a tub with a 
quantity of bran, which is set in motion by turning a shaft that runs 
through its centre, and thus, by means of friction, it becomes entirely 
bright. The pin being complete, the bran is winnowed from it, leaving 
the pin fit to be stuck in paper for immediate sale. Pins are distin- 
guished in commerce by numbers ; the smallest are called minikins ; 
the next short whites; the next larger ones, No. 3, 3^, 4, 4^, and 5, to 
the 14th ; whence they go by twos ; viz. 16, 18, and 20, which is the 
largest size. Pins are sold in papers and packets as thus numbered, 
and also by the pound weight in assorted sizes. There are also black 
pins, pins with double heads, Szc. 

NEEDLES were first made in England by a native of India, in 
1545, but the art was lost at his death ; it was however recovered by 
one Christopher Greening, in 1.560. This familiar little instrument 
makes a very considerable article of commerce ; and the consumption 
is almost incredible. The German and Hungarian steel is of most re- 
pute for needles. The steel being placed in the fire, and afterwards 
hammered to bring it to a round form, is passed through successive 



holes of the wire-drawing machine, till it is of the proper size ; it is 
then cut into suitable lengths ; these pieces are flatted at one end on 
the anvil, to form the head or eye ; they are then put into the fire to 
soften them further, thence taken out, and pierced at the extreme of 
the flat part on the anvil, by a puncheon of well-tempered steel, and 
laid on a leaden block to bring out, with another puncheon, the small 
piece of steel remaining in the eye. The corners are then filed ofFthe 
square of the heads, and a small cavity filed on each side of the flat of 
the head ; this done, the point is formed with a file, and the whole 
filed over : they are then made red hot over a charcoal fire, and after- 
wards thrown into a basin of cold water to harden. When hardened, 
they are laid in a shovel on a brisk fire, to temper and take off their 
britileness. They are then straightened one after another with the 
hammer; the next process is the polishing : 12 or 15,000 needles are 
ranged in small heaps on a piece of new buckram sprinkled with em- 
ery dust ; they are afterwards sprinkled with oil of olives ; lastly the 
whole is.made up into a roll, and laid on a polishing table, and over it a 
thick plank loaded with stones, which two men work backwards and 
forwards, till the needles are polished. When taken out, they are 
washed with hot water and soap, and wiped in bran. The good are 
now separated from the bad, and the points smoothed on an emery 
stone. This operation finishes them; and nothing remains but to 
make them up in packets. 

Needles are distinguished into common and Whitechapel, this last by 
having a c marked upon each needle; sharps, bttweens, and blunts; 
darning needles, double longs, and No. 50, Szc. ; besides which there is 
the netting needle, the knitting needle, the glover's needle, with a trian- 
gular point, the tambour needle, surgeon's needles, &c. 

BLEACHING is the art of whitening linens, stuffs, silk, and many 
other substances. 

Although the ancient inhabitants of India, Egypt and Syria, knew 
in some sort a method of carrying off the coloring matters with which 
cloth is stained ; and although Fliny mentions that the Gauls were ac- 
quainted with a lixivium extracted from the ashes of vegetables, and 
knew how to combine it with oil to form soap, .yet their knowledge of 
bleaching w T as very imperfect. Even in India, at the present time, it is 
said that the art of bleaching is no further advanced than it was in the 
time of Herodotus. Indeed in Europe, till toward the end of the 18th 
century, the art of bleaching advanced slowly ; but the discovery of 
oxymuriatic acid, as a material for bleaching, has given an impulse un- 
known in any other art. 

Blenching Silk. Raw Silk is put into a thin linen bag, thrown into 
a vessel of boiling river water in which soap has been dissolved, and 
then boiled two or three hours, the bag being turned out several times ; 
taken out, beaten, and washed in cold water, mixed with soap and a 
little indigo. The indigo water being slightly wrung out, the silk is 
put into a vessel of cold water ; after taking it out of which, it is 
wrung, and all the water and soap expressed ; shaken out to untwist 
and separate the threads ; and hung up in a kind of stove made on 
purpose, where sulphur is burnt, the vapor from which gives the last 
degree of whiteness to the silk. 



Bleaching of woollen stuffs. There are three ways of whitening 
these ; the first, with water and soap; the second with vapor of sul- 
phur ; the third, with chalk, indigo, and vapor of sulphur. For the 
first : the stuffs, being taken from the fulling mill, are put into soaped 
water rather hot, and worked afresh by force of arms over a bench, 
which finishes the whitening the fulling mill had begun ; and lastly 
washed out in clear water and dried ; this is called the natural way of 
bleaching. In the second method they begin by washing the stuff in 
river water ; it is then laid to dry on poles, and, when half dry, spread 
out in a kind of stove well closed, wherein is burnt sulphur ; the va- 
por, diffusing itself, sticks by degrees over all the stuff, and ghes it a 
line whitening ; this is commonly called bleaching by the flower. In the 
third method, after the stuffs have been washed, they are thrown into 
cold water impregnated with chalk and indigo ; after they have been 
well agitated here, they are washed afresh in clear water, half dried on 
poles, and spread in a stove to receive the vapor of the sulphur, which 
finishes the operation. This is not esteemed the best method of bleach- 
ing, though agreeable enough to the sight. It may be here observed, 
that when a stuff has once received the steam of sulphur, it will scarce- 
ly receive any beautiful dye but black or blue, unless well washed in 
alkaline ley, and rinsed previously to being put into the dye vat. 

Bleaching of Hollands or fine linens. After taking them from the 
loom, while yet raw, they are steeped in clean water, rinsed out, and 
cleared of their filth in a tub filled with a cold lixivium or ley. When 
taken out of the ley, they are washed in clean water, spread on a mea- 
dow and watered from time to time. After lying a certain time on the 
ground, they are boiled in a new ley of potash or barilla, and again 
washed in clean water, soaped with black soap, passed through rubbing 
boards, and the soap washed out in clean water ; they are then steeped 
in sour milk, which finishes their whitening and scouring, gives a soft- 
ness, and makes them cast a little nap : when taken out of the milk, 
they are washed in clean water for the last time. After all this pro- 
cess, they give the linen its first blue, by passing it through water, 
wherein a little starch and smalt, or powder blue has been steeped. 
Lastly, the proper stiffness and lustre are given with starch, pale malt, 
and certain gums, the quantity and quality whereof is adjusted accord- 
ing to occasion. In fine weather, the whole process of bleaching is 
completed in a month's time ; in bad* it takes up six weeks or more. 

Coarse linens are taken from the loom, and laid in wooden frames 
full of cold water, whereby means of wooden hammers worked by a 
water-mill, they are beaten so as insensibly to wash and purge them- 
selves of their filth ; then spread on the ground, where the dew 
which they receive for a week, takes off more of their impurity ; they 
are then put into a kind of wooden tubs, or pans, with a hot ley over 
them, and afterwards boiled with potash, kelp, or barilla. Thus lixivi- 
ated, they are again purged in the mUl, laid afresh on the ground, 
and after about a week more passed through a second ley, and all things 
repeated, till such time as they have acquired their just degree of 

The process of bleaching, not only linens and cottons, but rags for 
paper, with oxymuriatic acid, or rather with solutions of oxymuriate of 
pulash, or oxymuriate of lime, has now been generally adopted ; and with 



the use of these, linens can be made as white in six days, as formerly 
they were in six weeks. 

WOOL. Woollen cloths are extensively manufactured in England, 
France, Netherlands, Prussia, and in some other places on the conti- 
nent of Europe. Those of Silesia, in Prussia, are among the most 
perfect produced; and they annually amount to more than £50,000 
in value. Ihe woollen cloths of France have long been distinguished 
for fineness and durability. In Spain and most other countries of Eu- 
rope, this manufactuie is in an imperfect state. Coarse cloths are 
made in considerable quantities in the northern countries ; but not 
enough generally for home-consumption. England furnishes the great 
supply of woollen goods ; a due portion of which, are of superior 
excellence. The woollen manufacture of that country employs about 
halfa million of persons, and amounts annually to more than ,£16,000,- 
000 sterling. 

Within a few years great attention has been paid to the growth and 
manufacture of wool, in various parts of the United States, and parti- 
cularly in New England, and some of the Middle States. It is doubt- 
ed, however, whether as much capital is at present invested in estab- 
lishments of this kind, as a few years ago ; and in consequence of the 
recent depressed state of the price of wool, there are probably fewer 
sheep by several millions. In a speech delivered in the House of Rep- 
resentatives on the 31st of January, 1827, by the Hon. John Davis, of 
Massachusetts, the amount of w T ool worked up was estimated by that 
gentleman at 32,000,000 lbs. and that 3,000,000 yards of broad, and 
32,000,000 narrow cloths were annually produced, giving employment 
directly or indirectly to 100,000 persons. It was stated also, that more 
than one hundred millions capital were vested in the growth and man- 
ufacture of wool, The number of sheep were put at that time at 

CLOTH, in commerce, in its general sense, includes all kinds of 
clothing woven or manufactured in the loom, except silk ; whether the 
threads be of wool, cotton, hemp, or flax. Cloth is, however, more 
peculiarly applied to woollen threads interwoven ; some of which are 
called the warp, and extend lengthwise, from one end of the piece to 
the other : the others are called the woof, and disposed across the first, 
or breadthwise of the piece. Cloths are of various qualities, fine, 
coarse, strong, &c. ; some are of different colours ; other are wrought 
white, and afterwards dyed in the piece. Their breadths and lengths are 
various. The goodness of woollen cloth consists in the wool being fine 
and well dressed ; in its being spun equally, always observing, how- 
ever, that the thread of the warp be finer and better twisted than that of 
the woof; in its being well cleared of the knots and other imperfec- 
tions, and well cleansed with fullers' earth, and afterwards properly 
dyed, dressed, and pressed. 

Cloth is distinguished by being either plain or kersey woven. The 
first method consists simply in the threads crossing each other at right 
angles ; in the last they are crossed so as to give an additional strength to 
the cloth ; hence it appears in diagonal lines or rows running obliquely 
across the piece ; and, in general, this style of weaving adds thickness 
as well as strength to the fabric. In the cotton manufacture, cloth so 
woven is called twilled. 



Manufacturing of white cloths for dating. The wool is first scoured 
in a liquor composed of three parts of water, and one of urine ; it is 
then drained, washed in running water, and hung out to dry in the 
shade. When dry, it is beaten with rods on hurdles of wood, or on 
ropes, to clear out the dust and grosser filth. After beating, it is well 
picked, to clear the rest of the filth that had escaped the rods. It is 
now oiled, and carded on large iron cards, placed aslope. The best oil 
for the purpose is olive oil. The wool is now given out to the spinner3. 
who first card it on the knee with small fine cards, then spin it by a 
wheel, observing to make the thread for the warp smaller than that for 
the woof, and much closer twisted. When warped, it is stiffened with 
size : that which is made with shreds of parchments is the best. When 
dry, the weavers mo;:nt it in the loom. Formerly there were two weav- 
ers to each loom, one on each side, treading at the same time alternate- 
ly on the same treadle; i. e. now on the right step, and now on the 
left, which raised and lowered the shreads of the warp equally ; be- 
tween which they threw, transversely, the shuttle from one to the other. 
This, however, is now performed by one person, by means of what is 
called a flying shuttle. Each time that the shuttle is thrown, so that a 
thread of the woof is inserted within the warp, he strikes it with the 
frame wherein the comb, or reed, is fastened, between the teeth of which 
the threads of the warp are passed, repeating the stroke as often as is 
necessary. The weaver having continued his work, till the whole warp 
is filled will wool, the cloth is finished. It is then taken off the loom 
by unrolling it from the beam whereon it had been roiled in proportion as 
it was woven, and given to be cleared of the knots, ends of thread, 
.straws, and other filth, which is done with little iron nippers. In this 
condition it is carried to the fullerj, to be scoured with urine, or fullers' 
earth well cleaned and steeped in water, put along with the cloth into 
the trough, wherein it is fulled ; and after undergoing a variety of other 
manipulations and processes necessary to the perfection of the cloth, 
and being also dyed of the particular color desired, it is ready for the 

The above is the usual process of weaving woollen cloth in the 81 
way, as formerly, as well as now sometimes practised ; but the ingenu- 
ity of modern times and the steam engine have very materially altered 
many of the processes above described. The spinning in particular is 
now, in our large manufactories, no longer performed by the hand and 
the wheel, but a method is adopted by which one person can direct the 
spinning of thirty or more threads at once, and this so regularly and 
expeditiously as to set at nought the former practice. The machinery 
of such spinning is moved by steam, as indeed is even the carding of the 
wool, and many other processes not formerly thought capable oi' being 
brought to machinery subjection. 

For the manufacture of mixed cloths, or those wherein the wools are 
first dyed, then mixed, spun, and woven, of the colors intended, the 
process, except in what relates to the color, is mostly the same with 
that just spoken of. The method of adjusting the mixture is by first 
making a felt of the colors of the intended cloth, as a specimen; tho 
wool of each color is weighed, and when the specimen is to the man- 
ufacturer's mind, he mixes, for use a quantity in the same proportion . 




estimating each grain of the specimen at twenty pounds' weight of the 
same in the cloth to be made. 

BAIZE is a kind of coarse, open, woollen stuff, having a long nop; 
sometimes friezed on one side, and sometimes not, according to the uses 
for which it is intended ; it is of various colors, white, green, &c. It 
is without wale, being wrought on a loom with two treadles like flannel. 
The manufacture of baize is very considerable in England, and in 
Flanders about Lisle and Tournay, &c. Formerly the French, as well 
as the Italians, were furnished with baize from England ; but for 
sometime the French workmen have undertaken to imitate it, and set 
up manufactures of their own, and with success, especially at Nantes, 
Montpelier, <fcc. The export of baize is very considerable to Spain, 
Portugal, and Italy. Its chief use is for the religious, and for linings 
in the ermy ; t}ie looking-glass makers also use it behind their glasses, 
to preserve the tin or quicksilver ; and the case makers to line their 

SERGE is kersey wove, and either white, colored, or figured. Co- 
lored serges and figured Duroys were very commonly worn by the low- 
er orders in the west of England some years ago ; but these manufac- 
tures have been superseded by bombaztts and printed cottons. White 
serge is however still in use, and is a useful and durable material, supe- 
rior in strength to flannel or baize. 

BOMBAZET, a woollen manufacture of various colors, now much 
worn ; some of it is got up to look glossy aud very much like silk ; it is 
a valuable and useful manufacture. It is commonly w r oven plain, some- 
times however it is twilled. 

WORSTED is a kind of hard-twisted and doubled or trebled wool- 
len thread. It is chiefly used either to be knit or woven into stockings, 
caps, gloves, and the like. The name worsted is supposed to be derived 
from the town of Worstead in Norfolk, noted for fine spinning They 
who write it woolst.ed, do it on a supposition of the word being formed 
from wool, the matter of this thread. 

FLANNEL, a kind of soft, slight, loose woollen stuff, but very warm, 
composed of a woof and warp, and woven on a loom, with two tread- 
les, after the manner of baize. 

CALAMINCO, or Minco, a sort of woollen stuff manufactured in 
England and Brabant. It has a fine gloss, and is checquered in the 
warp, whence the checks appears only on the right side. Some cala- 
mincoes are quite plain, and others with broad stripes, some with narrow 
stripes, and others watered. 

TAPESTRY is a curious kind of manufacture, formerly used to 
adorn a chamber or other apartment, by hanging or lining the walls. 
The term is appropriated to a kind of woven hangings of wool and silk, 
frequently raised and enriched with gold and silver, representing figures 
of men, animals, landscapes, &c. 

Two methods are adopted in weaving tapestry : in the high warp 
the cloth is woven perpendicularly, in the low warp horizontally. The 
low w r arps in Flanders have been said to exceed those of France. The 
chief are at Brussels and Antwerp, where they have succeeded in hu- 



man figures, animals, and landscapes, equally in the designing and the 
workmanship. It would be difficult and tedious to give a clear idea of 
the loom, or the manufacture of tapestry ; it may be observed however, 
that it is all wrought on the wrong side; so that the workman cannot 
see the right side of his tapestry till the piece is finished, and taken off 
the loom. 

CAMLET or CAMBLET is a stuff made of hair, silk, or wool. In 
some, the woof is hair ; the warp, silk and wool twisted together. Carrf- 
lets are manufactured in Holland and Flanders, and in Ireland and En- 
gland. The true or oriental camlet is made of the pure hair of a sort 
of goat, frequently about Angora, in Natolia, and which makes the riches 
of that city. 

A CARPET is a beautiful figured cloth, used for covering the 
floors of rooms, stairs, &c, generally composed of woollen stuff, either 
wrought in a loom, or with the needle. Formerly there were Persain 
and Turkish carpets made of silk, and some are still made of this sub- 
stance, and of hair; but the principal part are now made of colored 
woollen yarn, manufactured into divers patterns and figures, often ap- 
proaching to those of tapestry. In Germany, carpets are made of 
wool, and embellished with silk in needle- work. But the first and most 
extensive manufactures ot carpeting exist in England, particularly 
those at Axminster, Wilton, Kidderminster, &c. There are three prin- 
cipal sorts of carpeting; the Turkey, the Wilton or Brussels, and the 
Kidderminster, or Scotch. Both the first and second have smooth 
backs, and a nap on one side. The Turkey is distinguished by a very 
thick nap ; it is the dearest, the warmest, and the most durable. The 
Brussels, as it is called, though manufactured in England, has now 
nearly superseded the Wilton. The best of the Kidderminster and 
Scotch carpets are woven double, without any nap, so as to be similar 
in texture on both sides, and similar in pattern, the colors only being 
reversed. These are cheaper than the Brussels or Wilton, and nearly 
as durable. Carpets are sometimes woven in one piece for a room, 
with a border ; but most commonly they are woven in long pieces, 
which are afterward sewed together to make the breadth desired. At 
Axminster and in London, excellent carpets of the Wilton or Brussels, 
as well as of the Turkej* kind, are made of the largest dimensions, 
suited to the full extent of drawing-rooms, all in one piece. The large 
carpets are made on frames and rollers, somewhat similar to tapestry. 
Carpet making has become a very nourishing, and valuable manufac- 
ture, which employs a great number of industrious people, and being 
almost wholly performed with the produce of our own country, is of 
great importance as a national concern. Carpets having hair or shag 
on one side only were called by the ancients tapttes, those with shag on 
both sides, amphilapetes. The use of carpets is of great antiquity, and 
they were no less a luxury among the ancient Greeks than among the 
moderns. They also give an appellation to a kind of knights, who be- 
ing mercantile or professional men, not addicted to the art of war, re- 
ceive the honor of knighthood from the king's hands, kneeling at court 
on a carpet, and hence called Carpet- Knights. 

DYEING, the art of staining cloth and other articles of different co- 
lors, is of great antiquity, as appears from the traces of it in the oldest, 



sacred as well as profane, writers. The honor of the invention is 
attributed to the Tyrians ; though what lessens the merit of it is, that 
it is said io have owed its origin to chance. The juices of certain 
fruits, leaves, &c. accidentally crushed, are supposed to have furnished 
the first hint. Pliny assures us, that even in his time the Gauls made 
use of no other dyes : it is added, that colored earth and minerals, 
washed and soaked in rain, gave the next dyeing materials. But pur- 
ple, an animal juice, found in a shell-fish, pwrpurci^ seems from history, 
to have been prior to any of them. This, indeed, was reserved for the 
use of kings and princes ; private persons were forbidden by law to 
wear any of it. The discovery of its tinging quality is said to have 
been taken from a dog, which, having caught one of the purple fishes 
among the rocks, and eaten it up, stained his mouth and beard with the 
precious liquor; this struck the fancy of a Tyrian nymph so strongly, 
that she refused her lover Hercules, any favors, till he had brought her 
a mantle of the same fine color. 

Of the great variety of known dyes, few only can be applied to ani- 
mal or vegetable fibre, without any other preparation than that of 
cleansing the stuff, and immersing it in a decoction or infusion of the 
dye. And hence it is necessary, to render most colors permanent, that 
the article to be dyed should be previously impregnated with what has 
been termed a mordant, generally a salt having an alkaline, earthy, or 
metallic base : thus alum, sulphate of lime, muriate of tin, sulphate of 
iron, tannin, and oil, are mordants, according to the dyes, and to the 
substances to which they are to be applied. When the dye imparts to 
cloth a permanent color, without the intervention of a mordant, it is 
called a substantive color; when it requires a mordant to impart a per- 
manent color, it is called an adjective color. Indigo is a substantive, 
madder an adjective color ; cochineal is also an adjective color : for 
although the red of the cochineal will stain the cloth while it remains 
immersed in the solution ; yet, as soon as it is taken out and washed, 
this temporary stain will immediately vanish, and the cloth become as 
white as before. But if the cloth be dipped in a solution of some alka- 
line or metallic salt, and then immersed in the solution of cochineal for 
gome time, it will come out permanently colored ; nor will the color ever 
be discharged, even by washing with soap and water. 

The materials for dyeing different colors are many and various* 
Some ingredients produce durable colors, which cannot be discharged 
either by exposure to air or washing with soap ; others, though they 
may be made to stand the action of soap pretty well, cannot by any 
means be enabled to resist the action of air. These are distin- 
guished by the different names of true and false, permanent and fading, 
or substantive and adjective colors ; nor is there any method yet discov- 
ered of giving the false colors an equal degree of durability with the 
true ones. A solution of tin in nitro-muriatic acid will give most of 
the fading colors a high degree of beauty, arid some share of durability, 
though even this is not able to make them equal to the others. The 
most permanent dyes we have are cochineal and lac for fine reds and 
.scarlets : indigo and woad for blue ; and, when mixed in different pro- 
portions with cochineal or lac, for purple and violet colors : weld and 
some other vegetables for yellow : and madder for coarse reds, purples, 
and blacks. The fading colors are much more numerous. In this class 



are included brazil-wood, logwood, peach-wood, red-wood, fustic, tur- 
meric root, annotto, archil, fee. 

With regard to the mordants used in dyeing, it has been too often 
customary to mix a quantity of different ones, by which the color has 
been generally spoiled. This truth should, therefore, be constantly be- 
fore us, that, in general, one single mordant will answer for this pur- 
pose better than a hundred. A mixture should only be made, where it 
is necessary to produce the color desired ; and if a dyer proceed in this 
simple manner, he may not only attain to great perfection in the art 
from his own experience, without being taught by others, but even 
make considerable discoveries ; as dyeing is at present far from being 
brought to perfection. The mordants chiefly to be used in dyeing are 
fixed alkalies ; solutions of tin in sulphuric and muriatic acids, and in 
nitro-muriatic acid ; sugar of lead ; cream of tartar ; alum ; sulphuric 
acid ; and solution of iron in the acetous acid. By means of these, 
almost all kinds of colors may be dyed at an easy rate, and with very 
little trouble. Observe, the acids, and acid solutions, must be diluted 
with a considerable quantity of water, before they are used. , 

General Rules for Dyelvg all Colors. Having well cleans- 
ed the substance to be dyed, and made choice of the mordant proper 
for fixing the color desired, dissolve it in water, and steep the substance 
in this solution for twenty-four hours. Then take it out, and without 
wringing hang it up to dry, but without heat, and for this it will be 
proper to allow a pretty long time ; as the more perfectly the mordant 
penetrates the cloth, the more durable will the color be. Having then 
prepared a colored solution or decoction, put the cloth into it. The 
less heat is applied during the time the cloth remains in the dye, the 
finer the color will be ; but the longer time will be required for comple- 
ting the operation. If time cannot be spared, so that a strong heat 
must be applied, it will be necessary to roll the cloth during the time 
of dyeing, or the color will be in danger of proving unequal. After 
the dyeing is completed, rinse the cloth in cold water, but do not wring 
it strongly ; and then hang it up to dry. Tn this way may be dyed a 
great variety of colors, on wool, silk, cotton, and linen, without any 
variation in the process. A solution of tin in the sulphuric acid will 
produce all degrees of red, from the palest pink or rose color, to the 
highest crimson and scarlet ; and this, on all the before-mentioned 
substances, without exception. 

Cotton and Linen may be dyed, by means of the before-mentioned 
solution, of the most beautiful red, crimson, and scarlet colors. The 
same may be done by a solution of tin in nitro-muriatic acid : but un- 
less the nitrous acid prevail greatly in the mixture, the colors produced 
by this last will incline more to purple than the former. With solution 
of tin in muriatic acid they incline remarkably to purple, and are like- 
wise deficient in lustre. The first two solutions therefore are capital 
ingredients in dyeing. Latterly, cottons have been dyed a fine and 
permanent Turkey red by means of madder, but the manipulations are 
too complex to detail. 

The same preparations will also serve for dyeing all other colors, blue 
and green excepted. Thus, a piece of cloth prepared with solution of 
tin in sulphuric acid, if boiled with the decoction of cochineal, will 




come out of a scarlet color ; if with turmeric, weld, fustic, or many of 
the common yellow flowers, it will come out different degrees of yel- 
low ; with Brazil-wood, peach-wood, &c. it will give a fine purplish 
crimson ; with log-wood, a fine deep purple, Sic. : and by combining 
these in different ways, an infinity of different shades may be produced. 

Green colors are to be produced only by a mixture of blue and yel- 
low : no ingredient being yet discovered, that will, by itself, produce a 
good green dye. It is usual first to dye the cloth blue with indigo, and 
then yellow with any yellow-coloring ingredient, by which means a 
green color is produced. Cloth and silk may be dyed green with indi- 
go ; but they must first be boiled in yellow dye, and then in blue. 

Black col ;rs are dyed by preparing the cloth with any solution of 
iron, but that in the acetous acid is the best ; and then boiling it in a 
decoction of any astringent vegetable. Those chiefly made use of for 
the purpose are galls, sumach, logwood, and madder. Of these the 
last is most durable ; though galls will also produce a pretty lasting 
color, if properly managed. Logwood dyes a very pretty, but fading 
black color. It appears, however, by an experiment made by Mr. 
Clegg, that by a proper preparation of the cloth with fixed alkaline 
salts, black colors dyed with logwood might be improved, both as to 
beauty and durability. The finest blacks are first dyed blue, with indi- 
go ; and afterwards black, with a solution of iron, and some astringent 
vegetable. These are the best methods of producing permanent colors 
of all kinds. As it is necessary, however, often to give another color 
to stuffs which have already been dyed, it is also necessary that a dyer 
should know how to discharge colors, as well as to make the cloth im- 
bibe them. 

Thread is dyed a bright blue with braziletto and indigo. Bright 
green is first dyed blue, then black, boiled with braziletto and verditer, 
and lastly welded. A d trk £re*n is given like the former, only dark- 
ening more before welding. Lemon or pale yellow is given with weld, 
and rocou or annotto. Orange and Isabella, with fustic, weld, and an- 
notto. Red, both bright and dark, with flame-colors, &c, are given 
with brazil, either alone, or with a mixture of annotto. Violet, dry 
rose, and amaranth, are given with brazil, taken down with indigo. — 
FilUmot and olive color are given with galls and copperas, taken down 
with weld, annotto, or fustic. Black is given with galls and sulphate 
of iron, taken down and finished with braziletto wood. 

Tanned Leather, Skins, kc, are dyed of a black color, by rubbing 
them over three or four times w r ith a solution of sulphate of iron, or a 
solution of iron in the vegetable acids. For leathers that have not- 
been tanned, some galls or other astringents are added to the solution 
of iron ; and in many cases, particularly for the finer parts of leather, 
and for renewing the blackness, ivory black or lamp black is used. A 
blue color is given by steeping the subject a day in urine and indigo, 
then boiling it with alum ; or by tempering the indigo with red wine, 
and washing the skins therewith. Red is given by washing the skins 
and laying them in galls ; then wringing them out ; dipping them in a 
liquor made with privet, alum, and verdigris in water; and lastly in a 
dye made of brazil wood boiled in ley. Purple is given by wetting the 
skins with a solution of roche alum in warm water, and, when dried, 



with a decoction of logwood in cold water. Green is given by smear- 
ing the -kin with sap green and alum- water boiled ; to darken the co- 
lor, a little indigo may be added. Dark green is also given with steel 
filings and sal ammoniac steeped in urine till soft, then smeared over 
the skin, which is to be dried in the shade. Sky color is given with in- 
digo steeped in boiling water, and the next morning warmed and smear- 
ed over the skin. Yellow by smearing the skin over with aloes and 
linseed oil, dissolved and strained ; or by infusing it in weld. Orange 
color is given by smearing with fustic berries, boiled in alum water ; or, 
for a deep orange, with turmeric. 

Wood, for inlaying, veneering, Szc, is dyed red by boiling it in water 
and alum; then taking it out, adding brazil to the liquor, and giving 
the wood another boil in it. Black, by applying a solution of logwood, 
boiled in vinegar, hot, with a brush, and afterwards washing the wood 
over with a decoction of galls and sulphate of iron till it be of the hue 
required. Any other color may be given by squeezing out the mois- 
ture of horse-dung through a sieve, mixing it with roche alum and gum 
arabic, and to the whole adding green, blue, or any other color de- 
signed. After standing two or three days, the wood, cut to the thick- 
ness of half a crown, is put into the liquor boiling hot, and suffered to 
remain till it is sufficiently colored. New mahogany may be made of 
a dark color, by smearing it over with a paste made of quick lime and 

Bone, Horn, and Ivvry are dyed Black by steeping brass in aquafor- 
tis till it is turned green ; with this, the bone, Sec. is to be washed 
once or twice, and then put into a decoction of logwood and warm 
water. Green is begun by boiling the bone, &c. in alum-water ; then 
with verdigris, sal ammoniac, and vinegar, keeping it hot therein till 
sufficiently green. Red is begun by boiling it in alum-water, and fin- 
ished by decoction in a liquor compounded of quicklime steeped in 
rain water, strained, to every pint of which an ounce of brazil wood is 
added : the bone, &c. to be boiled till sufficiently red. 

SOAP is a kind of paste, sometimes hard and dry, and sometimes 
soft, much used in washing, and whitening linens, and for various oth- 
purposes, by dyers, perfumers, hatters, fullers, &c. 

Soap is a chemical compound produced by the union of any of the 
fixed oils with alkalies, earths, or metallic oxides. The alkalies, and 
particularly soda, are necessary to the production of good soap ; and 
it is also necessary that they should be applied to the oil or tallow in a 
caustic stale ; to this end when an alkali is dissolved in water, lime is 
added to the solution to absorb the carbonic acid of the alkali ; the li- 
quor deprived of its carbonic acid is called soap ley: it is exceedingly 
caustic and will decompose human flesh. This ley is usually made 
strong enough to float a new-laid egg. With this ley, oil, or tallow, or 
resin, according to circumstances, is boiled till it unites into the com- 
pound known as soap. The tallow for making soap is reckoned very 
good if thirteen cwt. of it yield with alkali a ton weight of soap. 

White soap of the best quality is made with olive oil and soda; or 
with tallow and soda, obtained from barilla, or impure carbonate of so- 



Yellow soap is made with tallow and yellow resin in the proportion of 
ten parts tallow and three and a half of resin, these with the addition 
of the ley, make twenty of soap. 

Mottled soap obtains its speckled appearance either by dispersing 
the ley through it towards the end of the operation, or by adding sul- 
phate of iron, oxide of manganese, or indigo. 

Windsor soap is the common white soap scented with oil of caraway 
seeds or other scent. 

Black soap and other soft soaps are made from fish oil and a ley of 
potash made in a similar manner as soap ley above, or with inferior tal- 
low and such ley. 

Castile soap is sometimes made from common white soap having a 
solution of sulphate of iron mixed with it in cooling, to give the mar- 
bled appearance. But the best Castile soap is brought from Marseilles, 
although it is also brought from Spain. It is most probably composed 
of olive oil and soda, and sulphate of iron to impart to it the marbled 

Soap balls for washing the hands, are made of various colors by sim- 
ply cutting white soap into small pieces, rolling them in vermillion, blue, 
or other color, and squeezing them together into balls : they are scented 
at the will of the maker. 

A cheap soap is sometimes made of woollen rags,&c. and even with 
the horns of animals instead of oil ; but the smell is commonly very 

Soap as a medicine (the foreign Castile soap is, for this purpose, con- 
sidered the best) is generally regarded as purgative, lithontriptic, and 
tonic ; it is also given to counteract the effects of metallic and other 
poisons ; but common white soap is better for such purpose. Soap is 
also used externally for sprains and bruises ; it is an ingredient in the 
well known soap liniment or opodeldoc, 

CANDLES. There are two sorts of tallow candles ; dipped an 
moulded. The moulded are the invention of the Sieurle Brege, of Paris. 
In making candles, the general method is, after weighing and mixing 
the tallow in due proportions, to cut it into small pieces, that it may 
more readily melt. When properly melted and skimmed, a certain 
quantity of water is poured into it, in order that all remaining impurities 
may precipitate to the bottom. No water, however, must be thrown 
into the tallow designed for the first three dips; because the wick would 
imbibe the water, and thus render the candles unfit for burning. — The 
tallow, thus melted, is poured into a tub, through a coarse sieve of 
horse-hair, to purify it still more, and may be used after having stood 
three hours. It will continue fit for use twenty-four hours in summer, 
and fifteen in winter. The wicks are made of spun cotton, several 
threads of which the tallow-chandlers wind into bottoms or clews ; 
whence they are cut off with an instrument, into pieces a little more 
than twice the length of the candle ; and then put on the sticks for dip- 
ping. To make a tallow candle good, there must be an equal quantity 
of sheep's and bullock's tallow. Lard is always inadmissible. The 
wick ought to be properly twisted, neither too hard nor too loosely, 
sufficiently dry and pure, otherwise the candle will emit an irregular 



inconstant flame. Lately machinery has been invented by which the 
facilities of clipping the wicks have been increased,, and the labors of 
the tallow chandler considerably abridged. 

Mould candles are so called because made in moulds of brass, 
pewter, or lead ; but pewter is the best. Each candle has its mould. 
A number of these moulds, having the wick fixed in the middle, are 
placed in a table or frame, full of holes, and filled with melted tallow. 
After the moulds have stood long enough to cool, the candles are drawn 
out ; and they are sometimes rendered whiter by hanging them on 
rods, exposed to the dew and the earliest rays of the sun for several 

"Wax candles. The wicks of wax candles are made of cotton or flax 
slightly twisted, and covered with white or yellow wax, but chiefly the 
former, well bleached. Of these candles there are several kinds ; some 
of a conical figure, are used in funeral processions, Sic. Others are of 
a cylindrical form, used on common occasions. To make wax candles, 
an iron circle, on which are hung a dozen wicks at equal distances, is 
suspended over a large basin full of melted wax. A large ladle-full of 
this wax is poured gently on the tops of the wicks, one after another ; 
and this operation is continued, till the candle arrives at its proper size. 
The first three ladles must be poured on the top, the fourth, fifth, and 
sixth, lower down, at certain distances, to give the candle its conical 
form. The candies are then taken down, and afterward rolled and 
smoothed upon a walnut-tree table, with a long square instrument of 
box, smoothed at the bottom. When wax candles are made by the 
hand, they begin to soften the wax by working it in hot water, in a 
narrow but deep cauldron. A piece of wax is then taken out, and 
disposed by little and little round the wick. Wax tapers are either 
made as the former, with a ladle, or drawn. The latter are drawn in 
the manner of wire, by means of two large rollers of wood, turned 
by a handle, which pass the wick through melted wax contained in a 
brass basin, and at the same time through the holes of an instrument. 

Spermaceti candles are now universally used in theatres, drawing- 
rooms, 8cC. as, should any drops fall from them on the clothes of the 
company, the spermaceti more readily cornes off, whereas wax adheres 
more closely, and cannot be removed without disfiguring the cloth. 

WAX is a yellowish matter, of which the bees form cells for their 
honey. There are two or three substances, which resemble each other 
so closely as to have received the name of wax. The first, and by far 
the most important, is bees-wax, which is consumed in such vast quan- 
tities for giving light, and is also used for a variety of other purposes. 
Another kind of wax is the myrtle wax, which is extracted pretty largely 
in Louisiana, and some other parts of America, from the myrica cerifera, 
or candle-berry myrtle. The next substance, very similar to wax, is 
thepella of the Chinese, the product of an insect: and the white matter 
extracted from lac has also a strong resemblance to wax. But although, 
from the latest researches, wax is not obtained from vegetables exactly 
as we And it in the combs of this animal, it being elaborated by some 
peculiar process of the animal itself, and hence may be considered 
an animal product, yet the constituents of wax, with slight modifica- 
tions, arc found in many vegetables ; and hence wax may be also con- 



sidered a vegetable production. The wax, however, obtained from 
the candle -berry myrtle, is much more like hard colored mutton suet 
than bees- wax. 

SEALING WAX may be made very good of the following materi- 
als ; Shell lac, eight ounces ; rectified spirit of wine, two ounces; 
camphor, half an ounce ; Venice turpentine; four ounces ; vermillion, 
two ounces and a half. Dissolve first the camphor in the spirits of wine, 
next the shell lac, then add the Venice turpentine, and lastly the vermil- 
lion. A careful application of heat is absolutely necessary, or the mass 
will take fire. An inferior wax may be made by adding" yellow resin, 
and taking away a portion of the shell lac. Black wax may be made 
by merely substituting lamp-black for vermillion. 

STARCH is obtained from innumerable vegetable substances ; but 
the starch of commerce is separated from wheat by steeping the grain 
in cold water till it becomes soft, then putting it in coarse bags, which 
are pressed into vats of water ; a milky juice exudes, and the starch 
falls to the bottom of the vat. The deposited starch is collected, and 
dried in a moderate heat; when dried, it splits into the columns or 
fragments in which it is usually sold. A little smalt or indigo is added 
to it to give it a blue tinge. Starch is used to stiiTen linen, and for vari- 
ous other purposes. Made into a fine powder, it is used as powder for 
the hair. It is the nutritive part of most grains or roots, and may be 
extracted in considerable quantities from potatoes, and other roots. 
Vegetables indeed are esteemed nutritious in proportion to the quanti- 
ty of this matter and gluten which they contain. Arrow-root, tapioca, 
and sago, are principally if not entirely, starch. 

PAPER, sheets of a thin matter, made of some vegetable substance 
used principally for writing and printing. The materials, on which 
mankind have, in different ages, contrived to write their sentiments, 
have been extremely varied. In the first ages they made use of stones, 
and tables of wood, wax, ivory, <foc. At a more advanced period, skins 
were employed ; and latterly, paper. The different kinds of paper, 
and materials employed in making them, are reducible to the following : 
Egyptian paper, made of the rush papyrus, (the paper used by the Greeks 
and Romans was made of this plant, and hence the origin of the term 
paper ;) bark paper, made of the inner rind of several trees ; cotton 
paper, made of cotton wool ; incombustible paper, made of asbestos; 
and European paper, made of linen rags. It appears that paper made 
from cotton was used as early as the ninth century. There are several 
Greek MSS. on such paper. The most ancient MS. on cotton pa- 
per, with a date, in the library of the King of France, was written in 

Linen, or European paper was first introduced towards the beginning 
of the thirteenth century ; but by whom this valuable commodity was 
invented is not known. The method of making paper of linen, cotton, 
or hempen rags is as follows : — the rags are first placed in a machine 
formed of wire, which is made to turn round with great velocity to 
whirl out the dust ; they are then sorted according to their different 
qualities ; after which they are put into a trough perforated with holes, 
defended by wire gratings, through which constantly flows a stream of 
clear water. In this trough is placed a cylinder, set thick with rows of 



iron spikes ; at the bottom of the trough are fixed corresponding spikes. 
The cylinder is made to whirl round with great rapidity, so fhat the 
cloth is torn to atoms, and with the aid of the water reduced to a thin 
pulp. By the same process, all the impurities are removed, and the 
pulp becomes perfectly white. The pulp being thus properly prepared, 
is carried to a vat, called the priming vat, and mixed with a proper' 
quantity of water. The vat is rightly primed when the liquor has 
such a proportion of the pulp, as that the mould on being dipped into it, 
will just take up enough to make a sheet of paper of the thickness re- 
quired. The mould is a kind of sieve, exactly of the size of the paper 
to be made, and about an inch deep, the bottom being formed of fine 
brass wire, guarded underneath with sticks, to prevent its bagging down, 
and keep it horizontal ; and further to strengthen the bottom, ihcre are 
large wires, placed in parallel lines, at equal distances, which form those 
lines often visible in white paper when held up to the light : the mark 
of the paper is also made in this bottom, by inverweaving a large wire 
in any particular form. This mould the maker dips into the liquor, and 
gives it a shake as he takes it out, to clear the water from the pulp. 
He then slides the mould along a groove to the coucher, who turns out 
the sheet upon a felt or woollen cloth, lays another cloth on it, and re- 
turns the mould to the maker, who by this time has prepared a second 
sheet in another mould ; and thus they proceed laying alternately a 
sheet and a felt, till they have made six quires of paper, which is called 
a post ; and this they do with such swiftness, that in many sorts of pa- 
per two men make twenty posts or more in a day. A post of paper 
being made, it is placed under a press, and all the water squeezed from 
it ; after which it is separated sheet by sheet from the felts, and laid 
regularly one sheet upon another ; and having undergone a second 
pressing, it is hung up to dry. When sufficiently dried, it is rubbed 
smooth with the hands, and laid by to be sized. The size is made by 
Iwiling shreds and parings of the tanner, currier, or parchment maker; 
and after mixing it with a certain quantity of alum, in a large tub, they 
dip as much paper at once as they can conveniently hold, and with a 
quick motion give every sheet its share of the size, which must be as 
hot as the hand can well bear ; the superfluous size is then pressed out 
of the paper, which is afterwards hung up sheet by sheet to dry, and 
being taken down, is sorted, and what is only fit for outside quires laid 
by themselves ; it is told into quires, which are folded and pressed. The 
broken sheets are commonly put together, and two of the worst quires 
are placed on the outside of every ream or bundle ; and being tied up 
in wrappers made of the settling of the vat, it is fit for sale. Every 
common quire of paper contains twenty-four sheets ; that for printing 
twenty-five eheets. Each ream contains twenty quires. 

Paper is of various kinds, and used for various purposes : with regard 
to color, it is principally distinguished into white, blue, and brown ; and 
with regard to its dimensions, into atlas, elephant, imperial, super-royal, 
royal, medium, demy, crown, post, foolscap, pot-paper, &c. Wove pa- 
per is made in moulds, the wires of which are so fine that the marks of 
them are scarcely visible. Blotting paper is made of woollen ragrs and 
without size. Pasteboard is made in a similar way to that of paper ; 
when it is wanted very thick, it is made by pasting the sheets one upon 
another. JlUl-board, used for covers of books, is made at once of very 



coarse rags, or old ropes, &c. ; of which also brown paper is made. 
Besides paper from these materials, it is also occasionally made from 
straw : a Mr. Koop, in 1820, obtained a patent in England for straw 
paper. ]n the Maldive islands, the natives are said to write on the 
leaves of a tree called macarequean, which are a fathom and a half long, 
and a foot broad : and in divers parts of the East Indies, the leaves of 
the musa paradisiaca, or plantain tree, dried in the sun, served the 
same use, till of late the French taught them the use of European 

The process of paper-making takes about three weeks. The great- 
est modern improvement in paper-making is the bleaching of the rags. 
This is done by different methods ; one of the best consists of an air- 
tight chamber in which the rags are placed ; a mixture of manganese, 
sea salt, and sulphuric acid being heated in proper retorts to a certain 
extent, a gas is disengaged, which destroys all the color which the rags 

The machinery for fabricating the paper from the pulp has been 
simplified, so that an immense saving of labor has been thus obtained. 

Another improvement in the manufacture of paper has been made in 
the United States by Messrs. Gilpin & Co., who have invented a ma- 
chine by which paper of any length, in one continued succession of fine 
or coarse materials may be produced. 

Egyptian paper is that which was principally used among the an- 
cients ; made of a rush called papyrus, or biblus, growing chiefly in 
E<rypt about the banks of the iNile ; though it was also found in India ; 
and Pliny describes the papyrus or paper rush as having a root of the 
thickness of a man's arm, and ten cubits long ; from this arise a great 
number of triangular stalks, six or seven cubits high, each thick enough 
to be easily spanned. Its leaves are long like those of the bulrush ; its 
flowers staminous, ranged in clusters at the extremities of the stalks; 
its roots woody and knotted like those of rushes, and its taste and smell 
near to those of the cypress. The moderns have arranged the papyrus 
under the genus cyperus or cyper-grass, and thus designate it ; cyperus 
papyrus, or paper rush, having a three-sided naked culm, umbel longer 
than the involucres : involucels three-leaved, setaceous ; spikelets in 
threes ; a native of Ethiopia and Egypt. This tribe of plants contains 
numerous species, many of which have fragrant roots. 

" Marbl'd paper is paper stained so as to appear in variegated colors, 
like marble. The operation of marbling is thus performed : gum is 
first dissolved in a trough, into which they plunge each sheet of paper ; 
this done, and all the colors ranged on the table, where also the trough 
is placed, they begin by dipping a brush of hog's hair into any color, 
commonly the blue first, and sprinkle it on the surface of the liquor. 
The red is next applied in the liivc manner, but with another pencil ; 
after this, the yellow, and lastly the green. When all the colors are 
thus floating on the liquor, to produce that agreeable marbling which 
w r e admire, the floating colors are curled and otherwise tastefully 
varied with a pointed stick ; to these the surface of the paper is ap- 




Ivory Paper is a paper lately invented by Mr. Einslie, to be used in- 
stead of ivory for drawing, and miniature painting, and is said to be 
superior to ivory itself. It consists in the preparation of a size from 
the cuttings of parchment, uniting, by a similar size, several sheets of 
drawing paper, and afterwards covering it with the size, having previ- 
ously mixed with it some plaster of Paris in fine powder. Plaster of 
Paris gives a white ; but oxide of zinc, mixed in proper proportions, 
gives a tint nearly resembling ivory. 

ARCHITECTURE. Architecture, is the art of building, or the 
science which teaches the method of eroding buildings, either for ha- 
bitation, defence, or ornament. It is an art of the first necessity, and 
almost coeval with the human species. Man, from seeking shade and 
shelter under the trees of the forest, soon felt the necessity and saw the 
utility of bending them to more commodious forms than those in which 
he found them disposed by nature. To huts made of trees and branch- 
es leaning together at top, and forming a conical figure, plastered 
with mud, succeeded more convenient, square, roofed, habitations; the 
sides of these habitations, and the inner supports of the cross beams 
of the roofs, being trunks of trees ; from them were derived those 
beautiful, and symmetrical columns, the orders of Architecture. 

Although this art was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians, Assy« 
rians, and Persians, yet the Greeks justly claim the honor of having 
raised the first structures in which elegance and symmetry were com- 
bined with comfort and convenience in the plan. 

The established five orders of architecture, the Tuscan, the Doric, 
the Ionic, the ( orinthian, and the Composite, were brought to perfec- 
tion under the Greeks and Romans. Modern efforts have added little 
or nothing to the beauty and symmetry or" these columns, and the parts 
dependent on them ; but much has been done in the internal improve- 
ment of mansions and houses. 


From the above the reader will be able to form but an indistinct con- 
ception of the beauty of those ornamental columns which in both an- 
cient and modern times have excited the admiration of even the un- 
learned, and the uncultivated portion of mankind, which have had an 
opportunity to see them. A better conception will be had of the dif- 





ierent orders of architecture from the following cuts, which stand in the 
same order as the above, and represent the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Co- 
rinthian, and Composite : 






VU *■ 




Tuscan Order. Although there are no ancient remains of this or- 
der, it is generally placed first on account of its plainness. The Tro- 
jan and Antonine columns at Rome are commonly called Tuscan, 
though they do not exhibit Tuscan plainness. It is probable the Tus- 
can is only a simplification of the Doric, of which there are numerous 
ancient remains ; but to Tuscany it evidently owes its name. 

Doric Order. The origin of this order is ascribed to Dorus, who 
built a temple to Juno, in the ancient city of Argos. This order has 
a masculine grandeur, and a superior air of strength to either of the 
other Grecian orders, viz. Ionic and Corinthian. It is therefore best 
adapted to works of great magnitude and of a sublime character. Of 
this order is the temple of Theseus at Athens, built ten years after the 
battle of Marathon, and at this day almost entire. 

lovic Order. The distinguishing characteristics of this order are 
lightness and elegance. Ft is likewise simple ; for simplicity is an es- 
sential requisite of true beauty. Of this order were the temple of 
Apollo at .Miletus, the temple of the Delphic Oracle, and the temple of 
Diana at Ephesus. 

Corinthian Order. This is considered the finest of all the orders. 
It has been styled the " virginal order," from the delicacy, tenderness 
and beauty of the whole composition. Exceptions however have been 
taken to it, it being thought to savor too much of pomp and splendor, 
and to mark an age of luxury and magnificence. Thompson has well 
characterized the three orders in the following appropriate lines : 

u First unadorned, 

" And nobly plain, the manly Doric rose ; 

" The Ionic then, with decent matron grace, 

;t Her airy pillar heav"d ; luxuriant last 

" The rich Corinthian spread her wanton wreath. " 
The most correct specimens of this order that remain in existence 
are to be collected from the Stoa, the arch of Adrian, the monument of 
Lysicratus at Athens, the Pantheon of Agrippa, and the three columns 
of the Campo Vaccino at Rome, particularly the last. 

Composite Order. This order is what its name implies ; it shews 
that the Greeks had in the three original orders exhausted all the prin- 
ciples of grandeur and beauty, and that it was not possible to form a 
fourth, except by combining the former. 



Gothic Architecture. To the above five orders was afterwards 
added another, called the Gothic or Saracenic, the marks of which are 
its numerous and prominent buttresses, its lofty spires and pinnacles* 
its large and ramified windows, its ornamented niches and canopies, 
the sculptured saints and angels, the delica'e lace-work of its fretted 
roofs, and an indiscriminate profusion of ornaments. But its most dis- 
tinguishing characteristics are the small clustered pillars; and pointed 
arches, formed by the segments of two intersecting circles. 

Of Gothic Architecture thecontinent furnishes some fine specimens? 
but the best examples it is said, are to be found in England. In the 
edifices of that country the whole progress of this style of architecture 
can be traced. The period from 1272 to 1400 marks the golden age of 
the Gothic. From the time of Henry VIII. this style began to decline. 
This was succeeded by a mixture of the Grecian and Gothic. In the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the chaste architecture of the 
Greeks and Romans was revived. The first improvements took place 
in Italy, whence they passed into other parts of Europe, and though 
the Italians were long accounted the first architects, England produced 
Inigo Jones and Sir Christopher Wren, who hold the most exalted 

The banqueting-house at Whitehall : queen Katharine's chapel at 
St. James' : the piazza of Covent Garden, and many other public 
buildings are monuments of the taste and skill of Inigo Jones. 

The churches, royal courts, stately halls, magazines, palaces, and 
public structures designed by Sir Christopher Wren, are proud trophies 
of British talent. If the whole art of building were lost, it might be 
again recovered in the Cathedral of St. Paul, and in that grand historical 
pillar called the Monument. To these we superadd Greenwich, Hospital, 
Chelsea Hospital, the Theatre at Oxford^ Trinity College Library, and 
Emanuel College, Cambridge, the cnurches'of St. Sttphen in Walbrook* 
St. Mary-le-bon, and fifty -two others in London serve to immortalize his 
memory. While we contemplate these, and n.iny other public edifices 
erected and repaired under his direction, we are at a less which most 
to admire — the fertile ingenuity, or the persevering industry of the ar- 

The English architectural history of the eighteenth century differs 
from that of the preceding ages in two essential circumstances. 

1. The public buildings erected during this period, are, in general, 
not so grand and massive, as those of some former periods. But while 
they fall short of splendor and magnificence, they are superior to most 
ancient structures in simplicity, convenience, neatness, and elegance. 

2, Private dwellings have been made more spacious, convenient, and 
agreeable to a correct taste, than in any preceding period. The liber- 
al use of glass in modern buildings, contributes greatly to their beauty 
and comfort, and is a point in which the ancients were totally deficient. 
In descending to the various minute details of human dwellings, espe- 
cially those which have reference to elegance and enjoyment, it is ob- 
vious the artists of the eigl.Leenth century exceed all others. 

Architecture in the United States. In the United States, we 
are yet in our infancy, both in respect to elegant and enduring specU 




mens of architecture. This might well be imagined, considering the 
recent settlement of the country, and the creation, by means of industry 
and toil, of the capital which we possess. Still, architectural skill exists 
among us, and in respect to some buildings, it has been judiciously ap- 
plied. We shall give a brief account of a few of the most important 
public buildings to be found among us. 


The foundation stone of this noble building, was laid on the 26th 
Sept. 1803, and was finished in 1812, at an expense, exclusive of the 
furniture, of half a million of dollars. 

It is one of the handsomest structures in the United States, and per- 
haps, of its size, in the world. It is of a square form, two stories in 
height, besides a basement story. It has a wing at each end, projecting 
from the front, and in the centre the roof is elevated, to form an attic 
story. The whole length of the building is 216 feet, breadth 105, 
height 51. Including the attic story it is 65 feet in height. The front 
and both ends, above the basement story, are built of native white mar- 
ble, from Stockbridge, Mass. ; the rest of the building is constructed of 
brown free stone. The roof is covered with copper. Rising from the 
middle of the roof is a cupola, on which is placed a colossal figure of 
justice, holding in her right hand, which rests on her forehead, aba- 
lance, and in her left, a sword pointing to the ground. The first story, 
including the portico, is of the Ionic, the second of the Corinthian, the 
attic of the Fancy, and the cupola of the Composite orders. 



r x^.ivliu x 



This spacious edifice is finely situated on an eminence, and commands 
not only a view of the city, but a considerable extent of the adjacent 
country — the heights of Georgetown. &c, and 1he windings of the Po- 
tomac, as far as Alexandria. The following are the dimensions of the 
building : 

Length of Front, , 352 feet 4 inches. 

Depth of wings, 121 do. 6 do. 

East projection and steps, 65 do. 

West do. do. 83 do. 

covering i£ acre, & 1820 do. 

Height of Wings, to top of Balustrade, 70 do. 

Height to top of Centre dome, 170 do. 

"It is composed of white freestone, and the entire cost, of it is estima- 
ted at three millions of dollars. It is surrounded by an elegant iron 
railing, enclosing twenty acres of ground, planted with various kinds 
of trees and shrubs. The north wing is occupied by the Senate ; the 
south by the House of Representatives. There are also rooms for the 
Supreme Court of the United States, the National Library, and other 

The .Senate and Representative halls are both finished in a style of 
great elegance and splendor. The latter is of semicircular form, sur- 
rounded by twenty-one massy pillars or columns, and four pilasters of 
the Potomac marble, which stand upon an e'ievated base of freestone. 
The capitals of these pillars are formed of Carara marble, and are very 
beautiful; and there is supported by them a laroe dome, in the centre 
of which is placed an ornamental cupola, which admits the light into 
the hall from above. In front of the Speaker's Chair, and over the en- 
trance into the Chamber, stands an allegorical figure, formed of Italian 
marble, representing History, in the act of recording the proceedings 
of the nation. Sbe stands on a winged car. which seems to roll over a 
sec ion of the terrestrial globe, exhibiting in bass-relief the signs of the 
Zodiac. The wheel of the car is intended as the face of a clock, which 
is to be placed behind, and the front contains in bass-relief, a figure of 
Fame, and a profile bust of Washington. Above the Speaker's Chair 

JL..N ^ 1 V>JU\Ji"li,iJiA. 



is a colossal figure of Liberty, in plaster, pointing to the hall below, and 
supported on the right by an American ea^le, and on the left by the 
Romanfasctti which are partially enveloped in the folds of a serpent. 
Immediately under this figure, on the frieze, is carved in high relief, 
another eagle, in the attitude of flying. This hd 11 has been pronoun- 
ced by an intelligent English traveller, to be the most beautiful one he 
ever 3a w." 

Jt w;is our design, to give descriptions similar to the above, of seve- 
ral other principal buildings in the United States ; but want of room 
obliges us to present to our readers views of these buildings, without 
the contemplated descriptions. 








M In respect to Gothic style, observes Professor Silliman, (American 
Journal of Science and Arts, Vol. xviii. No. 2, p. 224) our country la- 
bors under many disadvantages. Its expensive character, is in most 
cases far beyond our means. It flourished in Europe, at a time when 
the revenues of the church were princely, and no style demands such 
lar^e pecuniary resources as this. Still enough has already been done 
among 1 us to shew that it is not an insurmountable obstacle among us." 
Several fine Gothic structures are to be found in the. United States, a 
particular description of which our limits entirely forbid. 

The Gothic arrangement of churches appears not quite compatible 
with the nature of Protestant worship. " The best form for a Protes- 



tant church, remarks the writer before quoted, is a rectangular paral- 
lelogram, though I have seen the circle, and other simple forms employ- 
ed seemingly without any inconvenient results. But any thinn- like a 
cross, the favorite form of the Gothic, is entirely inadmissible. There is 
at Washington a church in the form of a Greek cross, in good taste as to 
its general architecture ; but in consequence of its shape, a part of the 
congregation cannot see the minister, and the want oFjitness in the in- 
terior is exceedingly unpleasant. Simplicity in the form of our church- 
es, seems nearly essential — a quality entirely at variance with this 
sty'.e, and without something to conceal and draw attention from this 
plainness, their interior will appear meagre and bare. Galleries assist 
in doing this, but the edifice should be accommodated to them, and they 
to it, more than is now usually done. The windows should he so con- 
structed, that we may feel that the gallery is not concealing their beau- 
ty from our view; and on the other hand, the gallery should not bo 
carried in a straight horizontal line from pillar to pillar, in the manner 
of a Grecian entablature, but should be supported by low arches, of the 
third order, and should be made to preserve the Gothic character 
throughout. The great variety of arches and ornaments admitted by 
the style, will easily allow the architect to do this. 

" In respect to the management of spires, our taste, it is said, is ex- 
ceedingly defective. The spire itself is of Gothic origin, and may be 
considered as belonging to the Gothic style ; with us it is applied to all 
species of churches. Among the Italians il is unknown, the tower alone 
being employed. As we go northward from Italy, the spire comes in- 
to use, and it is often a most striking and beautiful object. That of the 
cathedral of Vienna, is four hundred and sixty-five feet in height, and 
; that of Strasburg- four hundred and fifty-six; the diminution in both 
these, however, commences at the base, as is frequently the case in that 
part of the continent, and the effect is less imposing than when the 
tower and spire are combined. England is remarkable for happy com- 
binations of the two, though in that nation, the tower without the 
spire is frequently to be seen. There are few parts of architecture in 
which our taste is so bad as in this. The steeple is almost uniformly 
thrust and made the first and main object of our attention, no matter 
what the cost may be to the body of the edifice. It stands out. either 
wholly or in part, from the facade or front, which is thus broken up, 
and is incapable of receiving either majesty or beauty of expression. 
The facade is, obviously, every thing to the exterior of a buildin r. On 
it the architect labors most ; to it the^other parts are made to conform, 
and from it the edifice receives the unity and singleness of character, 
which constitutes what artists call a whole. The English architects do 
better. They make the steeple rise from the front of the edifice, but 
its lower part is not seen ; the facade is left to take its full power ; 
the church becomes the main subject of our thoughts, and the steeple is 
felt to be only a necessary appendage ; often it is in good ta ), and 
adds greatly to the character of the edifice. 

M As to the shape of the steeple, it is thought that we err in giving 
too little height, in proportion to the tower. The spire in England, 
most admired for its proportions, is one hundred and fourteen feet in 
height, the diameter of its ba-e being nineteen ; the tower on which 
it rests is seventy-five feet high, and twenty-two feet square. It would 



be better to banish all fishes, arrows, and every thing of the kind, every- 
thing resembling a vane, from the top of our spires. They are no or- 
nament ; what can they mean ? A stranger would think us wonder- 
fully anxious about the wind : if we must have them let them be put in 
some other place. 

"It is seldom that the erection of our public buildings fails to be ac- 
companied with hurry and parsimony. Our architecture has hitherto 
exerted itself among frail and perishable materials. The awkward 
wooden buildings it has erected are fast passing away, and we should 
be glad that it is so. Eut the case is hereafter going to be a different 
one. We are beginning to build entirely with bricks and stone, and 
what is hereafter to be erected, will go down to other ages to tell of 
our taste, and to exert its influence on theirs. Let us bear constantly 
fn mind, then, that not one of these edifices is built for ourselves alone ; 
let us extend our views through other generations, down to the far dis- 
tant boundaries of time, and as we contemplate our works binding these 
ages to us, and us to them,fet us indulge the feeling as our characters 
swell out and form themselves to this long series of years, and to this 
constantly thickening population. Let us remember, too, that it will be 
an intelligent and a keen-sighted population. We wish them to re- 
spect our memory; let us shew that we have respect for them: we 
wish them to reverence our laws and institutions, for we believe them 
good ; let the objects we associate strongly with these laws and institu- 
tions, objects to be seen every day by them, and to influence their opin- 
ion of us, let these objects be such as to heighten reverence, at least let 
them be such as not to provoke their ridicule. 

Domestic architecture. u Dwelling houses are capable of such end- 
less modifications, and depend so much on circumstances for their 
character, that it is extremely difficult to reduce them to rule, or, at all 
events, to bring the subject within moderate bounds in cities, houses 
must be crowded, and generally of considerable height; in towns they 
are of less elevation and at greater intervals ; while in the country 
they take a still different character. We will endeavour, however, to 
give the subject a brief consideration. The architecture of dwelling 
houses should be marked by two qualities, first and mainly by conve- 
nience, and secondly by cheerfulness. The former we must leave to 
take care of itself. As regards the latter, a choice of one of the three 
ancient orders will in most cases be necessary, and on this the charac- 
ter of the edifice will chiefly depend. The Doric, it has already been 
remarked, is grave and majestic ; the Ionic, cheerful and graceful; — 
the Corinthian gay. If this is true, the Ionic is the most proper order 
for a dwelling. If the facade is large and imposing, the Roma?) Doric 
may some times be used for the sake of variety ; but where the taste is 
Jeftfree to its exercise we should always prefer the Grecian Ionic. It 
has a good mixture of simplicity and richness ; it is pure and extreme- 
ly graceful ; it is, in short, just that to which we would desire all the in- 
ternal arrangements, and even the manners of a family to correspond. 
The character of a family will generally be found to have some resem- 
blance to the house in which they live. The Grecian Ionic does not 
appear well, however, in small objects; and where the dwelling is bro- 
ken into a number of diminutive parts, or where none can be large ; 
the Composite or the Modern Ionic may be more advantageously em- 



ployed. These are frequently used in small porticoes and the like ; 
and to them they are very well suited. The Grecian Doric may per- 
haps be to appear well in a dwelling house, but the attempt may 
be considered as hazardous. Its character of bold and manly gran- 
deur, coupled with simple majesty, is not at all suited to such a build- 
ing ; the Corinthian errs as greatly on the other side. 

** We are fond of variety in cities or towns. In the former it is more 
difficult than in the latter, but we often make the case even worse than 
our necessities require. It is so when we erect a large block of build- 
ings, each one corresponding exactly with the rest. Why is this ? Is 
there not uniformity enough in the constant recurrence of streets of the 
same breadth, and perhaps meeting at the same angle, in an unbroken 
range of houses, each advanced to the same line, and finished with the 
same proportionate number of windows and doors? But there is an- 
other consideration. In a block of this kind, the whole mass takes an 
unity which requires vastness in the other parts to correspond. We 
look for this, and find, with disappointment, the doors, windows, and 
porches, the same as those of any other houses; the details become 
more minute from a comparison with the vastness of the whole, and 
the discrepancy becomes more strongly forced on us, and more pain- 

"Smaller cities and towns have a great advantage in the intervals 
which occur between the houses, and in New-England this advantage 
is turned to good account. The houses there are frequently built at a 
distance of twenty or thirty feet from each other, a space of several 
yards being also left between them and the street. The whole of this 
is planted with delicate shade trees and shrubs, and as the houses 
themselves are usually painted white, and have small tasteful porticoes 
in front, the effect is the most agreeable that can be imagined. Gen- 
tlemen who have travelled extensively in Europe, frequently inform 
us that they have never seen any thing that, as a whole, would compare 
in neatness and real beauty with some of the New-England villages; 
the houses, though as comfortable and durable as in other places, 
cost, it is believed, even less than is usual for edifices of their size. — 
Nearly the whole is effected by the neat little yard, with its verdure in 
contrast with the pure white of the facade, and the little portico over 
the door. There is another characteristic in these towns, which it is 
desirable should become more common in the country, viz. the habit 
of planting trees along the streets. We should not have all the streets 
in a town treated in this manner ; those for business should be kept 
clear, but in all others trees should be planted more or less thickly, as 
taste or convenience will admit. They give a town the appearance of 
richness and comfort, which cannot be so cheaply procured in any 
other manner. The elm is our most graceful shade tree, and will be 
found most suitable when the streets are wide ; when narrow, the ma- 
ple is thought to be the best. 

" As to country houses and their premises, so much depends on the 
character of the ground, and of all objects, even to a distance of miles, 
that the subject swells entirely beyond our limits. We must be al- 
lowed, however, to remonstrate against the warfare which is every 
where carried on against our noble forest trees j trees which should be 



estimated by us far above all price. The first thing done in the new 
parts of our country, when a spot is determined on for a house, is to 
cut down all the trees within many rods of it ; and then, year by 
year, the work of destruction goes on, as if the very sight of a forest 
tree were odiuus. The house stands alone in the clearing, its inmates, 
and particularly the children, roasted and browned under the hot sum- 
mer's sun; but by and by, the nakedness and dreariness of the situa- 
tion is felt, and then are planted some Lombardy poplars u all in a 
row." Now, the trees which we cut down with such an unsparing 
hand, are the very kind which English gardiners cultivate with the 
most persevering diligence, and are planted here just as they labor 
most to plant. And we too shall cultivate them before long, and shall 
then think, with the most bitter regret, of the sad destruction which 
we and our ancestors have made. But in vain ; for all the art of man 
will not be able to restore in any length of time, such glades and 
thickets, and lawns, as we now possess. When about to build in a 
new country, we should save, near our house, an acre or two of the 
forest, and should guard it with the most watchful care. Morning, 
noon, and evening, it would be an agreeable retreat ; its shade would 
be refreshing in our scorching heats ; it would connect us in some 
measure, with ages long since gone, and bring before us the wild, but 
high-souled Indian, his council, his battle song, the war, the chase, the 
feast and dance ; its noble and manly form would gratify our taste ; 
it would raise our thoughts to Him who is " a shadow from the heat, a 
strength to the needy in his distress." Let us then spare our noble 
forest trees. Many political considerations might be adduced to shew 
the imprudence of our rude havoc among them, but for these we havtf 
not room." 




Agriculture, considered as a science, explains the means of making 
the earth produce, in plenty and perfection, those vegetables, which are 
necessary to the subsistence, or convenience of man, and of the animals 
reared by him for food, or labor. 

Considered as an art. every human being has an interest in it. since it 
is the foundation of all other arts — the basis of civilization and refine- 
ment — and essential to the existence of some of the nations which inhabit 
certain portions of our globe. 

Besides the healthfulness of the pursuit, agriculture u is intimately 
connected" — to use the language of a distinguished literary journal of 
our country* — "with our national character, because it powerfully 
acts upon the morals and constitution of our citizens. Ifitbetrue 
that the torch of liberty has always burned with a purer and brighter 
lustre on the mountains than on the plains, it is still more true, that the 
sentiments of honor and integrity more generally animate the rough, 
but manly form of the farmer, than the debilitated body of the artisan. 
There is in that primitive and honorable occupation, the culture of the 
earth, something which, while it pours into the lap of the State an in- 
crease beyond every other employment, gives more than the fabled 
stone, not only a subsistence, but a placid feeling of contentment : not 
only creates the appetite to enjoy, but guaranties its continuance, by a 
robust constitution, fortified with the safe-guards of temperance and 

To this we may add a remark of Adam Smith, in his Wealth of Na- 
tions, viz. that " the capital employed in agriculture not only puts in 
motion a greater quantity of productive labor, than any equal capital 
employed in manufactures ; but, also in proportion to the productive 
labor which it employs, it adds a much greater value to the annual pro- 
duce of the land and labor of the country, while it increases the real 
wealth and revenue of its inhabitants." 

Notwithstanding these high testimonials — and a hundred more equally 
weighty might be adduced — in favor of the profession of agriculture, 
it has been, until within a few years. " a degraded and unpopular pur- 
suit among us. : ' In Europe, the fact has been otherwise. In England 
and on the continent, every state, since the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 
has turned its assiduous attention to this most important department 
of domestic economy, and ultimately borrowed from it the resources 

■ North American Review. 



which have carried them through the prodigious conflicts of the last 

Several causes have contrihuted to lessen the apparent importance 
of agricultural skill in the United States. But two only can here be 

The first is the peculiar situation of Europe since the peace of '83, 
which has afforded opportunities for commercial enterprise, too tempt- 
ing to be resisted. "American merchants received in the lapse of a 
very few years, the most astonishing accessions of wealth : and for- 
tunes, ordinarily the fruit of a laborious life, and never the portion of 
many, were amassed with unparalleled rapidity, and by large numbers. 
Our domestic prosperity more than equalled the extension of our trade. 
It was then that the counting-houses of our merchants were filled with 
youth from the country, who forsook the slower but surer emoluments 
of agriculture, for the mushroom, but unsubstantial fortunes of com- 
merce ; nay, who preferred the meanest drudgery behind the counter of 
a retailer, to the manly and invigorating toil of the cultivator of his 
paternal acres. Unfortunately this spirit of migration was encouraged 
by too great a success in trade. Feelings of vulgar pride contracted 
in town, caused the manual labor of the farmer to be regarded as de- 
grading. This unworthy sentiment spread its baleful influence ; and 
when the compting-houses became overstocked, and afforded no longer 
a resource, it was no uncommon thing to see a young man, with no 
qualifications, but a little bad Latin, picked up at a miserable village 
school, forsake a large and comfortable farm, and apprentice himself to 
a poor country attorney." 

The second cause of the late depressed state of agriculture in the 
United States, especially in New-England, has been owing to the con- 
stant emigration to the West. No sooner had the farmer reduced his 
land by successive crops, than he removed to a country, which offered 
him jan untouched surface, needing for some years no aid of composts and 

But it is occasion of gratitude, that, at length, the importance of a 
regular and more enlightened and more energetic system of farming 
is beginning to be felt in our country. Men of talents, wealth, and dis- 
tinction, no longer think it beneath them to enrol their names on the list 
of practical farmers. By means of agricultural associations, and liberal- 
ly patronized, and ably conducted papers, information on the subject, 
considered both as an art, and a science, is rapidly spreading abroad — 
a taste for farming is diffusing itself, and ere long, it is believed, that this 
species of employment will be as much prized and coveted, as once it 
was considered low and despicable. 

To aid in advancing the interests of this important branch of national 
industry will be the object of the pages which we design to appropriate 
to this subject. 






I. The Wild Cattle — of a bull of which race the above is a por- 
trait, — were the original stock of the kingdom of Great Britain before 
enclosures were known. They are said to be still found at Chartlry 
Park, in Derb) shire, and perhaps, in one or two more ; but it is believed 
that the only pun- breed is that preserved, in a wild state, L* Chillhigham 
Castle in Northumberland, the seat of the Earl of Tanker^Llle, whose 
steward, Mr. Bailey, thus describes them : 

''Their color is invariably white ; muzzle lack; the whole of the 
inside of the ear, and about one-iuLH of the outside, from the tip down- 
wards, red; horns white win. blac^. tips, very fine and bent upward?. 
Some of the bulls have a thin upright mane, about an inch and a half 
or two inches long: the weight of the oxen is from thirty -five to forty- 
five stone, of fourteen pounds; and that of the cows, from twenty -five to 
thirty-five stone the four quarters. The beef is finely marbled and of 
excellent flavor. 

" The mode of killing them was, perhaps, the only modern remains 
of the grandeur of ancient hunting. On notice being given that a wild 
bull would be killed upon a certain day, the inhabitants of the neigh- 
borhood came in great numbers, both horse and foot ; the horsemen 
rode off the bull from the rest of the herd until he stood at bay, when a 
marksman dismounted and shot. At some of these huntings, twenty or 
thirty shots have been fired before he was subdued : on such oca. 
the bleeding victim grew desperately furious from the smarting of his 
wounds, and the shouts of savage joy that were echoing on every side. 
From the number of accidents that happened, this dangerous mode has 
been seldom practised of late years ; the park-keeper generally shooting 
them with a rifle gun at one shot. 

" When the cows calve, they hide their calves for a week or ten days 
in some sequestered situation and go and suckle them two or three 
times a day. If any person come near the calves, they clap their heads 



close to the ground, and lie like a hare in a form, to hide themselves 
This is a proof of their native wildness, and is corroborated by the fol- 
lowing circumstance, that happened to the writer of the narrative, who 
found a hidden calf two days old, very lean and very weak ; on stroking 
its head, it got up, pawed two or three times, like an old bull, bellowed 
very loud, retired a few steps, and bolted at his legs with all its force ; it 
then began to paw again, bellowed, stepped back, and bolted as before ■ 
but knowing its intention, and stepping aside, it missed him, fell and 
was so very weak that it could not rise, though it made several efforts; 
but it had done enough ; the whole herd were alarmed, and coming to 
its rescue, obliged him to retire ; for the dams will allow no person to 
touch their calves without attacking them with impetuous ferocity. 

" When any one happens to be wounded, or grown weak or feeble 
through age or sickness, the rest of the herd set upon it and gore it to 
death." b 

II. The Devonshire Breed, delineated above, is supposed to have 
descended directly from the wild race. It is found in its purest state in 
North Devon ; in the agricultural report of which district its peculiar 
qualities are thus described by the late Mr. Vancouver : — 

"Its head is small, clean, and free from flesh about the jaws; deer- 
like light and airy in its countenance ; neck long and thin ; throat free 
from jowl or dewlap ; nose and round its eyes of a dark orange color; 
ears thin and pointed, tinged on their inside with the same color that is 
always found to encircle its eyes ; horns thin, and fine to their roots, 
of a cream color, tipped with black,* growing with a regular curve up- 
wards, and rather springing from each other ; light in the withers, rest- 
ing on a shoulder a little retiring and spreading, and so rounded below 
as to sink all appearance of its pinion in the body of the animal ; open 
bosom, with a deep chest, or keel ; small and tapering below the knee, 

* The late Rev. Arthur Young, formerly Secretary to the Board of 
Agriculture, describes thorough bred Devons as of a bright red, neck 
and head small, eye prominent, and round it a ring of bright yellow ; 
the nose round the nostril having the same color ; the horn clear and 
transparent, upright, tapering, and gently curved, but not tipped with 



fine at and above the joint, and where the arm begins to increase it be- 
comes suddenly lost in the shoulder ; line of the back straight from the 
withers to the rump, lying completely on a level with the pin, or huckles, 
which lie wide and open ; the hind quarters seated high with flesh, 
leaving a fine hair-ham tapering from the hock to the fetlock : long 
from rump to huckle, and from the- pinion of the shoulder to the end of 
the nose ; thin loose skin, covered with hair of a soft and furry nature, 
inclined to curl whenever the animal is in good condition and in full 
coat, when it also becomes mottled with darker shades » , its permanent 
color, which is that of a bright blood red, without white, or other spots, 
particularly on the male ; a wliite udder is sometimes passed over, but 
seldom without objection. 

M This description may be considered as a summary of the perfections 
M to the exterior appearance of the animal : what, under the same head, 
may be regarded as defects, appear first in the sudden retiring of the 
vamp from behind the huckle to a narrow point backwards ; the 
great space between the huckle and first rib ; the smalhiess of the angle 
inwards at which the ribs appear to be projected from the spine or back- 
bone, often giving the appearance of a flat-sided animal, and in its being 
so much tucked up in the girth as to show an awkward cavity between 
the keel and naval, the line of which, it is presumed, should always be 
found to hold a position as nearly as possible parallel with that of the 
back from the withers to the Kin. The animal is, however, generally 
well grown, and filled up behind the shoulder^ 

ill. The Sussex Breed differs but little from the Devonshire ; when 
pure, the cattle are invariably dark red ; and those which are marked 
with a mixture of either white or black, although passing under the 
denomination of Sussex, are always crossed with foreign blood. In 
other respects they are thus described by an eminent breeder, the accu- 
racy of whose judgment has been confirmed by many intelligent graziers : 

11 A thin head, and a clean jaw ; the horns pointing forward a little, and 
then turning upward, thin, tapering, and long ; the eye large and full : 
the throat clean, no dew-lap ; long and thin in the neck ; wide and deep 
in the shoulders ; no projection in the point of the shoulder, when looked 
at from behind ; the fore-legs wide ; round and straight in the barrel. 
and free from a rising back-bone ; no hanging heaviness in the belly ; 




wide across the loin ; the space between the hip-bone and the first rib 
very small ; the hip-bone not to rise high, but to be large and wide ; the 
loin, and space between the hips to be flat and wide, but the fore part of 
the carcass round ; long and straight in the rump, and wide in the tip ; 
the tail to lay low, for the flesh to swell above it ; the legs not too long ; 
neither thick nor thin on the thigh ; the leg thin ; shut well in the twist ; 
no fulness in the outside of the thigh, but all of it within ; a squareness 
behind, common in all long-horned beasts, greatly objected to ; the finer 
and thinner in the tail the better. 

" Of these points, the Sussex beasts are apt to be more deficient in the 
shoulder than in any other part. A well made ox stands straight, and 
nearly perpendicularly, on small clean legs ; a large bony leg is a very 
bad point, but the legs moving freely, rather under the body than as if 
attached to the sides; the horns pushing a little forward, spreading mode- 
rately, and turning up once. The horn of the Devonshire, which very 
much resembles the Sussex, but smaller and lighter, is longer, and rises 
generally higher. The straitness of the back line is sometimes broken, 
in very fine beasts, by a lump between the hips." 

On a comparison between the Devon and Sussex breeds, the former 
has been considered by competent judges as thinner, narrower, and 
sharper than the latter, on the top of the shoulder, or blade bone ; the 
point of the shoulder generally projects more, and they usually stand 
narrower in the chest ; their chine is thinner and flatter in the barrel, 
and they hang more in the flank ; but they are wider in the hips, and 
cleaner in the neck, head, and horns, and smaller in the bone, than the 
Sussex ; their hides are thinner and softer, and they handle as mellow. 
The distinction between them however is not very striking ; they are 
equally profitable to the grazier, and as working cattle, they both stand 

IV. The Hereford Breed is a variety of the Devon and Sussex, but 
is larger and weightier than either; being generally wider and fuller 
over the shoulders or chine, and the breast, or brisket, as well as in the 
after part of the rump. The prevailing color a reddish 4>rown, with 
white faces ; the hair fine and the skin thin. 

In the true bred Hereford cattle there is no projecting bone in the point 
of the shoulder, which in some breeds forms almost a shelf, against 



which the collar rests ; but on the contrary tapers off: they have a great 
breadth before, and are equally weighty in their hind quarters : the 
tail not set on high ; a great distance from the point of the rump to the 
hip bone ; the twist full, broad, and soft : the thigh of the fore legs to 
the pasteni joint tapering and full, not thin, but thin below the joint; 
the horn pushes aside a little, and then turns up thin and tapering ; 
remarkably well feeling ; mellow on the rump, ribs, and hip bone. The 
quality of "the meat not hard, but fine as well as fat ; little coarse flesh 
about them, the offal and bone being small in proportion to their weight ; 
whilst their disposition to fatten is equal or nearly so, to that of any other 
breed in the island. They are, however, ill calculated for the dairy ; their 
constitutional disposition to accumulate flesh being in opposition to the 
qualities of good milking cows, an observation which will equally apply 
to every breed, when similarly constituted. A breed of cattle, equally 
adapted to the shambles, the dairy, and the plough, is indeed not to be 
met with ; and experience teaches that these properties are inconsistent 
with each other. The Hereford cattle are by many good judges con- 
sidered to approach the nearest to that perfect state of any of the large 
breeds ; they arrive early at maturity, and are fit for labor ; but it is as 
fatting stock that they excel, and it is a different variety of the same breed 
that is preferred for the dairy. There is, indeed a more extraordinary 
disproportion between the weight of Herefordshire cows, and that of the 
oxen bred from them, than is to be found in any other of the superior 
breeds; they are comparatively small, extremely "delicate and light flesh- 
ed, and it is said that they are not unfrequently the mothers of oxen, 
nearly three times their own weight. 

On comparison with the Devon and Sussex, the Hereford breed will 
probably not be found equally active and hardy in the yoke : but it is 
generally considered to exceed them in the quality of fattening : and 
when compared with any other breed, it may fairly rank at least among 
the very best in the country. 

V. The Short Horxed Cattle, under which denomination are in- 
discriminately included the Dutch, Holderncss. and Teeswater breeds, are 
supposed to have acquired the appellation of Dutch, from a cross with 
some large bulls that were imported, uear a century ago, from Holland 
into Yorkshire, (Eng.) in the east and north ridings of which county the 
two latter had been long established. It has, however, been doubted 
whether any advantage was derived from this intermixture ; for the in- 
crease thus obtained in size was thought to have been counterbalanced 
by a more than proportionate increase of offal. But, fortunately, the 
error was not universal ; for some intelligent breeders aware, even at 
that day, of the superiority of symmetry to bulk, preserved the breed, of 
which they were already in possession, in its native purity ; and it is 
from some of that stock, so maintained, that the present improved short 
horned cattle, now generally distinguished as the Durham, or Yorkshire 
breed, are descended. 

This breed was introduced about forty years ago, by Messieurs Col- 
ling, of Darlington, and has rapidly risen in the public estimation. The 
cattle are very large, and are beautifully mottled with red or black upon 
a white ground ; their backs level ; throat clean ; neck fine ; carcass 
full and round ; quarters long ; hips and rumps even and wide ; they 
stand rather high on their legs ; handle very kindly ; are light in their 
bone, in proportion to their size ; and have a very fine coat, and thin 



hide. They differ from the other breeds, not only in the shortness of 
their horns, but as being wider and thicker in their form, and conse- 
quently feeding to greater weight ; in affording the greatest quantity of 
tallow when fatted ; and in having very thin hides, with much less hair 
upon them than any other kind except the Alderneys. They also possess 
the valuable properties of fattening kindly at an early age, and of yield- 
ing large quantities of milk ; but the quality of the latter is not so rich as 
that of some other species. 

Of this breed, Mr. Charles Colling, of Ketton, sold a bull — Comet — by 
public auction, in the year 1810, for the extraordinary sum of one thou- 
sand guineas ; and the history of the celebrated Durham ox, the property 
of the same gentleman, is too remarkable not to merit attention. 

He was bred in the year 1796, and at five years old was not only 
covered thick with fat upon all the principal points, but his whole carcass 
appeared to be loaded with it, and he was then thought so wonderful an 
animal, that he was purchased in February, 1801, for £140, to be ex- 
hibited as a show; his live weight being then 2*26 stone, of 14 pounds. 
In the following May he was again sold for £250, to Mr. John Day, who, 
two months afterwards refused for him two thousand guineas ! He was 
exhibited in the principal parts of the kingdom until April, 1807, when 
he was killed, in consequence of having accidentally dislocated his hip in 
the previous February, and although he must have lost considerably in 
weight during his illness, besides the disadvantages of six years' travelling 
in a caravan, yet his carcass weighed 187 stone 12 pounds ; and Mr. Day 
"tated his live weight at ten years old, to have been 270 stone. 

Uncommon as this animal then was, he has, however, been since ex- 
ceeded in size by a Yorkshire ox, bred by Mr. Dunhill, of Newton, near 
Doncaster, the carcass of which weighed, when killed, 264 stone 12 
pounds ; and he was supposed to have lost near forty stone while being 
exhibited in London. 

Still more recently, another beast of uncommon size, fed by Lord 
Yarborough, has been exhibited under the title of " the Lincolnshire Ox :" 
but, though bred in that county, from a favourite cow belonging to 
Mr. Goulton, he was got by a descendant of Comet, out of Countess, also 
of the Durham breed. This extraordinary animal measured five feet 
six inches in height at the shoulders, eleven feet ten inches from the nose 
to the setting of the tail, eleven feet one inch in girth, and three feet three 
inches across the hips, shoulders, and middle of the back; the lowest 
point of his breast was only fourteen inches from the ground, and he 
stood one foot ten inches between the fore legs ; the girth of the fore leg 
was nine inches. 

The variety of this breed known as the Yorkshire Polled Cattle, 
only differs from those already described, in being without horns ; they 
are in considerable estimation among the London cow-keepers, as milk- 
ers, and at the same time maintain their flesh in a state nearly fit for the 

It may not be improper in this place to give some account of several 
remarkable oxen raised in the United States, — the land in which, it is a 
current opinion on the other side of the water, animals of every descrip- 
tion are wont to degenerate. 

The first ox we notice has been exhibiting for several years in different 
parts of the country. He is called " Mammouth Ox Columbus." He 
was bred in the town of Greenland, State of New Hampshire. By com- 




petent judges he is supposed to weigh alive nearly 4,000 pounds. His 
dimensions are as follows : — 

feet, inches. 
Length from the nose to the rump, - - 11 00 

Height, - - - - 5 

Girth around the body. - - - 11 

Shoulder to brisket, - ' - - 4 

Horns from tip to tip, - - - 3 

In the spring of 1819, two oxen of extraordinary weight and dimen- 
sions, were slaughtered in Baltimore. The one of these was called 
" Columbus," the other " the Delaware ox." Their weight and dimen- 
sions, ascertained with great care and exactness, follow : 






Alive, - 


Alive, - 


Head and tongue, 


Head and tongue, 


















Rough tallow, 


Rough tallow, 










Other offal weight, 


Other offal weight, 




Neat beef, 


Neat beef, 




Loss unaccounted for, 


Loss unaccounted for, 








Hind Quarter. 

Fore Quarter. 

1 Sirloin, 

11 Middle Rib ; four Ribs, 

2 Ruinp, 

12 Chuck; three Ribs, 

3 Edge bone, 

13 Shoulder, or Leg of Mutton 

4 Buttock, 


5 Mouse Buttock, 

14 Brisket, 

6 Veiny Piece, 

15 Clod, 

7 Thick Flank, 

16 Neck, or Sticking piece, 

8 Thick Flank, 

17 Shin, 

9 Leg, 

18 Cheek. 

10 Fore Rib; five Ribs, 

The above drawing represents the form and attitude of the ox Co- 
lumbus. The plain horizontal line, describes his length from the root 
of the horn to the tip of the rump. The plain perpendicular line, hi9 
height on the shoulders. The dotted lines, point out the manner of cutting 
up beef, as practiced by victuallers ; and the figures, in their centres, 
refer to the proper technical name of each piece. For this diagram 
we are indebted to the American Farmer. It is given in this place as 
a pattern, which may be useful as a guide to housekeepers, in many parts 
oi our land. 

VI. The Long Horned Cattle are descended from a breed which 
had long been established in the Craven district, in Yorkshire, (Eng. ;) 
some cows of which race, and a Lancashire long horned bull, of the kind 
delineated above, were brought, early in the last century, by a Mr. 
Webster, to Canley, in Warwickshire, where they produced a stock that 
soon became remarkable for its beauty. 

Of this Canley stock, the late Mr. Robert Bake well, of Dishley, in 
Leicestershire, procured some cows, which he crossed with a Northum- 
berland bull, and thus reared that celebrated race now so well known 
as the Dishley breed. They were long and fine in the horn, had small 
heads, clean throats, straight broad backs, wide quarters, and were light 
in their bellies and offal ; and, probably from the effect of domestication 
and gentle treatment, remarkably -docile ; they grew fat upon a smaller 
proportion of food than the parent stock ; but gave less milk than some 



other breeds ; and the chief improvements effected seem to have been, 
in their aptitude to fatten early on the most valuable points, and in the 
superior quality of the flesh. 

The modern improvements made in the long horned cattle, since the 
first attempts of Bakewell, are considered to consist chiefly in the 
coarser parts having been reduced, and the more valuable enlarged. 
The present breed is finer boned and finer in the neck, throat, and 
breast ; the back is straight, wide, and well covered with flesh : the rump 
is also wide, and particularly fleshy on the points, and about the root of 
the tail. Even when only in store order, the flank feels thick and fleshy, 
and in every part the animal handles loose and mellow. 

These, indeed, were always the distinguishing points of these cattle ; 
but they were not thought attainable except they were fed on the richest 
pasture. This, however, has proved to be an error: for not only are 
they now found on land of no extraordinary quality, but it even appear* 
to be generally admitted, that well bred cattle will do better on ordinary 
food than those of an inferior kind: it was indeed asserted by Bakewell, 
that this breed kept themselves in good condition on less food than any 
other of equal weight : an opinion that seems to have been fully justified 
by the large prices that have been repeatedly given for the stock.* 

* At a sale of Mr. Fowler's stock (of this breed) at Little Rollright, 
in Oxfordshire, in 1791, fifteen head of oxen, five bulls and ten cows. 
were sold for various sums, amounting to £2464, or upon an average, 
at £163 each. The finest bull, named Sultan, only two years old, pro- 
duced two hundred and ten guineas; and Washington, another of the same 
age, was sold for two hundred and five guineas; while Brindled Beauty, a 
cow, brought the sum of two hundred and sixty guineas ; but at a subse- 
quent sale of stock belonging to Mr. Paget, in 1793. Shakspeare, a bull 
bred by Mr. Fowler from a grandson of Mr. Bake well's famous bull, 
Twopenny, and a cow of the Canley blood, was disposed of for four 
hundred guineas. 

At a still later period. Mr. Princep, of Croxhall, in Derbyshire, is said 
to have refused £2000 for twenty long horned dairy cows, and 1500 
guineas for the use of his best bull to thirty cows. 

Large as these prices were, they have, however, been exceeded by 
those actually obtained for short horned cattle. At the sale already allu- 
ded to, of Mr. Charles Colling's stock, at Ketton. in the county of Dur- 
ham, in 1810, seventeen cows and eleven bulls produced £49i6; being 
an average of £175 10s. each. Of these, two cows. Countess and Lilly, 
both got by Comet, were sold, the one for four hundred, and the other 
for four hundred and ten guineas. Petrarch, a bull, by Favorite, the sire 
of Comet, brought threchundred aud sixty-five guineas, and Comet himself 
one thousand. 

Still more recently, however, in February, 1827, at a great sale of 
«tock. the property of Mr. Rennie, of Phantassie. in East Lothian, 
(which amounted to the large sum of £13,582), the highest price ob- 
tained for a bull of this breed was £115 10s., and for a cow £63; but, 
as not more than half the stock on the farm was supposed to have been 
sold, it is probable that some of the best cattle were reserved. Many 
other instances might however be adduced to prove — not that the rela- 
tive value of the short-horned cattle has declined — but that extravagant 
prices are not now so generally given for superior stock as formerly. 



VII. The Galloway Breed derives its appellation from the county 
of the same name, where, and also in some parts of the Lowlands of 
Scotland, these cattle are chiefly reared, and whence vast numbers are 
annually sent to Norfolk, and other English counties, to be fattened for 
the markets. In general, they are black, or dark brindled ; are without 
horns, except occasionally, a small excrescence resembling them, and 
are rather under the medium size, being smaller than the Devons, though 
in some other respects resembling them, yet considerably larger than the 
north, or even the west Highlanders. 

A true Galloway bullock is straight and broad in the back, and nearly 
level from the head to the rump ; closely compacted between the shoul- 
der and ribs, and also betwixt the ribs and the loins ; broad at the loins, but 
not with hooked or projecting knobs. He is long in the quarters, but 
not broad in the twist ; deep in the chest, short in the leg, and mode- 
rately fine in the bone ; clean in the chop, and in the neck. His head is 
of a moderate size, with large rough ears, and full but not prominent 
eyes, and he is clothed in a loose and mellow, though rather thick skin, 
covered with long, soft, and glossy hair. 

In roundness of barrel, and fulness of ribs, the Galloway cattle may 
perhaps vie with even the most improved breeds. Their breadth over 
the hook-bones is not, indeed, to be compared to that of some of either 
the short or long horned, but their loins bear a greater proportion in 
width to the hook bones, and they are shorter between the hooks and 
the ribs, which is in itself a valuable point, when accompanied with 
length of body. They are, however, rather coarse in the head and 
neck, and though short in the leg, are generally fine in the bone. 

Of this breed there is a variety termed Suffolk Duns ; they are also 
polled, but possess little of the beauty of the original stock, and are 
chiefly remarkable for the abundance of milk given by the cows. 



VIII. The Highland Breed of Horned Cattle are chiefly reared in 
the western parts of Scotland. Their horns are usually of a middle 
size, bending upwards, and their color is generally black, though some- 
times brindled, or dun. Their hides are thick, and covered with long 
hair of a close pile, which nature seems to have intended as a protection 
against the severity of the climate under which they are bred, for they 
lose much of this distinction when reared in this country. In other re- 
spects they are not unlike the Galloway breed, many of whose best qual- 
ities they possess, and more particularly their hardiness of constitution, 
it being repeatedly proved that they will thrive with such food and treat- 
ment as no tender cattle could endure ; but, from being mostly bred in 
more exposed and mountainous situations, they rarely attain equal size. 

Of this breed there are several distinct varieties, of which the princi- 
pal are the Kyloes — a short-horned breed, so named from the district of 
Kyle, in Ayrshire, — which are chiefly esteemed for the superior quality 
of the milk given by the cow; the Argyllshire, Dunlops, Western Kyloes 
or Ise of Sky, Norlands, 8?c. 

IX. The Welsh Breed are chiefly black, slightly marked with white, 
and have thick horns, of a medium length, curving upwards. They are 
small, and short in the leg, but well proportioned, and clean, though not 
small boned, with deep barrelled bodies, and thin, short haired hides. 
They are very quick feeders, and make excellent beef; and the cows 

.are generally good milkers. The best kinds of this race of cattle, are 
principally bred in the counties of Cardigan and Glamorgan, and in the 
southern and midland English counties, where they are in considerable 
demand for stocking inferior pastures. There is, however, a larger 
breed of a brown color intermixed with white, and also having white 
horns; but they are long in the leg, thin in the thigh, and narrow in the 
chine. They are neither so compact as the black cattle, nor dp they 
fatten so kindly, or make such good beef; but, though not in esteem with 
the grazier, they are active, and well adapted for the yoke. 

X. The Alderney Breed are so named from the island, on the coast 
of Normandy, whence they were first imported, although they are also 
bred in the neighbouring islands of Guernsey and Jersey. They aro 
small sized ; color light red or dun, mottled with white ; horns short, and 




bone fine. As fatting cattle, they have but few good points; being 
thin and hollow in the neck, hollow and narrow behind the shoulders, 
sharp and narrow on the hucks, light in the brisket, and lean on the 
chine, with short rumps and small thighs ; but their flesh is fine grained, 
high colored, and of excellent flavor. They are also very large in the 
belly ; but this, as well as some of the points already mentioned, is 
rather an advantage to milch cows, to which purpose this stock is 
usually applied in England ; and their udder is well formed. 

The Alderney cows are very rich milkers ; and both on that account, 
and because of a certain neatness in their appearance, notwithstanding 
the defects in their shape, they command high prices. They are, 
therefore, mostly in the possession of gentlemen; who, rarely keeping a 
regular breeding stock, the cows are consequently crossed by any neigh- 
boring bull, and thus the pure breed is preserved in the hands of but 
very few persons. 

Such are the chief breeds of neat cattle in Great Britain; and the de- 
scription, being taken from the best authorities, may be considered as 
accurate as possible, in a general view. 

We shall next proceed to speak of several varieties found in the Uni- 
ted States. 

Neat cattle were originally imported by our ancestors from England. 
They consisted of the Devonshire breed. In this opinion the late 
Timothy Pickering, of Massachusetts, and John Hare Powell, two gen- 
tlemen who, within a few years, have written largely, on the best mode 
of improving our stock, both unite. It was also the remark of the late 
Mr. Jay, soon after his return from Great Britain, in 1795, that the cattle, 
which he had generally seen in New England, appeared to be of the 
Devonshire breed, that he had seen in Great Britain. 

Towards the conclusion of the last century, several cattle were im- 
ported, by Charles Vaughan, and a Mr. Stuart; but on the New Eng- 
land stock at large, it is not probable that any effect was produced, by 
these importations. Some traces of their progeny, it is thought, might 
be noticed in the neighbourhood of Boston ; perhaps in Vermont, whith- 
er some of the above stock were sent, and in Maine, where according 
to the testimony of Mr. Powell, some of Mr. Vaughan's stock were 

Although the original breed introduced into this country by our an- 
cestors was that of the Devon, it is probable that some other breeds were 
also introduced by them; particularly the Herefordshire breed. On 
this point, Mr. Pickering observes, " Although I suppose the Devon 
race of cattle to be predominant in New England, I doubt not that some 
of other breeds were early introduced by our ancestors ; some Herefords 
unquestionably, whose descendants are yet distinguished by their white 
faces.' 7 A white face, or as Mr. Marshall terms it, " a bald face," is es- 
teemed characteristic of the true Hereford breed. 

The importation of cattle from England ceased at an early period, 
after the settlement of the country. The Editors of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural Journal, assume it as probable that few cattle, if any, were 
imported after 1650. 

From that period until towards the close of the last century, few, 
:fany importations were made, and for the reason, probably, that the 



improvements in the breeds of English cattle, which had, for a half cen- 
tury been going on in Great Britain, had not attracted the notice of 
our countrymen, owing chiefly to the depressed state of agriculture 
among us. 

Should it be asked, what was the general character of the neat cattle 
introduced by our ancestors into America, we reply, in the language 
of the Editors of the Massachusetts Agricultural Journal: " It is well 
known, that the agriculture of England, was then in a low state, com- 
pared with its present condition. Successions of crops were nearly un- 
known ; root crops for winter fodder were, we believe, entirely so. The 
prices of cattle were small, no great encouragement had been given to 
improve the breed. It is probable, therefore, that the cattle imported 
were not of a very improved race." 

"On the other hand," continues the above Journal, "there can be 
no doubt, that our climate and pastures are well adapted to the preser- 
vation of cattle, in as good a state as when imported, and rather to im- 
prove them. This we infer from the fact, that they are so fine, rather 
than from any general reasoning derived from our climate and soil ; 
and still less from our treatment of them. If we regarded those only, we 
should say, that the he^at of our summers, and the length and severity 
of our winters, were unfavorable to an animal, impatient of great heat 
and severe cold, and thriving much better on green succulent food than 
on dry meadow hay. 

"It may perhaps, be matter of surprise, that our horned cattle have 
been preserved as perfect as they are, considering the little attention, 
which for more than a century, was paid to them. That the cattle of 
England, at the present time, are far superior to our own, as a body, 
can scarcely be questioned. Great attention has been paid, in that 
country, to the improvement of horned cattle; and strange, indeed, 
would it be, if the efforts of more than half a century had been without 

Within a few years, an interesting controversy was carried on, be- 
tween two gentlemen of great distinction, as enlightened and patriotic 
agriculturalists — Col. Pickering, and Col. Powell, to whom we have 
already referred. 

Under a conviction of the superiority of the English breeds of cattle, 
especially the improved short horns, the latter gentleman had, at much 
trouble and expense, introduced several of that species into the country. 
Others, also, with similar views, had taken a similar course ; and seve- 
ral importations had, from time to time, been made of different foreign 
breeds, under the impression that our native breeds of cattle might be 
more speedily raised in their qualities, by crossing with the above, 
than to select only the best of our native breeds and improve upon 

The views of Col. Pickering were different. In a communication 
to the Editor of the New England Farmer, on the subject of improving 
our native breed cattle, Mr. Pickering remarks : " Were but two or 
three farmers, in every township in the state, to turn a zealous attention 
to it, the object would in a few years be accomplished — whereas, half a 
century or more might elapse, before a general improvement, by foreign 
crosses would be effected. It remains, too, to be ascertained, whether 
any other breeds really deserve the preference, in New-England, to our 




native race, improved as it may be, and in so much less time, than will 
be possible, by means of a small number of imported cattle." 

The controversy between these two gentlemen, growing out of their 
difference of opinion, was conducted with great ability, and numerous 
facts were collected, which had an important relation to the different 
positions, which the respective gentlemen had taken. It is not the de- 
sign of the editor of this work to estimate the merits of either view of 
the subject, with reference to a settlement of the question involved. The 
reader will find the papers, relating to this controversy, in the third and 
fourth volumes of the New England Farmer, and an able review of the 
controversy by the enlightened Editor of that paper, in the latter volume,, 
uncommonly interesting and instructive. 

It was our design to introduce to our readers, notices of several of 
the most celebrated animals, which have been imported into this country, 
within a few years, with reference to an improvement of our breed of 
neat cattle. But, not being able to obtain portraits of them, we must 
content ourselves, in this edition, with a brief notice of only the two 
following : 


This is a correct drawing of the celebrated bull, whose name we have 
given above. He was purchased in the fall of 1819, by Samuel Hurlbut, 
& Co. when seven months old, of William Patterson, Esq. of Balti- 
more. He was sired by Torrence, and out of a cow, both of which were 
imported by Messrs. Patterson and Caton, in June 1817. They were a 
present from the celebrated English Agriculturalist, the Hon. Mr. Coke, 
Meiriber of Parliament, from Norfolk. Much of the fine Devon stock, 
in this country, has been derived from the above bulk 





The above is a portrait of the thorough bred Improved Durham short 
horned bull. Wxje Comet, from an original painting, by Fisher, in the pos- 
session of Henry Watson, of Windsor. Con., to whom the Editor is 
indebted for a full pedigree of the animal, but which want of room must 

Wye Comet was begotten in England, but was calved in the United 
States, in November, 16*2*2. His sire was Blaizc. dam, White Rose, by 
Warrior (bred by Charles Champion Esq.) g-d by Mr. Mason's Charles; 
gr. g-d. by Prince ; gr. gr. g-d by Nesvriek. 

White Rose, the dam of Wye Comet, was imported by John S. Skin- 
ner of Baltimore, in the spring of 1^*2*2, by whom she was sold to the 
Hon. Edward Lloyd, of Maryland. Wye Comet was sold in 1823, by 
the latter gentleman, to John Hare Powell, Esq. of Philadelphia ; and in 
l***2ij. was purchased for the sum of 8500. by Messrs. Ward Woodbridge 
and Henry Watson. Esqrs. of Connecticut, to whose patriotic exertions. 
and pecuniary sacrifices, the county of Hartford is indebted for much of 
its fine stock of various descriptions, for which it is becoming justly 


In stocking a farm, the first object should be to consider the amount 
of stock which the farm will keep, and keep in good condition; as it is 
not only highly disreputable to a farmer, but injurious to his interests, 
to keep a stock of meagre, half starved cattle. 

This point being settled, regard should next be had to the kind of stock 
which is desirable ; and this will be determined by considering, whether 
you wish to rear cattle for the fair, or for supplying the market. 




These two particulars being settled, the farmer should consider the 
following things : — 

I. Beauty, or symmetry of shape; in which the form is so compact, 
that every part of the animal bears an exact consistency, while the car- 
cass should be deep and broad, and the less valuable parts (such as the 
head, bones, &c.) ought to be as small as possible. The carcass should 
be large, the bosom broad, and chest deep ; the ribs standing out from 
the spine, both to give strength of frame and constitution, and likewise 
to admit of the intestines being lodged within the ribs; but yet not so 
much as to be what is called high ribbed, as the butchers consider it an 
indication of deficiency in weight of meat. Further, the shoulders ought 
not only to be light of bone, and rounded off at the lower point, but also 
broad, to impart strength, and well covered with flesh. The back also 
ought to be wide and level throughout; the quarters long, the thighs ta- 
pering and narrow at the round bone, but well covered with flesh in the 
twist ; and the flank full and large. The legs ought to be straight below 
the knee and hock, and of a moderate length ; light boned ; clean from 
fleshiness, yet having joints and sinews of a moderate size, for the uni- 
ted purposes of strength and activity. In these points all intelligent 
breeders concur; but, as beauty of shape too often depends on the ca- 
price of fashion, it is more requisite to regard, 

II. Utility of form, or that nice proportion of the parts which has 
already been noticed. 

III. The flesh, or texture of the muscular parts; a quality which was 
formerly noticed only by butchers, but the knowledge of which is justly 
deemed essential by the enlightened breeders of the present day ; and 
although this quality necessarily varies according to the age and size 
of cattle, yet it may be greatly regulated by attention to the food employ- 
ed for fattening them. As a knowledge of this requisite can only be 
acquired by practice, it is sufficient to state, that the best sign of good 
flesh is that of being marbled, or having the fat and lean finely veined, 
or intermixed, when the animals are killed; and, while alive, by a firm 
and mellow feel. 

IV. In rearing live stock of any description, it should be an invariable 
rule to breed from small-boned, straight-backed, healthy, clean, kindly- 
skinned,* round-bodied, and barrel-shaped animal*, with clean necks 
and throats, and little or no dewlap ; carefully rejecting all those which 
may have heavy legs and roach backs, together with much appearance 
cf offal. And, as some breeds have a tendency to generate great 
quantities of fat on certain parts of the body, while in others it 
is more mixed with the flesh of every part of the animal, this circum- 
stance will claim the attention of the breeder as he advances in business. 

V. In the fm chasing of cattle, whether in a lean or fat state, the farmer 
should on no account buy beasts out of richer or better grounds than those 
into w r hich he intends to turn them; for, in this case, he must inevitably 
sustain a very material loss, by the cattle not thriving, particularly if they 
be old. It will, therefore, be advisable to select them, either from stock 

* As this w r ord may probably often appear in the course of the subse- 
quent pages, it may not be altogether irrelevant to state, that it implies 
a skin which feels mellow, i. e. soft, yet firm to the touch, aud which is 
equally distant from the hard, dry skin, peculiar to some cattle, as it is 
from the loose and flabby feel of others. 



feeding in the neighborhood, or from such breeds as are best adapted to 
the nature and situation of the soil. 

VI. Docility of disposition, without being deficient in spirit, is of equal 
moment ; for, independently of the damage committed by cattle of wild 
tempers on fences, fields, &c, which inconvenience will thus be obvia- 
ted, it is an indisputable fact, that tame beasts require less food to rear, 
support, and fatten them ; consequently every attention ought to be paid, 
early to accustom them to be docile and familiar. 

VII. Hardiness of constitution, particularly in bleak and exposed dis- 
tricts, is indeed a most important requisite ; and in every case it is highly 
essential to a farmers interest to have a breed that is liable neither to 
disease nor to any hereditary distemper. A dark color, and in cattle 
which are kept out all the winter a rough and culled pile or coat of hair, 
are, in the popular estimation, certain indications of hardiness: but it 
must be obvious to every thinking person, that this quality, though in 
some respects inherent in particular breeds, depends, in a great measure, 
upon the method in which cattle are treated. 

There is, indeed, a rather prevalent opinion, that white is a mark of 
degeneracy, and that animals of the most vivid hues possess the greatest 
portion of health and strength; in proof of which it has been instanced 
that among mankind, a healthy habit is visible in the floridness of the 
complexion; as sickness is perceptible in the paleness of the looks, and 
the decripitude of age in the whiteness of the hair. It has also been re- 
marked that gray horses are commonly of a tender constitution, until 
crossed with darker breeds ; and that among the feathered tribe, the 
common poultry, with high colored plumage, are in all respects superior 
to the white. But it has been justly observed in reply, that the powerful 
Poler bears, and many of the strongest birds, as the goose and swan, are 
white : nor will it escape observation, as more immediately touching 
the present subject, that the wild cattle are invariably of that color ; and 
that the highest bred Herefords are distinguished by white faces. * 

VIII. Connected with hardiness of constitution is early maturity, which 
however, can only be attained by feeding cattle in such a manner as to 
keep them constantly in a growing state. By an observance of this 
principle, it has been found that beasts and sheep, thus managed, thrive 
more in three years, than they usually do in five when they have not suffi- 
cient food during the winter, by which, in the common mode of rearing, 
their growth is checked. 

IX. A kindly disposition to take fat on the most valuable parts of the 
carcass, at an early age, and with little food, when compared with the 
quantity and quality consumed by similar animals. On this account 

* It is stated, in the Agricultural Survey of Leicestershire, England, 
as the remark Of a scientific observer of the cattle usually bred in that 
county, "that those of a deep red, dark liver color, or black, with tanned 
sides, are the hardiest, and have the best constitutions ; will endure the 
severest weather, perform the most work, live to the greatest age, and 
fatten on such food as would starve those of weaker colors." But in 
opposition to this we have, in the Annals of Agriculture, the assurance 
of Mr. Campbell, a practical and extensive breeder, that, upon repeated 
comparative trials, " he has had bulls, oxen, and cows, of a white breed, 
as healthy and hardy as any others." 



smaller cattle have been recommended as generally having a more natu- 
ral disposition to fatten, and as requiring, proportionably to the larger 
animal, less food to make them fat ; consequently, the greater quantity 
of meat for consumption can be made per acre. u In stall-feeding" — the 
nature, method, and advantages of which will be stated in a subsequent 
chapter, — it has been remarked, that, u whatever may be the food, the 
smaller animal pays most for that food ; in dry lands, the smaller animal 
is always sufficiently heavy for treading; in wet lands less injurious." 
But this opinion is combatted by many able judges, who still contend 
that the largest animals are the most profitable. They doubtless are so 
on good keep : but the smaller animals will thrive on soils where heavy 
beasts will decline. 

X. Working, or an aptitude for labor : a point of infinite importance 
in a country whose population is so extensive as that of Britain, and 
where the consumption of grain by horses has so .material an influence 
on the comforts and existence of the inhabitants. As, however, there is 
a difference of opinion on this subject, the reader is referred to the chap- 
ter where the question is fully discussed. But, whether kine be purchas- 
ed for the plough, or for the purpose of fattening, it will be necessary to 
see, in addition to the essentials already stated, that they are young, in 
perfect health, full-mouthed, and not broken either in tail, hair, or pizzle; 
that the hair stare not. and that they are not hidebound, otherwise they 
will not feed kindly. The same remark is applicable to cows intended for 
the pail, the horns of which should be fair and smooth, the forehead broad 
and smooth, udders white, yet not fleshy, but thin and loose when empty, 
to hold the greater quantity of milk, but large when full ; provided with 
large dug-veins to fill it, and with four elastic teats, in order that the milk 
may be more easily drawn olF. 

XI. Beside the rules above stated, there are some particulars with 
regard to the age of neat or black cattle and sheep, which merit the 
farmer's consideration. 

" Neat cattle cast no teeth until turned two years old, when they get 
two new teeth ; at three they get two more ; and in every succeeding 
year get two, until five years old, when they are called full-mouthed , 
though they are not properly full-mouthed until six years old, because 
the two corner teeth, which are last in renewing, are not perfectly up 
until they are six."* 

The horns of neat cattle also supply another criterion by which the 
judgment may be assisted, after the signs afforded by the teeth become 
uncertain. When three years old, their horns are smooth and hand- 
some ; after which period there appears a circle, or wrinkle, which is 
annually increased as long as the horn remains ; so that, acoording to the 
number of these circles or rings, the age of a beast may be ascertained 
with tolerable precision, unless such wrinkles are defaced, or artificially 
removed, by scraping or filing ; a fraudulent practice, which is but too. 
frequently adopted, in order to deceive the ignorant or inexperienced 
purchaser with respect to the real age of the animal. There is also a tip 
at the extremity of the horn, which falls off about the third year. 

Culley on Live Stock, pp. 203, 209. 




A bull ought to be the most handsome of his kind ; he should be tall 
and well made ; his head should be rather long, but not coarse, as .fine- 
ness of head indicates a disposition to fatten ; and as it is designed by 
nature to be the chief instrument both of offence and of defence, it 
ought to present every mark of strength ; his horns clean, and bright ; 
his large black eyes lively and protuberant ; his forehead broad and 
close set, with short, curled hair ; his ears long and thin, hairy within 
and without; muzzle fine; nostrils wide and open; neck strong and 
muscular, not incumbered with a coarse, wreathy skin, but firm, rising 
with a gentle curve from the shoulders, tapering to the part where it is 
connected with the head ; dewlap thin, and but little loose skin on any 
part. Further, his shoulders should be deep, high, and moderately 
broad at the top ; the bosom open ; breast large and projecting well 
before his legs ; back straight and broad, even to the setting on of the 
tail, which should not extend far up the roof, but be strong and deep, 
with much lank hair on the under part of it ; ribs broad and circular, 
rising one above another, so that the last rib shall be rather the highest; 
the fore thighs strong and muscular, tapering gradually to the knees ; 
the belly deep, straight, and also tapering a little to the hind thighs, 
which should be large and square ; the roof wide, particularly over the 
chine and kips, or hooks i the legs straight, short jointed, full of sinews, 
clean and fine boned ; knees round, big, and straight ; feet distant one 
from another, not broad, nor turning in, but easily spreading; hoofs 
long and hollow ; the hide not hard, or stubborn to the touch; the hair 
uniformly thick, short, curled, and of a soft texture; and the body long, 
deep, and round, filling well up to the shoulder and into the groin, so 
as to form what has not improperly been termed a round, or barrel-like 

The bull attains the age of puberty generally at the end of from twelve 
months to two years ; but it has been thought advisable to restrain him 
from the propagation of his species until he has arrived at his full growth, 
which is about four years: for, if this animal be suffered to breed earlier 
than three years, the stock is liable to degenerate. It must, however, be 
admitted, that a contrary opinion prevails among many eminent breeders; 
who maintain that the bull is in his full vigor at eighteen months old, at 
which age his progeny will display the most strength. 

The bull, as well as the cow and ox, generally lives about fourteen 
years ; but the progress of decay is usually perceptible after lie has 
attained the age often years. 

For the prevention of accidents from mischievous bulls, an ingenious 
and simple contrivance has been suggested by Henry James Nicholls, 
Esq. of Woodhall, near Wisbeach, on whom "the Society for the En- 
couragement of Arts, Agriculture, &c. in 1S15 conferred a premium of 
ten guineas for his invention. Of its form and application, the following 
engravings will convey a correct idea. 




Fig. 1. 

Fig. I. Represents a front view of the apparatus, as affixed to the head 
of the animal. It consists of a straight piece of wood or iron (the latter is 
the preferable material) stretching from horn to horn, perforated at each 
end so as to pass over the tips, and fastened on them by the usual metal 
nuts. On the centre of this is rivetted a curved bar of iron, bending up- 
wards, which moves easily on the rivet, and has holes at each end con- 
taining the upper round link of a chain. These chains again unite in a 
strong iron ring, which opens by a hinge and screw, and passes through^ 
the bull's nose. The effect of this contrivance is as follows: — any per-' 
son seeing a vicious animal approach may easily avoid him ; but if the 
beast should make a push forward, the curved iron bar will prevent any 
bad consequences ; and if he move in the smallest degree to the right or to 
tJie left, the bar communicating by the chain with the ring upon his nose, 
will bring him immediately to check. 



This lateral operation is delineated in Fig. 2. An additional advantage 
resulting from the use of this invention is, that a beast may, with the 
smallest power, be led in any direction. 


A perfect breeding cow ought to have a fine head, with a broad, smooth 
forehead ; black eyes ; clean horns ; a smooth, elastic skin ; a large deep 
body ; strong muscular thighs ; a large white udder, with long and 
tapering teats ; together with every other token requisite in a bull, allow- 
ing for the difference in sex. Further, such animals ought particularly 
to be young. Milch kine are not good for breeding after they are twelve 
years old: indeed, it is said the first calf which a cow brings is the beat 
for raising. 

The criteria of a beautif id coic, according to Wilkinson, may be thus 
expressed : 

u She's long in her face, she's fine in her horn, 

She'll quickly get fat, without cake or corn, 

She's clear in her jaws, and full in her chine, 

She's heavy in flank, and wide in her loin. 

" She's broad in her ribs, and long in her rump, 

A straight and flat back, with never a hump ; 

She's wide in her hips, and calm in her eves, 

She's fine in her shoulders, and thin in her thighs — 

M She's light in ner neck, and small in her tail, 

She's wide in her breast, and good at the pail ; 

She's fine in her bone, and silky of skin, 

She's a Grazier's without, and a Butcher's within." 

CuUey's marks of a good cow arc these : wide horns a thm head and 
neck, dewlap large, full breast, broad back, large and deep belly ; the 
udder capacious, but not too fleshy ; the milky veins prominent, and the 
bag tending far behind ; teats long and large ; buttocks broad and fleshy ; 
tail long and pliable ; legs proportionable to the size of the carcass, and 
the joints shut. To these outward marks may be added a gentle dispo- 
sition, a temper free from any vicious tricks, and perfectly manageable 
on every occasion. On the other hand, a cow with a thick head, and a 
short neck ; prominent back bone, slender cheek, belly tucked up. small 
udder, or a flehsy bag, short teats, and thin buttocks, is to be avoided as 
totally unfit for the purposes either for the dairyman, the stickler, or the 

Cows are purchased either with a view of being fattened for sale, for 
breeding, or for the purposes of the dairy. In the first case, attention 
must be paid to the kindliness of the skin and disposition to fatten. With 
regard to those which are intended for breeding, care should be taken to 
select the best of that particular stock intended to be raised; and for the 
dairy, those which yield the most and the richest milk. 

The cow is supposed, by some eminent naturalists, to arrive at pu- 
berty at the end of eighteen months, though instances have occurred 
where these animals have produced calves before that time. It is, in- 
deed, said by some breeders, in the northern part of England, that young 



cows may be sent to the bull as early even as one year old; but there is then 
much danger in calving ; and although the practice would certainly be 
an essential improvement, where the dairy constitutes a primary object, 
provided their growth would not thus become stinted, it is yet generally 
considered as injurious. It is, therefore, advisable not to permit cows to 
take the bull earlier than two years, though many breeders defer it an- 
other year ; and, in conformity to the latter opinion, the late eminent 
Mr. Bakewell deferred sending his cows to bull till they were three years 
old ; but they often missed calf, which accident Sir John Sinclair attri- 
butes to this circumstance : but the most proper period must in some 
measure depend on the breed, on the time at which the heifer was herself 
dropped, and on her condition ; as some which have been well kept will 
be more forward at two, than others, which have been stinted, at three 
years of age. Incase, however, a cow produces a calf before she enters 
upon her third year, the animal should be removed from her; and it will 
be proper to milk her for the three following days, to preserve the udder 
from becoming sore, but afterwards to forbear milking. 

The period of time during which cows are allowed to run dry previ- 
ously to calving, is by no means settled. By some graziers, they are 
recommended to be laid dry when they are five or six months gone 
with calf; but repeated and successful experiments prove that six weeks. 
or two months, are sufficient for this purpose. Indeed, cows kept in 
good condition, are some times drawn until within a fortnight of calving. 
Gov. Lincoln, of Massachusetts, says of a heifer of the Denton blood — 
" a heifer of three years, with her second calf, has not been dry since 
she dropped her first, having given four quarts on the morning of her 
second calving." This practice, however, is not to be recommended, 
for if the cow springs before she is dry, serious injury, it is said, may en- 
sue. Some cows, it is well known, are in the habit of drying up quite 
unseasonably. To prevent this, such cows should be milked by a skilful 
hand expeditiously and entirely clean : and even then it is doubtful 
whether the evil admits of an entire remedy, if a habit of drying up 
early have been formed. To prevent the evil in respect to a cow, a wri- 
ter in the New-England Farmer. (Vol. VII. p. 162.) recommends to 
begin young. ;; I have found." says he, " that young cows, the first year 
they give milk, may be made, with careful milking and good keeping, 
to give milk almost any length of time required, say from the first of 
May to the first of February following ; and will give milk late always 
after, with careful milking. But, if they are left to dry up of their milk 
early in the fall, they will be sure to dry up their milk each succeeding 
vear, if they have a calf near the same season of the year ; and nothing 
but extraordinary keeping will prevent it, and that but for a short time. ' 

No animal on the farmer's premises pays better for good keeping than 
the cow. They need to be kept in good condition the tchole time, for if 
they are suffered to become very lean, and that in the winter season, it 
is impossible that they should be brought'^ afford a large quantity of 
milk, until they have had the advantage of the following summer. 
When cows are lean at the period of calving, no management is ever 
capable of bringing them to afford for that season anything near the 
proportion of milk they would have done, had they been in proper 

If in any one point the New England farmers seem to fail more than 
in another it is in not feeding cows sufficiently early in the fall. They 



are left to pick a scanty and frost-bitten food, on the coming on of the 
chilly and rainy season ; and it is not uncommon to find cows, which at 
an early period of the fall were in good condition, poor and ill-condition- 
ed by the setting in of winter. The solids of the beast are dissipated ; 
her milk reduced, and her value to the owner greatly diminished. These 
remarks, it may be observed, will apply with nearly equal truth to the 
whole stock of many of the farmers in New England. 

Many excellent heifers for milk are nearly ruined by bad milkers. If 
they are ticklish, as the farmers express it, they should be treated with 
great gentleness. If the udder be hard and painful, as it sometimes is, 
let it be tenderly fomented with lukewarm water, and gently rubbed, in 
order to bring the creature into good temper. 

It will, however, sometimes happen, if a cow (especially a young one) 
is managed with ever so much care, she will kick, and exhibit other 
svmptoms of a vicious disposition. In such cases, the editor of the New 
England Farmer recommends the following mode of managing a cow, 
suggested by one of his correspondents. (See New England Farmer. 
vol. III. p. 10.) 

" I have seen," observes the above correspondent, M very promising 
heifers spoiled, when first beginning to milk them, by banging and hal- 
looing at them because of their kicking. I have also seen cows give a 
good mess of milk, and when they had done, kick it over. I can always 
tell when a heifer is inclined to kick, before her calf is gone. If she is, 
I take a strong strap, buckle it tight round her hind legs, below the 
gambril joints, including her tail if it is long enough. This method will 
cause much uneasiness at first. If the cow falls down, no matter for 
that., let her he a minute or two. Then unbuckle the strap, let her get 
up, and then fit it on again. Perhaps she may throw herself down again, 
but she will be very careful how she throws herself down the third time. 
After she stands still put the calf to her, and let her stand in this manner 
till the calf has done sucking. Let this be done a few times, and it will 
generally break the cow of kicking, also of starting and running when 
part milked, as some cows will. I put on the strap before the calf is 
ofone, because if let alone till afterwards, the cow is apt to hold up her 
milk, when the strap is first put on. 

If the teats of a cow are sore, they should be washed with sugar of 
lead and water. The proportion recommended, is two drachms of sugar 
of lead to a quart of water. If tumours appear, a warm mash of bran, 
with a little lard is said to be a good application. The following lini- 
ment is said to be efficacious. Linseed oil, 4i oz., Liquor of Ammonia. 

Another method (see New England Farmer, Vol. II. p. 132) is, after 
tying the cow t in the stanchels, to make one end of a rope fast round her 
horns, and put the other end over the girt which is about two Feet higher 
than the top of the stanchels, and about the same distance in front, 
draw it pretty tight and fasten it to a stud. This so effectually secures 
her that she may be milked with the most perfect ease and safety ; and 
after practising this method two or three times, she will give no more 

It is said that several trials on different cows have proved this method 
not only vastly superior to all others, but an effectual remedy ; and it is 
so easy and simple that a female or boy can secure a cow without any 



difficulty. Another advantage this method has over any other, is, that 
by keeping the cow's back hollow, it is believed, she cannot hold up 
her milk. 

It is desirable sometimes to dry cows more expeditiously than can be 
well done in the common way ; especially when they have a plenty of 
fresh food. The following method is recommended in Monk's Agricul- 
tural Dictionary. Take an ounce of powdered alum ; boil it in tw6 
quarts of milk until it turns to whey : then take a large handful of sage, 
and boil it in the whey, till you reduce it to one quart ; rub her udder 
with a little of it, and give her the rest by way of drink ; milk her clean 
before you give it to her ; and as you see need repeat it. Draw a little 
milk from her every second or third day, lest her adder be overcharged. 
The period of gestation, or time during which the cow goes with calf, 
is various : with a bull calf, she usually goes about forty-one weeks, with 
a difference of a few days either way; a cow calf comes in less time. 
Between nine and ten months, therefore, may be assigned for the period 
of gestation; at the end of which time she produces one calf; though 
instances sometimes occur when two, or even three, are brought forth. 
It may not, however, be useless to remark, that some cows are naturally 
barren, which is said to be the case when a male and female calf are pro- 
duced at-the same time. The male animal is perfect in all respects ; but 
the female, which is denominated a free martin, is incapable of propaga- 
ting her species ; it does not vary very materially in point of form or size 
from other neat cattle, though its flesh is erroneously supposed to be 
greatly superior with regard to flavor and fineness of the grain. 

Some very interesting experiments respecting the periods of gestation 
in different animals, were made a few years ago, by M. Teissier, of the 
Society for the Encouragement of Arts at Paris, from which it appears, 
that out of 575 cows, 

21 calved between the 240th and 270th day ; mean term 259£ 
544 .... 270th . . 299th .... 282 

10 .... 299th . . 321st .... 303 

Thus, between the shortest and longest gestation there was a difference 
of eighty-one days, which is more than one fourth of the mean duration. 


The importance of forwarding calves to maturity, with the greatest 
possible advantage, to the full developement of their natural qualities, 
has called forth the ingenuity of the most careful observers, and best 
breeders. The most approved plan, and certainly, the best general plan, 
is to adhere, as closely as possible, to nature. 

On the birth of the calf, the cow generally shows an inclination to clean 
its skin by licking it. To facilitate this object, it is a frequent practice 
to throw a handful of common salt over the calf, or to rub a little brandy 
on it. 

Some practice taking the calf from the dam immediately, and in an 
hour after birth, to give it a pint of luke-warm gruel, in lieu of the 
beestings, or first milk of the cow. This practice appears, however, ob- 
jectionable, since it is obvious, that nature has provided the beestings as 
the proper aliment of the newly born animal. 



The mode of rearing calves, both in England and the United States, is 
various. The usual method in Yorkshire, and most parts of Scotland, 
says Loudon, is tlwt of giving them milk to drink, there being few in- 
stances where they are allowed to suck. For the first two or three weeks, 
they mostly get milk warm from the cow ; but for the next two or three 
weeks, half the new milk is withdrawn, and skimmed milk substituted in 
its stead ; and at the end of that period, the new milk is wholly with- 
drawn: they are then fed on skimmed milk alone, or sometimes mixed 
with water,*till they are able to support themselves by eating grass, or 
other food of that sort. 

In Cheshire, the practice is to allow the calves to suck, for the first three 
weeks. They are then fed on warm new whey, or scalded whey and 
buttermilk, mixed ; with the green whey, water is frequently mixed, 
and either oatmeal, or wheat and bean flour added. A quart of meal or 
flour, is thought sufficient to mix with forty or fifty quarts of liquid. 
Oat meal gruel, and buttermilk, with an addition of skimmed milk, are 
also used for the same purpose. Some one of these prepared kinds of 
food, is given night and morning, for a few weeks after the calves are 
put on that diet, but afterwards only once a day, till they are three months 
old or more. 

The calves in Gloucestershire are not allowed to suck above two or 
three days ; they are then fed on skimmed milk, which is previously 
heated over the fire. When they arrive at such an age as to be able to 
eat a little, they are allowed split beans, or oats ; and cut hay, and water, 
all mixed with the milk. 

In Sussex, it is common to allow the calves to suck for ten or twelve 
weeks, or to wean them at the end of three or four, and give them a liberal 
allowance of skimmed milk, for six or eight weeks longer. 

In Middlesex, the methods pursued for rearing calves, are either by giv- 
ing them a pail-full, containing about a gallon, warm from the teat of tlie 
cow, morning and evening, for eight or ten weeks, or which is certainly 
the most agreeable to nature, and therefore to be preferred to any other 
that can be adopted, to allow the calf to suck its dam, as is sometimes 
done in the county of Sussex, and generally in Wigtonshire. 

According to Marshall, the best method is this : The calves suck a 
week or fortnight, according to their strength, (a good rule ;) new milk in 
the pail, a few meals; next, new milk and skim milk-mixed, a few meals 
more ; then, skim-milk alone, or porridge made with milk, water, ground 
oats, &c. and sometimes oil-cake, until cheese making commences : 
after which, whey, porridge, or sweet whey, in the field ; being careful 
to house them in the night, until warm weather be confirmed. This 
method of suckling is not, however, free from objection ; and in. the ordi- 
nary practice of rearing calves, it is held to be a preferable plan, to begin 
at once to learn them to drink from a pail. The calf that is fed from the 
teat must depend upon the milk of its dam, however scanty or irregular 
it maybe ; whereas, when fed from a dish, the quantity can be regulated 
according to its age, and various substitutes may be resorted to, by which 
a great part of the milk is saved for other purposes, or a greater number 
of calves reared on the same quantity. Yet it would seem to be a good 
practice to allow calves to suck for a few days at first, if there was no 
inconvenience to be apprehended both to themselves and their dams, 
from their separation afterwards. 



When fed from the pail, the average allowance to a calf is about two 
English wine gallons of milk daily for twelve or thirteen weeks ; at first, 
fresh milk as it is drawn from the cow, and afterwards skim-milk. But 
after it is three or four weeks old, a great variety of substitutes for milk 
are used in different places, of which linseed oil-cake, meal, and turnips, 
are the most common. 

When calves are reared with skim-milk, it should be boiled, and suf- 
fered to stand until it cools to the temperature of that first given by the 
cow, or a trifling degree more warm, and in that state given to the calf. 
Milk is frequently given to calves warm only ; but that method will not 
succeed so well as boiling it. If the milk be given over cold, it will cause 
the calf to skit or purge. When this is the case put two or three spoon- 
fuls of rennet in the milk, and it will soon stop the looseness. If, on the 
contrary, the calf is bound, bacon broth is a very good and safe thing to 
put into the milk. One gallon of milk per day will keep a calf well, till 
it be thirteen weeks old. A calf may then be supported without milk, by 
giving it hay and a little wheat bran, once a day, with about a pint of oats. 
The oats will be found of great service as soon as the calf is capable of 
eating them. The bran and oats should be given about mid-day ; the- 
milk in portions, at eight o'clock in the morning, and four in the after- 
noon. But whatever hours are chosen to set apart for feeding the calf, 
it is best to adhere to the particular times, as regularity is of more conse- 
quence than many people think. If the calf goes but an hour or two 
beyond his usual time of feeding, he will find himself uneasy, and pine for 
food. It is always to be understood that calves reared in this manner, are 
to be enticed to eat hay as early as possible ; and the best way of doing 
this is to give them the sweetest hay that can be got, and but little at a 
time. Turnips or potatoes, are very good food, as soon as they can eat 
them, and they are best cut small and mixed with the hay, oats, bran, 
and such articles. It may be observed, that it is not absolutely neces- 
sary to give milk to calves after they are one month old ; and to wean 
them gradually, two quarts of milk, with the addition of linseed boiled in 
water, to make a gruel, and given together, will answer the purpose, 
until by diminishing the milk gradually, the calf will soon do entirely 
without. Hay tea will answer the purpose, with tiie like addition of two 
quarts of milk ; but is not so nutritious as linseed. It is a good method 
of making this, to put such a proportion of hay as will be necessary into a 
tub, then pour on a sufficient quantity of boiling water, covering up the 
vessel, and letting the water remain long enough to extract the virtues of 
the hay. When bacon or pork is boiled, it is a good way to preserve the 
liquoror broth, and mix it with the milk for the calves. 

Another mode of rearing calves, said to have been suggested by the 
Duke of Northumberland, is to take one gallon of skim-milk, and to about 
a pint of it add half an ounce of common treacle, stirring it until it is well 
mixed, then to take one ounce of linseed oil cake, finely pulverize, and 
with the hand let it fall gradually, in very small quantities, into the milk, 
stirring it in the mean time, with a spoon or ladle, .until it be thoroughly 
incorporated; then let the mixture be put into the other part of the milk, 
and the whole be made nearly as warm as new milk, when it is first taken 
from the cow ; and in that state it is fit for use. 

The quantity of oil-cake powder may from time to time be increased, 
as occasion may require, and as the calf becomes inured to the flavor 
of it. Crook's method is to make a jelly of one quart of linseed boiled 



ten minutes, in six quarts of water, which jelly is afterwards mixed 
with a small quantity of the best hay-tea ; on this he rears many calve* 
without milk. 

On this important subject, many individuals of careful observation, 
and great practical skill, in the United States, have written copiously. 
Our limits will permit us to notice the methods recommended by only 
a few. 

The following is the method of Mr. William Budd, which obtained the 
gold medal of the Agricultural Society of Massachusetts: 

" Take the calves, when three days old, from the cows, and put them 
into a stable by themselves; feed them with gruel, composed of one- 
third barley, two-thirds oats, ground together very fine, sifting the mix- 
ture. Each calf is to receive a quart of gruel morning and evening, and 
to be made in the following manner : to one quart of the flour add twelve 
of water, boil the mixture half an hour, let it stand until milk-warm. In 
ten days, tie up a bundle of soft hay in the middle of the stable, which 
they will eat by degrees. A little of the flour put into a small trough, 
for them occasionally to lick, is of service. Feed them thus till they are 
two months old increasing the quantity. Three bushels of the above 
mixture will raise six calves." 

Mr. Clift, of the New-York Agricultural Society, takes the calf from 
the cow at two or three days old ; he then milks the cow, and while the 
milk is warm, teaches the animal to drink by holding his head down 
into the pail; if the calf will not drink, he puts his hand into the niilk. 
and a finger into the mouth, till the beast learns to drink without the 
finger.* After he has been fed with new milk for a fortnight, the 
cream is taken off the milk, with which an equal or larger portion of 
thin flax-seed jelly is mixed, and the whole is given milk-warm. Thus, 
as the spring is the most favorable season for making butter, he is ena- 
bled, during the six or seven weeks the animals are kept previously to 
weaning, to make as much butter as they are worth ; a practice which 
merits the attention of our farmers, to whom it will afford a very essen- 
tial saving. 

The next method which we notice, is that practiced by the religious 
society denominated Shakers, at Canterbury, N. H., and which appears 
to be highly judicious. 

We let calves that come in the fore part of March suck about a week 
or ten days, then take them from the cow, giving them a moderate allow- 
ance of new milk to drink, till they have learnt to drink it freely ; then 
put in some skimmed milk: and we feed them wholly on skimmed 
milk, taking care to give it at about the temperature of milk directly 
taken from the cow, by heating a part of it, and mixing it with the rest. 
Care should be taken not to scald the milk when heated ; also not to 
give them any sour milk, for this will make them scour. The trough 

* It is sometimes found difficult to teach a calf to drink or even to suck 
the milk by means of the fingers. This generally arises from ignorance, 
as to the proper manner of using the fingers. These— the first and 
second fingers of the right hand will be sufficient — should be so pressed 
upon the calf's tongue as to form a curve of the tongue, in which case the 
calf will invariably draw; at least, the Editor has never experienced any 
difficulty since he has practiced in the above way. 




or vessel in which they drink this milk, should be kept clean, and not 
suffered to get sour. 

We let the milk stand about twelve hours before it is skimmed ; giving 
a calf at first about four quarts night and morning ; increasing the mess 
as need requires, till he is six weeks old, from which time till ten weeks 
old, he will require perhaps about twelve quarts per day. 

When about ten weeks old, we begin to diminish the quantity of 
milk for about the space of two or three weeks, at which time we wean 
them. During the whole process, from two to fourteen weeks old, 
calves should be well supplied with good hay, salt, and provender ; such 
as oats, wheat-bran, and oil-cake ground fine ; they should also be sup- 
plied with scurf or dirt, (though scurf is the best,) which is a preventive 
against scouring. 

The particular advantages to be derived from the above method of 
treatment are the following : 

1. It is much cheaper than to let them suck in the ordinary way; 
whereas it makes a great saving of cream for butter, and that without 
injuring the calves, if they are properly attended to. 

2. It prevents calves from moaning or pining so much while weaning, 
as they would otherwise do, when taken from the cows. 

3. It not only prevents the cows being injured in consequence of the 
calves biting the teats ; but also prevents their holding back their milk 
from the milker, which often serves to diminish the milk afterwards. 
The only disadvantage to be found in the above method of treatment 
is that it requires some more labor, to feed them, where they thrive equal- 
ly well in every respect, as those do which are permitted to suck in the 
ordinary way." 

A writer in the American Farmer, Vol. V., page 17*2, observes, that 
the most proper way of rearing calves is, to wean them at about eight 
days old, to keep them constantly in the stable, and teach them to drink 
out of a bucket, which is easily accomplished by putting new milk into a 
basin and letting them suck your fingers with the hand immersed in the 
milk, and in a few days withdrawing the fingers gradually from the 
mouth, afterwards giving as much new milk, as they can drink, for five 
or six weeks, when they will begin to eat a little grass or clover, which 
can be pulled and given in small quantities twice a day, and when they 
eat freely you may mix a little water with the milk ; or at eight or ten 
weeks old, give sweet skimmed milk, slightly warmed, which soon after 
dilute with water and add a little meal; should milk be wanted for other 
purposes give flax-seed tea, which commence by mixing with milk slight- 
ly warmed ; indeed, by keeping calves constantly in the house, you may 
induce them to eat almost any kind of nutricious food; they also become 
perfectly docile, have fine round bodies, with clean smooth hair, and a 
sprightly look; but if turned out into the field, they are tormented by 
flies and heat, never in good condition the first year, but remarkable for 
pot bellies, rough hair, heavy look, and ugly flat sides ; indeed the con- 
trast in appearance is so great, that I think laziness alone would induce 
any one to turn their calves into a field the first summer. If change of 
food produces either costiveness or looseness, give about half a pint of 
spermaceti oil, to be repeated if found necessary ; it will prove a cure, 
and can easily be given out of a black bottle ; it is also good for cows, 
that are drooping or unwell, adding of course to the above quantity. 



Calves intended for the butcher, the same writer adds, ought always 
to be tied up in a stable, and if kept in darkness, so much the better, as 
they will be less disturbed by flies, and will sleep more, than if constant- 
ly in the light ; the mother ought to be turned in twice or thrice a day, 
and the calf permitted to suck as much as it wants, never taking any 
milk from the mother until it is satisfied. If every farmer would thus 
manage, we should see less poor veal than is now exhibited in our 

In noticing the above methods of treating and managing calves, men- 
tion has been made of flaxseed jelly, and clover tea. To make the former, 
8. W. Pomeroy, of Massachusetts, recommends " to take one part of 
flax-seed and five or six parts of water; let it soak from 12 to 48 hours 

according to the temperature of the \s eather ; then boil for a quarter 

of an hour, stirring it to prevent burning — keep it in a cool place, and 
not more than will suffice for a week should be made at a time in warm 

For clover tea, cut the best cured clover hay, about as fine as com- 
mon straw-chaff, press it into a kettle and fill it up with water— cover 
and boil half an hour — if soaked six or twelve hours, less boiling will 
answer- Express as much of the juice as possible and the residuum 
will be eaten greedily by store swine, if mixed with their swill. Unless 
the clover was cured with salt (a method I always practice) some should 
be put into the kettle, which may sometimes require to be filled up with 

In the rearing of calves, much certainly depends on regularity in 
feeding them. The common practice is, to supply them with food twice 
in the day, in the morning and at evening, when they generally receive 
as large a quantity as their craving appetites can take. Hence the di- 
gestive organs are necessarily impaired, and disease is perhaps engender- 
ed. These evils may be avoided by feeding thrice in a day, at equi-distant 
intervals, and allowing sufficient room for exercise, when the calves are 
not intended to be fattened. 


A good ox for the plough should be neither too fat nor too lean, as in 
the former case he will be too lazy ; and in the latter he will be too weak 
and unfit for labor. His body ought to be full, joints short, legs small, 
eyes full, his coat smooth and fine, (which latter circumstance is a certain 
indication of good health,) and every part symmetrical or well put 
together, so that his strength may be easily seen. 

Those calves which are designed for draught may be easily accustom- 
ed to the yoke, with proper care. At even an early age, a light yoke may 
be frequently put upon them ; in which they may be suffered to stand, 
or wander in the field, for an hour or two each day. But it is doubted 
whether in any case they should be put to hauling burdens, even the 
lightest, lest they should be strained. Some of the most docile and u§e- 
ful oxen we have ever seen, were trained in this way. 

Calves thus managed, may doubtless be put to labor, at an earlier 
period than others. Much labor should not be required of steers, until 



they are three years of age ; and even at this period, if orer worked they 
seldom recover from it. Oxen whose work is so proportioned to their 
strength and keeping, as not to affect their growth, will continue to in- 
crease in size till about their seventh year. Many oxen, however, cease 
growing sometime before they have attained to this age ; but it is gene- 
rally owing to poor keeping and being overworked. 

It is often objected to oxen, that they are too slow for profit For some 
kinds of work they doubtless are so. But the slow pace at which oxen 
move generally is entirely unnecessary. With a proper load, they might 
doubtless be made to travel with double their usual expedition, and with 
equal ease to themselves. 

It is also desirable that oxen should be accustomed to work equally 
well on either side. To this they may be easily trained, especially when 

The strength of an ox, when properly trained, and managed, is very 
great ; and he has patience to endure fatigue. The only method by 
which success can be attained, says The Complete Grazier, is, by patience, 
mildness, and even by caresses ; for compulsion and ill treatment will 
irritate and disgust him. Hence, great assistance will be derived from 
gently stroking the animal along the back, oy patting him, and encourag- 
ing him with the voice, and occasionally feeding him with such aliments 
as are most grateful to his palate. It will also be proper to tie his horns 
frequently, and after a few days to put a yoke upon his neck, when he 
should be fastened to a plough with a tame old ox, of equal size ; next, 
the oxen should be employed in some light work, which they may be 
suffered to perform easily and slowly ; thus they will draw equally, and 
the young steer will be gradually inured to work. After working in this 
maimer, he should be yoked with an ox of greater spirit and agility, in 
order that the steer may learn to quicken his pace ; and, by thus frequent- 
ly changing his companions, as occasion may allow, he will, in the course 
of the first month or six weeks of his labor, be capable of drawing with 
the briskest of the stock. 

After a steer is thus properly broken, it will be advisable, for the 
future, to match such as are intended to draw in the same team, or yoke ; 
attention being paid to their size, strength, and spirit or temper ; other- 
wise, by being unequally matched, they will not only spoil their work, 
and be greatly disqualified for draught, but the slower or weaker animal 
of the two being urged beyond its natural powers, will inevitably receive 
material injury. 

Another circumstance of essential importance in breaking-in young 
os.en is, that when first put to work, whether at the plough or in teams 
for draught, they be not fatigued, or over-heated. Till they are 
thoroughly, trained therefore, it will be necessary to employ them in 
labor only at short intervals ; to indulge them with rest during the noon- 
day heats of summer, and to feed them with good hay, which, in this case 
is preferable to grass. In fact while oxen are worked, they must be 
kept in good condition and spirits, by moderate, but wholesome suste- 
nance. Further, on their return home from labor, it will greatly con- 
tribute to preserve their health, if their feet be well washed previously to 
leading them into their stalls; otherwise diseases might be generated by 
the filth adhering to them ; while their hoofs becoming soft and tender, 
would necessarily disable them from working on hard or stony soils. 
The extremes of heat and cold ought also to be carefully guarded against, 




as disorders not unfrequently arise from excess of either temperature ; 
and they are peculiarly exposed to fevers and the flux, if chased or 
hurried) especially in the hot weather. 

Steers are sometimes refractor)'. In such cases it will be advisable to 
keep them till they are hungry ; and when they have fasted long enough, 
they should be made to feed out of the hand. On returning to labor, they 
should be tied with a rope; and if at any time they become refractory, the 
gentle measures above described should be adopted, in order to bring 
them to work readily and quietly. 

The following easy method, of accustoming animals to draw, is given 
bv the Editor of the American Farmer from the French. ( See American 
Farmer, Vol. VII. p. 76.) 


<; The readiest way to make animals submit to the yoke or harness, 
is to habituate them gradually to the draft in the very act of satisfying 
the cravings of hunger. P'or this purpose aitach them to the manger, 
bv means of a cord which runs through a ring — and at the extremity of 
which a weight is attached as represented in the above figure, so that the 
animal may at pleasure approach or recede from the manger. A collar 
is put on the animal, with two cords fixed to a bar or swingle tree, to 
which another cord is attached at B, which passes through the pulley at 
C, and to which is suspended a weight, to be increased at pleasure — 
things being thus arranged, forage is put in the rack. The animal when 
pressed by hunger approaches his food ; in doing which he raises the 
weight, and keeps it suspended as long as he continues to eat — and thus 
contracts the habit of drawing in a few days. He is free to relax his 
exertions, for whenever he recedes, the weight reposes on the ground. 

In working oxen to advantage, much depends on the mode of har- 
nessing them, and upon what has been termed the principle of draught. 
This principle depends on the joint power of the necf and base of the 
horn. In Portugal, these animals are harnessed in the following man- 
ner : a long leather strap is wrapped round the yoke, whence it passes 
round the lower part of the horns, and is again fastened to the yoke. 



By this contrivance, the heads of the oxen become more steady, while 
performing their work, and these useful animals are rendered more 

In France, and on the Peninsula, oxen are worked by the head, and are 
yoked in a manner which is better expressed by the aid of figures than by 


Figure 1 represents a view of the hinder part of the head and neck of 
these animals, in the yoke as they appear to a spectator ; and figure 2 ex- 
hibits a front view of the upper parts of their heads, in order to convey a 
more accurate idea of the mode in which the French oxen are fastened 
to the bow. 

The question, u whether it is most advantageous to yoke oxen by the 
head or by the collar?'' has occasioned much discussion, and is even 
yet undetermined. The prejudice throughout Great Britain is, generally 
speaking, decidedly in favor of the collar ; but throughout Spain and 
Portugal, where oxen are the only animals employed in agricultural 
labor, whether of road or field draught, they are invariably yoked by the 
head. The strength of the animal indeed lies in his neck ; of the power 
of which the yoke affords him all the advantage ; while the collar de- 
prives him of it, as he does not draw by the shoulders. The far greater 
cost and trouble of harness than of yokes and bows, are slso considerations 
of moment ; and in summer, harness has been found an incumbrance, 
the ox requiring all the relief and liberty that can be given in hot weather. 
The advocates for the collar insist upon the advantages of single-ox-carts ; 
and of ploughing with the team at length, by which, as they walk in the 
furrow, the land is not so much subject to be poached, as when they are 
yoked abreast. They affirm also that the pace is quicker in harness ; and 
that the animal works with greater ease. But their opponents allege, 
that oxen are more advantageously worked in couples than singly ; inas- 



much as that, being nearer to the draught, they possess greater power 
over it than when drawing at length : they consider the additional ex- 
pense occasioned by a double number of one-ox-carts and drivers, as not 
counterbalanced by any advantage, even if any were admitted, in their 
use; and they deny that the animal works either quicker or with 
greater ease. 

It would be endless to detail the various comparative trials that have 
been published on this long contested subject; and it may be deemed 
sufficient to state the result of two, made some years ago, in Sussex, 
(Eng.) ; where, from oxen being extensively used, the dispute has excited 
more than common interest. 

In order to decide the respective merits of the two methods, it was 
agreed that an acre of land should be ploughed by two teams, the one of 
six oxen in double yokes, the other of four oxen in collars ; and then, 
again, with four oxen in single yokes, against four in collars. In the first 
trial, the six in yoke beat the four in collar easily ; and in the second, 
there were only three minutes difference. The work was equally well 
performed ; but the ploughing must have been very light, as the last 
match was completed in four hours and ten minutes. 

So far as this experiment may be considered decisive, it re-established 
the equality of the teams ; but had it been tried by more severe labor, 
or on hilly ground, it might have proved different ; and in steep ascents, 
more particularly, the yoke would probably have been found best adapted 
to the animal. It is a prevalent idea in England, that oxen are unfit for 
draught in hilly countries ; but a large portion of the Peninsula is moun- 
tainous, and they there draw heavy weights in carts of a very rude con- 
struction. Being worked in yokes they possess the power of preserving 
the line of draught, by lowering the head according to the inclination of 
the ground; an advantage which is lost in the application of the collar. 


The feeding and fattening of cattle, whether for labor or for sale, is 
the most important in the whole economy of the grass farm : hence the 
farmer should previously consider the nature and fertility of his pastures, 
and the extent and quality of his other resources ; and, according to these, 
he ought to regulate his system of grazing, soiling, or stall-feeding; select- 
ing, in the first instance, those beasts only which evince the most thriving 
disposition to fatten with the least consumption of food, and depasturing 
them upon such lands as are best calculated for the respective breeds ; 
and especially taking care not to bring cattle from rich to inferior soils, 
but, wherever it is practicable, to choose them from lands of nearly the 
same quality as those destined for their reception ; besides which pre- 
cautions, it will be necessary, in all situations which are not provided 
with wholesome water, to avoid selecting cattle from those districts 
where that fluid abounds in a state of purity. 

The introductory view of breeds prefixed to this work, will probably 
supply some hints for enabling the farmer to decide what sort of stock is 
calculated for peculiar situations ; in addition to those remarks, we would 
observe, generally, from the practice of the most eminent graziers, that 



the larger beasts are preferable for the more luxuriant pastures ; while, 
in such as are less rich small stock answer best. Thus, a grazier who 
has fine and fertile pastures, may select his beasts as large as he can find 
them ; provided they are of the right sort and shape. But it is requisite 
that those who are upon indifferent grass take care to proportion the 
size of their beasts to the goodness of their pastures ; for it is preferable to 
have cattle rather too small than too large, because there are numerous 
tracts of ground which will be profitable for grazing such cattle, which 
are not capable of supporting large breeds. 

With regard to the species of cattle best calculated for grazing, spayed 
heifers and oxen are certainly superior to any other stock ; the former, 
indeed, are of less frequent occurrence, though they fatten with more ex- 
pedition. Many graziers consider heifers more kindly in their disposi- 
tion to feed than steers ; particularly when they have already had a calf; 
and some are of opinion that they are superior to oxen for fatting at 
any age, and that they will produce a greater weight of beef per acre. 

In order to graze cattle to advantage, it ought to be a fundamental 
principle so to stock them that they may feed without restraint : beside 
which, as often as opportunity or other circumstances will allow, it will 
be profitable to change them from one pasture to another, beginning 
with the most inferior grass, and gradually removing them into the best. 
By this expedient, as cattle delight in variety, they will cull the upper- 
most or choicest part of the grass, and by filling themselves quickly, as 
well as by lying down much, they will rapidly advance towards a proper 
state of fatness ; while the grass which is thus left, may be fed off with 
laboring cattle, and lastly with sheep. Hence it will be advisable to have 
several enclosures, well fenced and sheltered, and abundantly supplied 
with wholesome water. 

Further; it will be of service to erect rubbing -posts in different parts of 
the various enclosures, where stock are feeding; as such posts furnish 
them, no doubt, with an agreeable, and perhaps a salutary amusement, 
besides that they keep the cattle from the fences. 

In the grazing of cattle a variety of circumstances will claim the 
farmer's attention, in order to conduct his business with regularity, or 
with profit. Hence he ought to take especial care not to turn his stock 
out into the pastures in the spring, before there is a full bite, or the grass 
has obtained a sufficient degree of length and maturity; for neat cattle, 
whose tongues chiefly enable them to collect the food neither can nor 
will bite near the ground unless they are compelled by extreme hunger, 
in which case it is obvious they cannot enjoy their feed, and consequently 
cannot thrive in proportion. 

Further : where beasts are turned into fields, consisting either of clover 
entirely, or of a mixture of natural and artificial grasses, great circum- 
spection is required to see that they do not eat so eagerly, or to such 
excess, as to become blown or hoven, an affection to which cows are more 
peculiarly liable than any other neat cattle. That disorder, however, 
may be prevented, either by feeding the animals so as to gratify the 
cravings of appetite before they are turned into the pasture, or by con- 
stantly moving them about the field for a few hours after they have been 
turned in, that the first ball at least may sink into their maw before the 
next be deposited. 

It is also important to remove fattening cattle from time to time into 



fresh grounds; so that by takitg the uppermost and choicest part of the 
grass, they may feed both expeditiously and thoroughly. The grass left 
behind them may be fed off first with laboring cattle, and afterwards 
with sheep. This last mentioned point cannot be too minutely regard- 
ed; for, if cattle be in want, they will lose more flesh in one day than they 
can possibly gain or recover in three. Hence those meadows, or pas- 
tures, (particularly such as lie in fenny or other situations,) which retain 
moisture for a long time, ought to be fed off as early as possible, lest 
sudden or long-continued rains descend, which will not only render the 
juices of the grass thin and watery, and ultimately putrescent, but which 
will also materially affect the health and constitution of the animals. 
To prevent the losses consequent on such accidents, it will therefore 
be indispensably necessary, daily and attentively to inspect the grazing 
stock ; and if any beasts appear to be affected by eating wet grass, they 
should be immediately conducted into dry shelters, and fed with hay or 
straw : though, if no shelter be conveniently at hand, they must be 
driven to the driest spot, and there supplied with sweet cut grass, and 
dry fodder. 

The hard or light stocking of pasture ground, is a point on which many 
experienced graziers are by no means agreed. By some it is contended, 
that pastures ought to be stocked very lightly ; alleging, that although 
much of the produce is thus allowed to run to seed, which the cattle will 
not eat, and which is consequently trodden under foot, where it i* rotted 
by rain, and thus wasted ; yet experience, say the advocates for light 
stocking, evinces, that a greater profit will, upon the whole, be thence 
derived than by any other practice, on account of the superior thriving 
of the animals. 

By others, on the contrary, it is maintained that the practice of light 
stocking is highly to be condemned ; because it not only tends gradually 
to diminish its produce, but also to encourage the growth of coarse and 
unprofitable grasses, which materially deteriorate the pastures ; and that 
the hard stocking of grass lands, particularly those of a rich quality, is an 
indispensable requisite of good management. 

It is recommended by a third party, (who*e opinion, perhaps, approxi- 
mates more nearly to the truth,) that mixed stock should be always kept 
on the same field ; for the foul grass produced by the dung of some 
animals, will be consumed by others ; and as it is well known that dif- 
ferent species of cattle prefer different kinds of grass, there is an evident 
advantage in this practice. 

In every field, numerous plants spontaneously spring up, some of 
which are disliked by one class of animals, while they are eaten by others ; 
and some of which plants, though eaten with avidity at a particulai 
period of their growth, are entirely rejected by the samebeasts at another 
period of their age. Hence it becomes necessary, not only to have ;i 
great variety of cattle in the same pasture, but also a very particular 
attention is required to augment or diminish the proportions of some of 
these classes of animals at certain periods of the year ; otherwise some 
part of the produce will run to waste, unless, indeed, it be hard stocked 
to such a degree as to retard their thriving. 

Where, however, a great variety of animals are allowed to go at large 
in the same pasture, they rarely feed with that tranquility which is neces- 
sary to ensure thriving. It frequently happens, that one class or sort of 

38 # FAMILY 


beasts wishes to feed or to play, while others are inclined to rest ; thus 
they mutually tease and disturb each other ; and this inconvenience is 
materially augmented, if any sort of penning, or confinement, be attempt- 
ed. Hence it is obvious, that the practice of intermixing various kinds 
of live stock, is productive of evils, which are, in many instances, greater 
than those resulting from the waste of food intended to be prevented by 
this practice. There is, indeed, no doubt but that by hard stocking, the 
grass will be kept short, and will consequently be more palatable in 
general to the animals that eat it, than if it were allowed to grow to a great 
length ; and that even unpleasant patches may thus be consumed ; but 
as animals, which are to be fattened, must not only have sweet food, but 
also an abundant bite at all times, in order to bring them forward in a 
kindly manner, it appears scarcely possible to unite both these advantages 
with an indiscriminate mixture of stock ; it may, therefore, be generally 
prudent to confine the practice to neat cattle and sheep. 

Soiling comes next to be considered. By this is meant, the feeding 
of animals with new mown grass, or grass not dried in racks or 

This method of keeping cattle is probably not generally applicable to 
the present state of agriculture in our country. It may be of use where 
fencing stuff is dear — where grass is of great value — where cultivation 
is carried to great perfection — where population treads close upon the 
heels of production. But even in the populous parts of New England, 
it is doubtful whether it can be adopted to advantage, except on lands 
in the vicinity of great cities, or on farms reduced to a state of great im- 
provement and high cultivation, or on very small farms. A large pro- 
portion of the lands of New England, and indeed in other parts of our 
country, are too rough and rocky to admit of any sort of cultivation, yet 
they answer well for pasture grounds, and to no other purpose can they 
be appropriated. 

Still, it is believed, that, under certain circumstances, soiling may be 
resorted to with great advantage. Within a few years, an experiment 
has been made by the Hon. Josiah Quincy, of Massachusetts, of soiling 
cattle, the result of which was communicated for the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural Journal, and is published in vol. VI. Nos. II. and IV. of that 
work. According to Mr. Quincy, the advantages of soiling consist in, 
" 1st. the saving of land. 2d. The saving of fencing. 3d. The econo- 
mising of food. 4th. The better condition and greater comfort of the cat- 
tle. 5th. The greater product of milk. 6th. The attainment of manure.'' 
For an illustration of these several particulars, we must refer our readers 
to the above work. 

In respect to stall-feeding neat cattle, it maybe observed, that good hay 
is undoubtedly the best for fattening cattle, when judiciously combined 
with cabbages, carrots, parsnips, turnips, or similar succulent plants, 
though hay will rarely be found capable of fattening animals, without the 
aid of other food when finishing off for the market. 

In England, great use is made of the cabbage, and which the Editors 
of the Complete Grazier say, will fatten oxen or bullocks, when com- 
bined with good hay, in the short space of five months, besides yielding 
a larger quantity of manure, than almost any other article used for 
winter feed. 

Parsnips, also, have been employed to considerable extent in England 



for fatting oxen, and the benefit thence derived in the estimation tf 
some graziers is nearly equal to that derived from oil-cake : but they are 
apt to cloy the appetite, and should therefore be given with other food ; 
or, if alone, they should net be continued for a long time together. 

Carrots, also, are an excellent root, not only for fatting cattle, but also 
for milch cows and even for working horses. The butter made from 
cows fed on carrots is said to be generally of an excellent quality, and 
much richer in color. On a good soil, and when well attended, carrot* 
are often very productive. 

Turnips, especially when steamed, also supply a nutritive article of 
winter food; though' from their peculiarly moist nature, they will proba- 
bly require to be combined with cut hay, to which a little meal may oc- 
casionally be added. In England, it is well known, turnips are much 
more abundantly used than in this country. Great numbers of cattle, 
it is said, are annually fatted for the London market on little other food 
than turnips. 

Much has been written on the Mangle wurzel, or root of scarcity, both 
in this country and in Europe. Some years since the highest expecta- 
tions were formed in Britain respecting its usefulness, as an article of 
fodder. Although highly esteemed in that couutry, especially for cows, 
it is not so much valued, perhaps, as in some parts of the continent, where 
it is preferred for feeding cattle to every other root. In this country, it i3 
now frequently raised and deserves to be cultivated still more than it is. 
In the opinion of the editors of the Complete Grazier, it does not fat cattle 
as fast as the potatoe, and some other roots. 

In this country, potatoes are extensively used for the stall feeding of 
cattle. They are generally given in a raw state, but would doubtless 
answer a better purpose if steamed. It is sometimes difficult to give 
cattle a sufficient quantity, in consequence of their causing them to scour. 
When this happens, meal or other dry food should be administered, and 
the quantity of potatoes, for the time, diminished. The editor of this 
work has known an ox of middle age to be fatted surprisingly quick. 
on hay of good quality and raw potatoes. No other article of food was 
given, and during the process of fattening not a gallon of water was 
given to the animal. 

Besides the above vegetable productions, others might be mentioned, 
such as the ruta baga, or Swedish turnip, sugar beet, &c. which are 
highly valued in many parts of the country. Passing over a more ex- 
tended notice of these, we proceed to detail a few hints respecting other 
articles which are or may be likewise employed with advantage. For 
this purpose linseed oilcake has long been celebrated as eminently use- 
ful ; it is asserted to have a very extraordinary effect on cows, greatly 
increasing their milk ; but it is said that linseed jelly is much superior to 
the cake, and that when mixed with a due proportion of hay or meal 
affords an excellent composition for stall feeding and fattening. It is pre- 
pared in the following manner: To seven parts of water let one pare of 
linseed be put, for forty-eight hours ; then boil it slowly for two hours, 
gently stirring the whole lest it should burn. Afterwards it ought to be 
cooled in tubs, and mixed with meal, bran, or cut chaff, in the proportion 
of one bushel of hay to the jelly produced by one quart of linseed, well 
mashed together. This quantity given daily, with other food, will for- 
ward cattle rapidly ; but it must be increased when they are intended to 
b« completely fattened. 



The above jelly is said to be more agreeable to cattle than cake, while 
it renders them less liable to surfeit in case an extra quantity should be 
accidentally given, and is less liable to affect the meat with a peculiar 
taste than either oil or cake, and consequently it merits a trial ; but it will 
be requisite to change this food about a month before the beast is killed, 
to prevent, if possible, the flesh from retaining the flavor of the oilcake 
or jelly. 

Cattle fed on sour food, prepared by fermenting rye flour and water into 
a kind of paste, and then diluted with water, and thickened with hay cut 
small, are also said to fatten quickly. This practice chiefly prevails in 
France. Concerning the efficacy of acid food in fattening animals, there 
is much difference of opinion. It is well known that hogs derive more 
benefit from sour milk and swill than when those articles are in a fresh 
state ; and it is highly probable, that sour articles may contribute to pro- 
mote digestion, and by facilitating the consumption of a large quantity of 
food in a stated period, consequently expedite the fattening of cattle. 
Brewer's grains are sometimes used in that state ; but distillers grains 
differ from them in having a proportion of rye frequently mixed with 
the malt, which renders them more naturally sour. But such acid 
messes can only, we conceive, be considered as preparatory to the more 
forcing and essential articles of dry food ; without which, it is scarcely 
possible that any steer, or bullock can acquire that firmness of muscle and 
fat which is so deservedly admired, and considered as the criterion of 

The wash, or refuse of malt, remaining after distillation, which was 
formerly applied exclusively to the feeding of swine, has of late years 
been applied with success to the stall feeding of cattle. It is conveyed 
from the distillery in large carts, closely covered, and well jointed, in 
order to prevent leaking. The liquor is then discharged into vats, or 
other vessels, and when these are about two-thirds filled, a quantity of 
sweet hay, previously cut small, is immersed for two or three days, that 
the wash may imbibe the taste or flavor of the hay before it is used. In 
this'state it is carried to the stalls, and poured into troughs, whence it 
is generally eagerly eaten by cattle. Sometimes, however, the beasts are 
at first averse to this mixture, in which case it has been recommended 
frequently to sprinkle their hay with the wash ; thus, having the smell 
continually before them, and seeing other animals eating the same compo- 
sition with avidity, they gradually become accustomed to it, and at length 
greatly relish it. The cattle fed in this manner, are asserted not only to 
repay the expense of their keeping by fattening speedily, but also yield 
a large quantity of valuable manure. 

With equal success has molasses or treacle been employed ; though the 
expense incurred by the use of this article will probably prevent its gene- 
ral adoption in this country. It has been used in the West Indies, in 
combination with farrinaceous substances, and, when these could not be 
procured, with cane-tops, oilcake, and other articles of dry food, together 
with a little hay, or not too green fodder, and has been found greatly to 
expedite the fattening of cattle in general, and of old and decayed oxen in 
particular ; in the proportion of half a pint to a pint of molasses, twice in 
the day, to animals which have been exhausted by continual and severe 
labor for a long series of years. 

In the preceding facts and statements we have referred chiefly to the 
feeding and fattening of middle aged and old cattle; young stock, how- 



ever, require particular attention, lest their growth be impeded — which 
no summer food can restore — and therefore should be fed on the best 
and most nutritive food the farm can supply. Hence, yearlings should 
be fed during the winter with hay, turnips, carrots, potatoes, or other 
roots : where hay cannot be obtained, good straw must be substituted, 
the proportion of roots being increased and given with attention. For 
steers and heifers two years old, the proper food is hay, if it be cheap, or 
<traw, with baits of turnips, cabbages, carrots, &c. In summer their 
food varies so little from that above specified, as to require no particular 
details on this head. 

With regard to oxen used in draught, it should be observed, that they 
ought to be well fed, and every attention bestowed, that no food be wasted, 
while they are to he kept in constant employ, particularly in the com- 
mencement of spring and in autumn, when their labor is most wanted. 

Some farmers indeed endeavor to support working oxen on straw 
alone, and the possibility of this is one great argument used in favor of 
their employment ; but "it will be generally found to injure them in a 
greater proportion than the saving in food. 

Next to a proper stock of keep for cattle, is regularity in giving them 
food. In stall feeding it is too common a practice to give a certain 
mess, or allowance, every day, without regard to any circumstance; 
the absurdity of which conduct is too obvious to be here pointed out. 
It is a fact, that a bullock, or a fattening beast will eat with a keener 
appetite on a cold day, than in warm damp weather ; hence his food 
ought to be proportioned accordingly. By giving the same quantity 
every day, the animal may be cloyed ; thus his appetite becomes im- 
paired, the food is wasted, and several days will necessarily elapse be- 
fore he can recover his natural appetite. By such delay he must fall 
away, and many weeks, perhaps months, will be required to bring him to 
his former flesh. 

Animals have been not uncommonly supposed to consume a quantity 
of food in proportion to their weight: but this is purely theoretical; for 
in fact, various experiments have proved that although small cattle may 
be supported on pastures that will not carry heavy beasts, and also on 
more indifferent soiling food, yet, when put up to fatten the difference is 
of no account in proportion to their weight ; though cattle of the same 
weight and breed will sometimes consume different quantities. 

But whatever articles of food may be given, they ought to be appor- 
tioned with as much regard to regularity of time and quantity as is practi- 
cable ; and if any small part be at any time left unconsumed, it should 
be removed before the next feed is given, otherwise the beast will loath it. 
Hence three periods of the day, as nearly equidistant as possible, should 
be selected, when such an allowance should be given to each animal as 
he can eat with a good appetite ; which point can be regulated best by 
attending duly to the state of the weather, or season, and the progress 
he makes in flesh ; for as he fattens, his appetite will become more deli- 
cate, and he will require more frequent feeding, in smaller quantities ; 
thus the beast will improve progressively and uniformly, while a trifling 
loss of food only can occur by this method. 

Of equal if not superior importance with regularity in feeding, is 
cleanliness, a regard to which is admitted, by all intelligent breeders, to 
be one of the most essential requisites to the prosperity of cattle. Tht 




mangers snd stalls should be kept as clean as possible ; and the former 
especially should be cleared every morning from dust and filth ; other- 
wise they acquire a sour and offensive smell from the decay of vegetable 
matter left in them ; which nauseates the cattle and prevents their feed- 
ing. After the stalls have been cleansed by constantly removing the 
dung and sweeping the pavement, a sufficient quantity of fresh litter 
ought to be strewed over, which will invite them to lie down ; for nothing 
contributes more to expedite the fattening of cattle than moderate warmth, 
ease, and repose. In fact, where straw can be obtained at a moderate 
price, supposing the farm does not yield an adequate supply for thw 
purpose, the stalls and farm yards ought always to be well littered, espe- 
cially during the winter season. 

The quantity of manure thus made is an essential object; for it has 
been found that forty-five oxen, littered, while fatting, with twenty wag- 
gon loads of stuble, have made two hundred loads, each three tons, of rotten 
dung. Every load of hay and litter, given to beasts fatting on oil-cake, 
yields seven loads of dung, of one ton and a half each, exclusive of the 
"weight of the cake. And on comparing the dung obtained by feeding 
with oil-cake with that of the common farm-yard, it has been found that 
the effects produced by spreading twelve loads of the former on an acre, 
considerably exceeded those of twenty-four loads of the latter manure. 
It is, in fact, invariably found that the value of the manure is in pro- 
portion to the nutriment contained in the aliment. By another trial it 
appears, that thirty-six cows and four horses, when tied up, ate fifty tons 
of hay, and had twenty acres of straw for litter; they made two hundred 
loadsof dung, in rotten order for the land : — a difference in weight which 
is accounted for by the absorption of moisture by straw. 




We have already had occasion to remark, that the farmer should take 
especial care to select his stock with reference to the great object he has 
in view. This is eminently true in respect to the particular branch of 
dairying, which he means to pursue; for if his object be to sell or suckle 
calves, quantity must be the material consideration ; and quality, if he 
means to produce butter and cheese. 

It is a general observation that the richest milk is produced by the red 
cow, while the black sort is reckoned best for the purpose of breeding, as 
her calf is usually both stronger and more healthy than the offspring of 
the red species. This, however, is one of those errors which have been 
transmitted, through a long series of years, without being founded on 
fact. The red cows have, indeed, been long celebrated for the excellen- 
cy of their milk ; and the calves of black cows have been proverbially 



deemed good ; but color in this respect is a matter of no moment ; the 
breed alone should claim the farmer's attention. But cows even of the 
same, and of the best breeds, will not always yield the same quantity of 
milk ; and of those which yield the most, it is not unfrequently deficient 
in richness. Trials, are, however, easily made, by keeping the 
cows on the same food, weighing the quantity consumed by each, and 
measuring their milk ; then keeping and churning it, a few times, sepa- 
rately : thus, reckoning the cost of the provender, and the produce of 
the milk of each, and comparing the result, it will be soon discovered 
which is the most profitable animal. Comparisons of this kind are not 
often made ; for farmers usually purchase whatever stock they can most 
conveniently, or most cheaply, lay their hands on ; and are then content 
to keep them so long as they turn out tolerably well. This, however, is 
the height of bad economy; for an indifferent cow will eat as much and 
require as much attendance as the best ; and thus occasions a daily loss, 
that will soon exceed any probable saving in the original price ; whereas 
the man who takes the pains to acquire a good stock, and has the sense 
to keep it, lays the sure foundation of a fortune. 

Whatever breed may be selected, there is still a material distinction to 
be observed between the form of a cow, intended for the dairy, and that 
of one intended for fatting. While the latter should possess, as nearly 
as possible, all the most remarkable points, already described, of the best 
oxen, the milch cow should, on the contrary, be thin and hollow in the 
neck ; narrow in the breast and point of the shoulder, and altogether 
light in the fore quarter ; with little dewlap, and neither full fleshed along 
the chine, nor shewing, in any part, much indication of a disposition in 
any part to put on fat. The hide should be thin, the hair fine, and the tail 
small. But especially the udder should be full and round, yet thin to the 
touch, and should be of equal size and substance throughout. If it shews 
more behind than before, it is deemed a sign of the milk falling off* soon 
after calving, and if it feel coarse and lumpy, the bag will be found not 
to contain a large quantity. The teats should stand square, at equal dis- 
tances, and should be neither very large nor very thick towards the 
udder, but nearly equal, yet ending in a point. Another very material 
consideration is the temper; for kindly cows will not only give less 
trouble than those of an opposite disposition, but they are generally 
marked to possess a greater quantity of milk ; and from parting with it 
more readily, they are less subject to fall off in their milking. 

As the nature of the grass, or other vegetables, has a very considerable 
influence both on the quality and on the quantity of milk which cows 
produce, the attention of the industrious farmer will, of course, be direct- 
ed to this point; for, as instances have occurred, where six milch kine, 
fed on some pastures, have yielded as much milk as nine, or even a dozen 
will afford on an inferior ground, it is obviously his interest to have his 
«ows well fed and in good condition, rather than to keep up a particular 
number, without heeding whether they are properly supplied or not. 
Hence, it will be proper to suit the milch cows to the nature and fertility 
of the soil ; and on no account to purchase them from pastures superior 
to those destined for their reception. 

The feeding of milch kine is divided into two branches, viz. pasturing 
and Itouse-feeding. 

In order to obtain an abundant supply of good milk, where the pastur- 
ing of cows is adopted, they ought uniformly to be well fed ; for this 



purpose, grass growing spontaneously on good, sound meadow land is, 
in general deemed the most proper food. Another requisite is, that the 
grass be plentifully produced, and of that quality which is relished by the 
cattle. This property will generally be found in old natural pastures that 
have been properly managed. 

Long, rank grass, growing in orchards or other places, in general feeds 
well, and produces a flush of milk, yet such milk will neither be so rich, 
nor carry so much cream in proportion, as the milk of those cows which 
are fed upon short fine grass ; nor, of course, will their butter be so good. 

Further, the quality and quantity of milk is materially affected by driv- 
ing them to a distance from one pasture to another ; hence it will be proper 
to have the cow sheds in as central a part of the farm as possible. It is 
also of essential importance to have pastures inclosed, as the produce of 
milch kine will be greatly improved, or deteriorated, according to the 
attention or disregard bestowed on this point ; for, when confined within 
proper inclosures they not only feed more leisurely but are also less liable 
to disturbance than when they wander into other fields. 

In summer, milch cows need less care ; but in winter, they should be 
stabled, or at least should have warm sheltered yards, furnished with open 
sheds, in which they can feed without exposure to the severities of the 
weather; a measure, of which the expense will be more than counter- 
balanced by the increased quantity of milk, which they will yield. 

In the management of milch kine, it is essential that they be, at all times, 
as has been observed in the preceding page, kept in high health and 
good condition ; for if they are suffered to fall in flesh during the winter, 
it will be impossible to expect an abundant supply of milk by bringing 
them into a high condition in the summer. Hence, if cows are lean when 
calving, no subsequent management can bring them to yield, for that sea- 
son, any thing like the quantity they would have furnished, in case they 
had been well kept throughout the winter. During that inclement season, 
therefore, the most nutritious food should be provided for them, and the 
animals kept in warm stables; for beasts will jKrt eat so much when kept 
warm, as when they are shivering with cold; and if they are curried in the 
same manner, and kept cleanly as horses in a stable, the happiest conse- 
quences will ensue, both in regard to the milk they yield, and the rapid 
improvement of the cows themselves. Such is the practice pursued in 
Holland, where it is well known that the management of cows is carried 
to the highest perfection ; and if that be closely followed, if they be well 
supplied with the purest water, kept very clean, and laid dry, they will 
produce milk more copiously, and afford a quantity of rich manure that will 
amply repay the trouble and attention thus bestowed on them. 

It has already been intimated that the best summer food for cows is good 
grass, spontaneously growing on sound meadows. The other additions to 
hay for winter food are those most commonly employed for fatting cattle : 
parsnips and carrots, which roots not only render the milk richer, but also 
communicate to the butter made from such milk, a fine color, equal to that 
produced by the most luxuriant grasses: — the mangel-umrzel, which, on 
the continent, is preferred to every other vegetable for feeding cattle in 
general : — potatoes, on which cows will thrive well, so that with one bushel 
of these roots, together with soft meadow-hay, they have been known to 
yield as large a quantity of sweet milk, or butter, as they usually afford 
when fed on the finest pastures; but alone, it has been proved by various 



experiments that potatoes will not support a cow in milk ; they may add 
to the flow of it when given to a cow with hay, but the chief dependence 
must be upon the latter ; carrots are far superior. Cabbages are likewise 
of eminent service in this respect, but they require to be given with a good 
portion of fine hay ; and as well as turnips, the utility of which is too well 
known to require any particular detail here ; they are apt to impart an un- 
pleasant flavor to butter, unless great care be taken to remove allthedecav- 
ed leaves. And even then if a cow be in any wise full fed on turnips, her 
milk, and the butter made from it will taste of it. To avoid this taste in 
the butter, the following receipe from Hunter's Georgical Essays may be 
found useful. — " Let the vessels in which the milk is put, be kept con- 
stantly clean and well scalded with boiling water before using. When 
the milk ifl brought into the dairy, to every eight quarts of milk, mix one 
quart of boiling icater: then put up the milk into the pans to stand for 
cream." — Roiccn grass, also, dried and reserved for winter's use. is an ex- 
cellent food for milch cows; as are oil-cake, linseed-jelly, and grains. By 
the judicious use of these various articles, together with a due admixture 
of dry food, considerable nutriment is thrown into the system, while the 
regular secretions will be excited, and the quality of the milk very materi- 
ally improved. 

It is important, also, that due attention should be paid to the salting of 
cows, as well as other cattle. The advantages of salt, are 

I. It restores the tone of the stomach when impaired by excess in other 
food, and corrects the crudity of moist vegetables and grasses in a green 

II. It helps digestion, keeps the body cool, by which many disorders 
are prevented; and it destroys botts. 

III. It renders inferior food palateable ; and is so much relished by 
cattle, that they seek it with eagerness in whatever state it may be found, 
and have been rendered so tame by its use, that if they stray from their 
pastures, they will return at the usual time for their accustomed allowance. 

IV. When given to cows, it increases the quantity of their milk, and 
lias a material effect in correcting the disagreeable taste it acquires from 


Before speaking of th.2 management of milk and cream, it will be proper 
to make a few observations on the Situation, and Buildings proper for a 

I. A dairy ought if possible to be so arranged, that its lattices may never 
front the south, south west, south east, or west; — a northern aspect is the 
best ; but there should be openings on two sides of the building, in order to 
admit, when necessary, a free current of air. 

II. The temperature of the milk-room, should be as nearly uniform a* 
possible, that is from fifty to fifty-five degrees of Farenheit's thermometer. 
This may be effected by making use either of a well ventilated cellar, or, 
of a house constructed for the purpose, consisting of double walls, so thick 
as not to subject the interior to the changes of temperature abroad. 



III. As great cleanliness is requisite, and at the same time coolness, the 
floor should be made of stones, bricks, or tiles, in order that it may be fre- 
quently washed, both to sweeten and to cool the air. 

IV. If practicable, a small current of water should be so introduced as 
to run in a constant stream along the pavement. This will contribute 
much to preserve the air, pure, fresh, and cool. If a current of water 
cannot be obtained an ice-house should be attached to the dairy. 

V. Cream which is put by for churning ought never to be kept in that 
apartment, which contains the milk ; because acidity in cream is expected, 
and necessary before butter will come. 

VI. If necessary at any time during the winter months to raise the tem- 
perature of the milk room, hot water should be made use of, or a few hot 
bricks ; but on no account whatever, should a chafing dish with burning 
coals be used, as it will certainly impart a bad taste to the milk. 

We shall now proceed to speak of the management of milk and cream, 
and the making and preserving or butter. 

In this country, it is the general practice to milk cows twice in the 
course of twenty-four hours, throughout the year ; but in summer the 
proper periods are, at kast three times every day, and at intervals as 
nearly equidistant as possible ; viz. in the morning, at noon, and a little 
before the approach of night. For it is a fact, confirmed by the experi- 
ence of those who have tried it, that cows, when milked thrice in the day 
will yield more milk in point of quantity, and as good, If not better quali- 
ty, than they will under the common mode of milking only on the morn- 
ing and evening. 

With regard to the process of making butter we would observe : 

I. The milk first drawn from a cow is always thinner, and inferior in 
quality to that afterwards obtained, and this richness increases progress- 
ively to the very last drop that can be drawn from the udder. 

II. The portion of cream rising first to the surface, is richer in point 
of quality, and greater in quantity, than that which rises in the second 
equal space of time, and so of the rest ; the cream continually decreas- 
ing, and growing worse than the preceding. 

III. Thick milk produces a smaller proportion of cream than that 
which is thinner, though the cream of the former is of a richer quality. 
If thick milk, therefore, be diluted with water, it will afford more cream 
than it would have yielded in its pure state, though its quality will at the 
same time be inferior. 

IV. Milk carried about in pails, or other vessels, agitated and partly 
cooled before it be poured into the milk pans, never throws up such 
good and plentiful cream as if it had been put into proper vessels im- 
mediately after it came from the cow. 

From these fundamental facts, many very important corollaries serv- 
ing to direct the practice, may be deduced, among which we can only 
notice the following : 

I. It is evidently of much importance, that the cows should be always 
milked as near the dairy as possible, to prevent the necessity of carrying 
and cooling the milk before it be put into the dishes ; and as cows are 
much hurt by far driving, it must be a great advantage in a dairy farm 
to have the principal grass fields^as near the dairy or homestead as pos- 
sible. In this point of view, also, the practice of feeding cows in the 



house, rather than turning them out to pasture in the field, must appear 
to be obviously beneficial. 

II. The practice of putting the milk of all the cows of a large dairy 
into one vessel, as it is milked, there to remain till the whole milking 
be finished, before any part is put into the milk pans, seems to be highly 
injudicious, not only on account of the loss sustained by the agitation 
and cooling; but also, and more especially, because it prevents the own- 
er of the dairy from distinguishing the good from the bad cow's milk, 
no as to enlighten his judgment respecting the profit that he may derive 
from each. Without this precaution, he may have the whole of his dairy • 
produce greatly debased by the milk of one bad cow, for years together, 
without being able to disover it. A better practice, therefore, would be, 
to have the milk drawn from each cow separately, put into the creaming- 
pans as soon as milked, without being ever mixed with any other; 
and if these pans were all made of such a size as to be able to contain 
the whole of one cow's milk, each in a separate pan, the careful dairy wo- 
man would thus be able to remark, without any trouble, the quantity of 
milk afforded by each cow every day, as well as the peculiar qualities 
of the cow's milk. And if the same cow's milk were always to be pla- 
ced on the same part of the shelf, having the cow's name written beneath, 
there never could be the smallest difficulty in ascertaining which of the 
cows it would be the owner's interest to dispose of, and which he ought 
to keep and breed from. 

A small quantity of clear water, cold in summer, and warm in winter, 
put into the bottom of the milk-pan, is said to assist the rising of the 

III. If it be intended to make butter of a very fine quality, it will be 
advisable, not only to reject entirely the milk of all those cows which 
yield cream of a bad quality, but also, in every case, to keep the milk 
that is first drawn from the cow, at each milking, entirely separate from 
that which is got last; as it is obvious, if this be not done, the quality 
of the butter must be greatly debased, without much augmenting its 
quantity. It is also obvious, that the quality of the butter will be im- 
proved in proportion to the smallness of the quantity of the last drawn 
milk which is used, as it increases in richness to the very last drop that 
can be drawn from the udder at that time ; so that those who wish to 
be singularly nice, will do well to keep for their best butter a very small 
proportion only of the last-drawn milk. 

With respect to the operation of churning, we would particularly re- 
mark, that it ought to be regularly continued, till the butter is come, or 
formed ; nor, unless from absolute and irremediable necessity, should 
any assistant be allowed to churn; because, if the motion be, in summer, 
too quick, the butter will in consequence ferment and become ill-tasted ; 
and, in winter, it will go back. The business of churning may, however, 
be much facilitated, by immersing the pump-churn (if such be employed) 
about one foot deep into a vessel of cold water, and continuing it there 
till the butter is made. Where other churns are made use of, the addi- 
tion of one or two table-spoonsful of distilled vinegar, after the cream 
has been considerably agitated, will, it is said, produce butter in the 
course of an hour. After the butter is formed, the usual practice is to 
wash it in several waters till all the milk is removed ; but some advise 
the milk to be forced out of the cavities of the butter by means of a flat, 
wooden ladle, furnished with a short handle, at the same time agitating 



the butter as little as possible, lest it become tough and gluey. The beat- \ 
ing of butter up by the hand is an indelicate practice ; and, as it is ! 
hurtful to the quality of the butter to pour cold water on it during 
this operation, the butter, if too soft to receive the impression of the 
mould, may be put into small vessels, and these be permitted to float 
in a trough of cold water beneath the table, without wetting the butler, 
which will soon become sufficiently firm. Or, when butter is first 
made, after as much of the milk has been got out as possible, it may be 
thinly spread on a marble slab, and the remaining moisture be absorbed 
by patting it with clean dry towels. 

Dr. Anderson observes that wooden vessels are most proper for con- 
taining salted butter. Oak is said to be the best kind of wood. Iron 
hoops should not be used, as the rust of them will sink through the wood 
and injure the butter. It is difficult to season new vessels, and there- 
fore it is best to use old ones as long as they will last. Unslacked lime, 
salt and water well boiled, hot water, and wood ashes, are recommend- 
ed for scouring them. The vessels having been repeatedly scrubbed, 
with some or all of these, should afterwards be thrown into cold water 
to remain three or four days, or till wanted. They should then be 
scrubbed as before, and well rinsed with cold water, and before the 
butter is put in, every part of the inside should be well rubbed with 

Dr. Andersons famous recipe for preserving butter has been often 
published, but it may not be amiss to give it again, as things of the 
greatest utility are a long time in making their way to general adoption. 
" Best common salt, two parts; saltpetre, one part; sugar, one part — 
beat them up together, so that they may be completely blended. To 
every pound or sixteen ounces of butter add one ounce of the compo- 
sition. Mix it well in the mass, and close it up for use." Butter pre- 
pared in this manner will keep for years, and cannot be distinguished 
from that recently salted. It should however be remarked, that butter 
.thus cured does not taste well till it has stood a fortnight or three weeks. 
Dr. Anderson remarks, that he has found by experience, that the above 
mentioned composition not only preserves the butter more effectually 
from any taint of rancidity, but makes it also look better, taste sweeter, 
richer and more marrowy, than if it had been cured with common salt 

A writer in the New England Farmer proposes an alteration, which 
he considers an improvement in the above recipe of Dr. Anderson, 
namely, that the sugar made use of should be loaf sugar, and that the 
salt should be well dried before weighing it. 

When butter is put into firkins, or other vessels for preservation, it 
should be so closely packed and crowded, that no air can come in con- 
tact with it. The butter should be carefully covered with a piece of 
fine cloth, previously dipped in melted sweet butter. When more is 
put into the tub, take up the cloth ; and after that is well crowded in, 
and levelled, put on the cloth again, so nicely as to shut out the air. 
When the tub is filled in this manner, pour a little melted butter over the 
surface to fill up every vacuity, before the top is put on. 

" For keeping butter sweet that is salted in the usual way," says the 
Farmer's Guide, " it should be salted with an ounce and a half more of 
the strongest and best salt, finely powdered, to each pound, and so tho- 
roughly mixed that every part may be equally salt ; made into rolls, and 



then put into a cask of pure strong brine ; and for keeping the rolls com- 
pletely immersed in this liquid, there should be a cover, suitable to the 
dimensions of the inside of the cask, to be laid on the rolls, and sunk 
beneath the surface of the brine by a weight, which may be a block of 
wood, fastened to the cover, that will sink only to a given depth. The 
brine does not penetrate the butter so as to give out any additional salt- 
ness. For clarifying the brine, it should occasionally be scalded, the 
scum taken off, and more salt added if necessary. Butter made in May 
is observed to be best for keeping. 


The goodness of cheese, as well as of butter, depends much on the 
quality of the milk : though the season, and particular process adopted 
in making it, also, have a very considerable influence upon it in this 
respect — more, perhaps, than the material of which it is prepared. We 
shall, therefore, briefly notice these circumstances ; and, as different 
modes of making cheese are practised in different countries or places, 
we shall then concisely state those which are more particularly deserving 
of notice. 

The best season for this purpose is from the commencement of May 
till the close of September ; or, under favorable circumstances, till the 
middle of October ; during which interval cows are, or can in general, 
be pastured. In many large dairies, indeed, cheese is often manufac- 
tured all the year round ; but the winter cheeses are much inferior in 
quality to those made during the summer months ; though there is no 
doubt but that good cheese may be made throughout the year, provided 
the cows be well fed in the winter. 

With regard to the rennet, as no good cheese can be made without it, 
great attention is necessary in preparing it for coagulating the milk. 
Strictly speaking, rennet is the coagulated lacteous matter, or substance, 
found in the stomach or maws of calves that have been fed only with 
milk, and which was formerly used in coagulating milk ; though it is, 
in a more extensive sense, applied to the bait, veil, maw, or stomach, as 
it is variously termed, which possesses the same properties ; and which 
is now invariably used for that purpose. 

Dairy women usually preserve the maw, and the curd contained in it, 
after salting them, and then, by steeping this bag and curd, make a ren- 
net, to turn their milk for making cheese. But a more simple method, 
and which is equally good in every respect, is to throw away the curd, 
and, after steeping it in pickle, stretch out the maw upon a slender bow 
inserted into it, which will soon be very dry, and keep well for a long 
time. Take an inch or two of the maw thus dried, and steep it over 
night in a few spoonsfull of warm water, which water serves full as well 
as if the curd had been preserved for turning the milk. It is said, that 
one inch will serve for the milk of five cows. 

An ingenious writer, who has made strict inquiry into this subject, 
recommends the following method of preparing a rennet, which he has 
found to be better than any other : " Throw away the natural curd, 
which is apt to taint and give the bag a bad smell ; then make an artifi- 



cial curd, or rather butter, of new cream, of sufficient quantity to fill the 
bag. Add three new laid eggs well beaten, one nutmeg grated fine, or 
any other good spice ; mix them well together, with three teacups full of 
fine salt ; fill the rennet-bag with this substance, tie up the mouth, lay it 
under a strong brine for three days, turning it over daily. Then hang it 
up in a cool and dry place for six weeks, and it will be fit for use. When 
it is used, take with a spoon out of the bag a sufficient quantity of this 
artificial butyrous curd for the cheese you propose to make, dissolve it 
in a small quantity of warm water, and then use it in the same manner 
as other rennet is, mixed with the milk for its coagulation." 

In the Bath papers, Mr. Hazard gives the following recipe for mak- 
ing rennet: "When the raw skin is well prepared and fit for the pur- 
pose, three pints of soft water, clean and sweet, should be mixed with 
salt, wherein should be put sweet briar, rose leaves and flowers, cinna- 
mon, mace, cloves, and almost every sort of spice ; and if these are put 
into two quarts of water, they must boil gently, till the liquor is reduced 
to three pints, and care should be taken that this liquor is not smoked. 
It should be strained clear from the spices, &c. and when found to be 
not warmer than milk from the cow, it should be poured upon the 
cawl or maw ; a lemon might be sliced into it, where it may remain a 
day or two ; after which it should be strained again and put into a bot- 
tle, where if well corked, it will keep good for twelve months. It will 
smell like a perfume, and a small quantity of it will turn the milk, and 
give the cheese a pleasing flavor." He adds, " If the maw be salted 
and dried for a week or two near the fire, it will do for the purpose 
again, almost as well as before." 

Another recipe is as follows : after the maw has been well cleansed, 
and salted, and dried upon sticks or splints, take boiled water, two 
quarts, made into a brine that will bear an egg. Let it be blood warm, 
and put in the maw either cut or whole : let it steep twenty-four hours, 
and it will be fit for use. About a tea-cup full will turn the milk often 
cows. It should be kept in glass bottles well corked. 

The Massachusetts Agricultural Repository gives still another recipe 
for making rennet, which is as follows. The rennet is prepared by 
taking some whey and salting it till it will bear an egg ; it is then suf- 
fered to stand over night, and in the morning it is skimmed and racked 
off clear ; to this is added an equal quantity of water briue, strong as the 
whey, and into this mixture, some sweet brier, thyme, or other sweet 
herbs, also a little black pepper and salt petre ; the herbs are kept in the 
brine three or four days, after which it is decanted clear from them. 
Into six quarts of this liquor four large calves' bags, or more properly 
called calves' stomachs are put. No part of the preparation is heated, 
and frequently the calves' bags are only steeped in cold salt and water. 
But whatever kind of rennet the dairy-woman may choose to prepare, 
it should be remembered, that this animal acid is extremely apt to be- 
come rancid and putrescent, and that great care is necessary to apply a 
sufficient quantity of salt to preserve it in its best state. The rank and 
disagreeable taste too frequently found, is often caused by the rennets 
having been badly preserved. 

In respect to the process of making cheese, the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural Repository gives the following directions. 

The milk is universally set for cheese as soon as it comes from the 



cow. The management of the curd depends on the kind of cheese ; 
thin cheese requires the least labor and attention. 

Breaking the curd is done with the hand and dish. The finer the 
curd is broken the better, particularly in thick cheeses. The best color 
of this kind of cheese is that of beeswax, which is produced by annotta, 
rubbed into the milk after it is warmed. The dairy-woman is to judge 
of the quality by the color of the milk, as it differs much in strength. 
Turning the milk differs in different dairies ; no two dairy-w r omen con- 
duct exactly alike. 

Setting the milk too hot inclines the cheese to heave, and cooling it 
with cold water produces a similar effect. The degree of heat varies 
according to the weather. The curd, when formed, is broken with what 
is called a tripple cheese knife. The use of this is to keep the fat in the 
cheese ; it is drawn the depth of the curd two or three times across the 
tub, to give the whey an opportunity of running off clear ; after a few 
minutes, the knife is more freely used, and the curd is cut into small 
pieces like chequers, and is broken fine in the whey with the hand and 
a wooden dish. The curd being allowed about half an hour to settle, 
the whey is laded off with the dish, after it is pretty well separated from 
the curd. 

It is almost an invariable practice to scald the curd. The mass is 
first broken very fine, and then the scalding whey is added to it, and 
stirred a few minutes ; some make use of hot water in preference to 
whey, and in both cases heated according to the nature of the curd ; 
if it is soft, the whey or water is used nearly boiling ; but if hard, it is 
only used a little hotter than the hand. After the curd is thoroughly 
mixed with the hot stuff, it is suffered to stand a few minutes to settle, 
and i3 then separated, as at the first operation. After the scalding 
liquor is separated, a vat, or what is often called a cheese hoop, is laid 
across the cheese ladder over the tub, and the curd i3 crumbled into it 
with the hands, and pressed into the vat, to squeeze out the whey. The 
vat being filled as full and as firmly as the hand alone can fill it, and 
rounded up in the middle, a cheese cloth is spread over it, and the curd 
is turned out of the hoop into the cloth ; the vat is then washed, and 
the inverted mass of curd with the cloth under it, is returned into the 
vat and put into the press ; after standing two or three hours in the 
press, the vat is taken out, and the cloth is taken off, washed, and put 
round the cheese and replaced in the vat and in the press. In about 
seven or eight hours it is taken out of the press and salted, the cheese i3 
placed on a board, and a handful of salt rubbed all over it, and the edges 
are pared off if necessary; another handful of sale is strewed on the 
upper side, and as much left as will stick to it ; afterwards, it is turned 
into the bare vat without a cloth, and au equal quantity of salt is added 
to it, and the cheese is returned into the press. Here it continues one 
night ; and the next morning it is turned in the vat, and continues till 
the succeeding morning, and the curd is taken out and placed on the 
dairy shelf; here they are turned every day, or every other day, as the 
weather may be. If it is hot and dry, the windows and door are kept 
shut : but, if wet or moist, the door and windows are kept open night 
and day. 

Cleaning the Cheese. — The cheeses having remained about ten days 
after leaving the press, are to be w r ashed and scraped in the following 
manner ; a large tub of cold sweet whey is placed on the floor, the 



cheeses are immersed in it, where they continue one hour, or longer, if 
necessary to soften the rind. They are then taken out and scraped 
with a common case knife, with great care, so as not to injure the ten- 
der rind, till every part of the cheese is smooth ; they are after the last 
operation rinsed in the whey and wiped clean, with a coarse cloth, and 
placed in an airy situation to dry, after which they are placed in the 
cheese room. 

The floor of the cheese room is generally prepared by rubbing it with 
bean or potatoe tops, or any succulent herb, till it appears of a black 
wet color ; on this floor the cheeses are placed, and turned twice a week, 
their edges are wiped hard with a cloth once a week, and the floor is 
cleansed and rubbed with fresh herbs once a fortnight. They must not 
lie too long or they will stick to the floor. This preparation of the floor 
gives the cheese a blue coat, which is considered of great consequence. 

Skippers in Cheese. — Wrap the cheese in thin brown paper, so thin 
the moisture may strike through soon — dig a hole in good sweet earth 
about two feet deep, in which the cheese must be buried about 36 
hours, and the skippers will be found all on the outside of the cheese ; 
brush them off immediately, and you will find your cheese sound and 

To prevent Cheese having a rancid nauseous flavor. — Put about one 
table-spoonful of salt to each gallon of milk, when taken from the cows 
in the evening, for the cheese to be made the next day : put the salt at 
the bottom of the vessel that is to receive the milk ; it will increase the 
curd, and prevent the milk from growing sour or putrid the hottest 
nights in the summer. 




Although the native country of the horse cannot with certainty be 
traced, it seems probable that he was first domesticated in Egypt, but 
the precise period it is difficult to settle. 1920 years before the birth of 
Christ, when Abraham, having left Haran, in obedience to the divine 
command, was driven into Egypt by the famine, which raged in Canaan, 
(Gen. xii. 16.) Pharaoh ottered him sheep and oxen, and asses and 
camels. Horses would doubtless have been added, had they then exist- 
ed, or had they been subdued in Egypt. 

When fifty years afterwards, Abraham journied to Mount Moriah, 
to offer up his only son, he rode upon an ass ; which, with all his wealth 
and power, he would scarcely have done had the horse been known. 
Gen. xxii. 3. 

Thirty years later, when Jacob returned to Isaac with Rachael and 
Leah, an account is given, Gen. xxii. 14. of the number of oxen, sheep, 
camels, goats, and asses, which he sent to appease the anger of Esau, 
but not one horse is mentioned. 



It was not until twenty-four years after this, when the famine devas- 
tated Canaan, and Jacob sent into Egypt to buy corn, that horses are 
first heard of. " Waggons," probably carriages drawn by horses, were 
sent by Joseph into Canaan to bring his father to Egypt. It would 
seem, however, that horses had been but lately introduced, or not used 
as beasts of burden ; for the whole of the corn, which was to be convey- 
ed some hundred miles, and was to afford sustenance for Jacob's large 
household, was carried on asses. Gen. xiv. 19. 

About the year 1740, before Christ, is the period when horses appear 
to have been used first in Egypt. They appear, however, to have rap- 
idly increased and spread abroad ; for when the Israelites returned into 
Canaan, the Canaanites went out to fight against Israel with chariots and 
horsemen very many. 

The sacred volume seems therefore to decide the important point, 
that the first domestication of the horse was in Egypt. Another point 
also, it decides, that x \rabia by whose breed of horses those of other 
countries have been so much improved, was not the native place of the 
horse. 600 years after the time just referred to, Arabia had no horses. 
.Solomon imported silver, gold ; and spices from Arabia, 2 Chron. ix. 14, 
but all the horses for his own cavalry and chariots he procured from 
Egypt. 2 Chron. i. 17. In this place, it is mentioned that a horse 
brought from Egypt cost 150 shekels of silver, which at two shillings 
threepence, and one half farthing each, amount to about £ 17,2s. ster- 
ling, an enormous price for those days. 

The horses of Arabia itself, and of the southeastern parts of Europe 
are clearly derived from Egypt ; but whether they were there brad or 
imported from the southwestern regions of Asia, or, as is more proba- 
ble, brought from the interior or northern coasts of Africa, cannot with 
certainty be determined. 


It has been stated in the preceding section, that the earliest records of 
the horse trace him to Egypt, as the country where he was domesticat- 
ed ; but as it is probable that he was derived from the neighbouring and 
interior districts of Africa, in giving an account of the most celebrated 
and useful breeds of different countries, it is natural to begin with those 
of Africa. 

Barb. At the head of the African breeds, and, perhaps, at the head 
of all other breeds, may be placed the Barb from Barbary, and particu- 
larly from Morocco and Fez, an animal remarkable for its fine and 
graceful action. It is rather lower than the Arabian, seldom exceeding 
fourteen hands and an inch. The shoulders are flat, the chest round, 
the joints inclined to be long, and the head particularly beautiful. The 
Barb is decidedly superior to the Arab in form, but has not his spirit, or 
speed or countenance. 

The Barb has chiefly contributed to the excellence of the Spanish 
horse ; and, when the improvement of the breed of horses began to be 
systematically pursued in Great Britain, the Barb was very early intro- 
duced. The Godolphin Arabian, as he is called, of whom we here pre* 





sent our readers with a cut, and who was the origin of some of the best 
English racing blood, was a Barb ; and others of their most celebrated 
turf-horses, trace their descent from African mares. 

The Godolphin Arabian, 

As to the manner in which the above horse was introduced into Eng- 
land, different accounts have been given. x\ccording to one writer,* 

his introduction was by means of a Col. Coke, an Englishman of for- 
tune and education, who on account of several crimes was obliged to 
flee from England, and during his absence, travelled into Syria, and 
thence into Arabia. 

In this latter country, he accidentally heard of the above horse, which 
it was stated, belonged to a certain " Sheik." He visited the Sheik, 
but was unable to purchase him, on account of the great value put upon 
him. He contrived, however, to steal him — made his escape — reached 
Damietta, a seaport near the mouth of the Nile, whence he sailed with 
the horse, and took up his residence in France, until he could appear in 
England, and be restored to his family. 

The Earl of Godolphin was, at this time, prime minister of England. 
To him Coke addressed several letters, but his Lordship paid no atten- 
tion to them. — At length, by some means, Coke discovered that his Lord- 
ship at that season of the year, was afflicted with the gout ; and daily 
took an airing in his carriage in Hyde Park, London — he wrote to his 
Lordship, that at a particular time, and place, in said Park, he would 
see a man, (describing his stature and dress, riding a beautiful brown 
horse, which he also described, having his off heel behind white,) who 
had no designs whatever on his person, but on the contrary a great 
friendship for him, who wished to have an interview with him, and that 
when his Lordship in his next ride saw him, he the said Coke, would 
take it as a particular favor, if his Lordship would direct his outriders to 
withdraw, so that the interview as aforesaid might be effected. 

* American Farmer, vol. 9. p. 134. 



The next day Lord Godolphin took his usual jaunt — at the place and 
time appointed he saw Col. Coke, who, after the withdrawal of the out- 
riders, rode up to his Lordship's carriage, and after making his obeisance 
asked him respecting the receipt of his former letters ; his Lordship an- 
swered in the affirmative. 

Col. Coke immediately dismounted, and made his Lordship another 
low bow, and in a very condescending manner told him, that from 
hearing of his Lordships very great partiality for being possessed of the 
finest horses in the kingdom, he, after travelling several years in Arabia, 
had brought over the very finest and best bred horse in the whole world, 
as a present for him. 

Lord Godolphin very politely refused the present, alleging that it 
would be entirely inconsistent with his dignity and station, to accept of 
so very valuable a present, (which must have cost an immense sum to 
procure,) from an entire stranger. 

His Lordship, after a minute inspection of the horse, pronounced him 
to be the very finest and best looking Arabian horse, he ever saw, or had 
been brought into England, and if Col. Coke, as he styled himself, at 
that time, would part with the horse, he would give him a blank check 
upon the Bank of England, which he, Coke, might fill up with any sum 
he pleased. 

Col. Coke told his Lordship that he never would sell the horse — 
alleging, at the same time, that he, with great difficulty, labor, and ex- 
pense, and after travelling in Arabia upwards of three years, procured 
The horse for the express purpose of presenting to his Lordship, on his 
arrival in England — he further said, that if his Lordship would not accept 
him, he would not part with him to any other person. Lord Godolphin 
was inexorable. 

Col. Coke solicited his Lordship again and again, without success, 
until Coke's entreaties, after a very considerable time became so very 
urgent, that, at length, Lord Godolphin accepted of this very Arabian, 
as the greatest present of the animal creation in the world. 

After his Lordship had presented his compliments to Coke, he told 
him, if he could in any way whatever serve him, he would do it with a 
great deal of pleasure. 

About this time, by means (it was supposed) of the servants of Col. 
C.'s relations hearing his name frequently mentioned in their respective 
families, and no doubt with a view of receiving the reward of " 150 
guineas," which government had formerly offered for his apprehension, 
they lodged information against him and he was arrested for his former 
offences, and committed to prison ; he wrote to Lord Godolphin (dis- 
covering to him who he was, and his real name) to intercede in his 
behalf with his Majesty, who ordered a writ of " nolle prosequi" to be 
issued, saying that Col. C. was an innocent man, and could not be the 
same person who committed the felonious acts, for which he fled from 
England. . 

Colonel Coke was immediately restored to his former rank, and his 

It will be perceived that if the foregoing account were true, this cele- 
brated horse could not be a Barb. It seems probable, therefore, from the 
testimony of others, that the above writer labored under some mistake, 
for we find it asserted by high authority, (American Farmer, Vol. VIII. 



page 215) that he was in reality a Barb— a horse of the desert. His 
color was entire brown bay, with mottles on the buttocks and crest, ex- 
cept a small streak of white upon the hinder heels. He was imported 
into France, from some capital or royal stud in Barbary, whence it was 
suspected he was stolen, and said to" have been foaled in 1724. So little 
was he valued in France, that he was actually employed in the drudgery 
of drawing a cart in the streets of Paris. Mr. Coke brought him over 
from France, and gave him to Williams, master of St. James' Coffee 
House, who presented him to the Earl of Godolphin. 

From still higher authority, (Library of useful Knowledge, Farmer's 
Series, No. 2, page 48,) we learn that he was picked up in France where 
he was actually employed in drawing a cart, and when he was afterwards 
presented to Lord Godolphin, he was in that nobleman's stud a consider- 
able time before his value was discovered. It was not until the birth of 
Lath, one of the first horses of that period, that his excellence began to be 
appreciated. He was then styled an Arabian, and was in higher esti- 
mation than even the Darley, the founder of the modern thorough-bred 
horses. He died in 1753, at the age of 29. 

To this account, it is added, that an intimate friendship subsisted be- 
tween him and a cat, which either sat on his back when he was in the 
stable, or nestled as closely to him as she could. At his death the cat re- 
fused her food — pined away, and soon died. Mr. Holcroft gives a simi- 
lar relation of the attachment between a race-horse and a cat, which the 
courser would take in his mouth, and place in his manger and upon his 
back, without hurting her. 

The DONGOLA HORSE. The kingdom of Dongola, and the neigh- 
boring districts of Egypt, and Abyssinia, contain a horse not at all like 
any other oriental. 

The Dongola horses stand full sixteen hands high, but the length of 
the body, from the shoulders to the quarter, is considerably less. Their 
form, therefore, is opposite to that of the Arabian or English thorough- 
bred, which are longer by some inches than they are high. The neck is 
long and slender, the crest fine, and the withers sharp and high, giving a 
beautiful fore-hand ; but the breast is too narrow, the quarters and flanks 
too flat, and the buck carped. They constitute excellent war-horses, from 
their speed, durability, and size. Several of them have been lately im- 
ported into Europe, but they are little valued. 

The ARABIAN. Going further eastward we arrive at Arabia, whose 
horses deservedly occupy the very highest rank. 

There are said to be three breeds or varieties of Arabian horses: — the 
Altecki, or inferior breed, on which they set little value, and which are 
found wild on some parts of the deserts ; the Kadischi, literally horses of 
an unknown race, answering to our half bred horses — a mixed breed ; 
and the Kotchlani, horses whose genealogy, according to the Arab ac- 
count, is known for two thousand years. 

The Arabian horse would not be acknowledged by every judge to pos- 
sess a perfect form : his head, however, is inimitable. The broadness 
and squareness of the forehead, the shortness and firmness of the muzzle, 
the prominency and brilliancy of the eye, the smallness of the ears, and 
the beautiful course of the veins, will always characterize the head of the 
Arabian horse. 

His body may be considered as too light, and his cheat as too narrow ; 



but behind the arms, the barrel generally swells out, and leaves sufficient 
room for the play of the lungs. 

In the formation of the shoulder, next to that of the head, the Arab is 
superior to any other breed. The withers are high, and the shoulder- 
blade inclined backward, and so nicely adjusted, that in descending a hill 
the point or edge of the ham never ruffles the skin. He may not be 
thought sufficiently high ; he seldom stands more than fourteen hands 
and two iuches. 

The fineness of his legs, and the oblique position of his pasterns, may 
be supposed to lessen his apparent strength ; but the leg, although small, 
is flat and wiry : anatomists know that the bone has no common density, 
and the starting muscles of the fore-arm and the thigh indicate that 
he is fully capable of accomplishing many of the feats, which are recorded 
of him. 

The Barb alone excels him in noble and spirited action ; and if there 
be defects about him, he is perfect, for that for which he was designed. 
He presents the true combination of speed and bottom — strength enough 
to carry more than a light weight, and courage that would cause him to 
die rather than give up. 

Several interesting anecdotes are related of the Arabian. A few of 
these may not be unacceptable to our readers. When the Arab falls from 
his mare, observes a writer, and is unable to rise, she will immediately 
stand still, and neigh until assistance arrives. If he lies down to sleep, 
as fatigue sometimes compels him, in the midst of the desert, she stands 
watchful over him, and neighs and rouse3 him if either man or beast ap- 
proaches. An old Arab had a valuable mare that had carried him for 
fifteen years in many a hard fought battle, and in many a rapid weary 
march ; at length, eighty years old, and unable longer to ride her, he 
gave her, and a scimitar that had been his father's, to his eldest son, and 
told him to appreciate their value, and never he down to rest until he had 
rubbed them both as bright as a looking-glass. In the first skirmish in 
which the young man was engaged he was killed, and the mare fell into 
the hands of the enemy. When the news reached the old man, he 
exclaimed that "life was no longer worth preserving, for he had lost both 
his son and his mare, and he grieved for one as much as the other;" and 
he immediately sickened and died.* 

The following anecdote of the attachment of an Arab to his mare has 
often been told, but it comes home to the bosom of every one possessed 
of common feeling. " The whole stock of an Arab of the desert consist- 
ed of a mare. The French consul offered to purchase her in order to 
send her to his sovereign, Louis XIV. The Arab would have rejected 
the proposal at once with indignation and scorn ; but he was miserably 
poor. He had no means of supplying his most urgent wants, or pro- 
curing the barest necessaries of life. Still he hesitated ; — he had scarce- 
ly a rag to cover him — and his wife and his children were starving. The 
sum offered was great, — it would provide him and his family with food 
for life. At length, and reluctantly, he consented. He brought the 
mare to the dwelling of the consul, — he dismounted. — he stood leaning 
upon her ; he looked now at the gold, and then at his favorite ; he sighed, 
he wept. ' To whom is it,' said he, * I am going to yield thee up ? Tt» 
Europeans, who will tie thee close, — who will beat thee, — who will ren- 

* Smith on Breeding p. 80. 



der thee miserable. Return with me, my beauty, my jewel, and rejoice 
the hearts of my children.' As he pronounced the last words, he sprung 
upon her back, and was out of sight in a moment." 

The next anecdote is scarcely less touching, and not so well known. 
Ibrahim, a poor but worthy Arab, unable to pay a sum of money which 
he owed, was compelled to allow a merchant of Rama to become partner 
with him in a valuable mare. When the time came, he could not re- 
deem his pledge to this man, and the mare was sold. Her pedigree 
could be traced on the side of sire aud dam for full five hundred years. 
The price was three hundred pounds ; an enormous sum in that country. 
Ibrahim went frequently to Rama to inquire after the mare ; he would 
embrace her, — wipe her eyes with his handkerchief, — rub her with his 
shirt sleeves, — and give her a thousand benedictions during whole hours 
that he remained talking to her. ' My eyes V would he say to her y ' my 
soul! my heart ! must I be so unfortunate as to have thee sold to so 
many masters and not keep thee myself? I am poor, my antelope ! I 
brought thee up in my dwelling as my child. I did never beat nor chide 
thee ; I caressed thee in the proudest manner. God preserve thee, my 
beloved ! thou art beautiful, thou art sweet, thou art lovely ! God defend 
thee from envious eyes!" 

Sir John Malcomb gives two anecdotes to the same purpose, but of a 
more amusing nature. 

" When the envroy, returning from his former mission, was encamped 
near Bagdad, an Arab rode a bright bay mare of extraordinary shape 
and beauty before his tent until he attracted his attention. On being 
asked if he would sell her, — ' What will you give me ?' was the reply : 
'That depends upon her age; I suppose she is past five?' 'Guess 
again/ said he. 'Four?' ' Look at her mouth,' said the Arab with a 
smile. On examination she was found to be rising three. This, from 
her size and symmetry, greatly enhanced her value. The envoy said, 
' I will give you fifty tomans' (a coin nearly of the value of a pound 
sterling.) 'A little more, if you please,' said the fellow, apparently en- 
tertained. 'Eighty. A hundred.' He shook his head and smiled. The 
offer at last came to two hundred tomans ! ' Well,' said the Arab, ' you 
need not tempt me further ; it is of no use. You are a rich elchee (noble- 
man.) You have fine horses, camels, and mules, and I am told, you 
have loads of silver and gold. 'Now,' added he, 'you want my mare, 
but you shall not have her for all you have got.'* 

The East Indian- Horse. The horses of the East Indies are the 
Toorky, which is said to be beautiful in form, graceful in action, and do- 
cile in temper; the Iranee, well limbed, but ears large and loose, and 
deficient in spirit ; the Covakee, patient and docile, but with an unsight- 
ly head ; hardy and calculated for long journies and severe service; the 
Mojinniss, spirited, beautiful, fleet, and persevering, and the Tazsee, hollow 
backed, and therefore deficient in strength, irritable in temper; yet 
sought after on account of the peculiar easiness of his pace. A general 
remark applies to all the native horses throughout India, that they want 
bone below the knee. 

The Chinese Horse. This breed is small, weak, ill formed, without 
spirit, and altogether undeserving of notice. 

The Persian Horse, is next in estimation, and deservedly so, to the 
* Malcom's Sketches of Persia, Vol. I. p. 41. 



Arabian. The head is almost equally beautiful, the crupper superior : 
he is equal in speed, but far inferior in endurance. The whole frame is 
more developed than in the Arabian. They never exceed, it is said, four- 
teen hands, or fourteen hands and a half high, yet certainly, in the whole, 
are taller than the Arabs. 

The Toorkoman Horse. Turkistan is that part of South Tartary, 
north-east of the Caspian Sea, and has been celebrated from very early 
times, for producing a pure and valuable breed of horses. They are 
called Toorkomans ; are said to be preferable even to the pure Persians 
for service. They are large, standing from fifteen to sixteen hands high; 
swift and inexhaustable under fatigue. Some of them have travelled 
nine hundred miles in eleven successive days. They however, are some- 
what too small in the barrel, — too long on the legs, — occasionally ewe- 
necked, and always have a head out of proportion large ; yet, such are 
the good qualities of the horse, that one of pure blood is worth two or 
three hundred pounds, even in that country. 

The Tartar and Kalmuck Horse. The horses of the other parts of 
Tartary, comprehending the immense plains of Central Asia, and a con- 
siderable part of European Russia, are little removed from a wild state : 
they are small and badly made ; but capable of supporting the longest and 
most rapid journey, on the scantiest fare. 

The Turkish Horse. The Turkish horses are descended principally 
from the Arab, crossed by the Persian and certain other bloods. The 
body, however is even longer than the Arabian's, and the crupper more 
elevated. They have contributed materially to the improvement of the 
English breed. 

There is no creature so gentle as a Turkish horse, or more respectful 
to his master, or the groom that dresses him. The reason is, because 
they treat their horses with great lenity. This makes their horses great 
lovers of mankind ; and they are so far from kicking, wincing, or growing 
untractable by this gentle usage, that you will hardly find a masteries* 
horse among them. 

The German Horses, are generally large, heavy, and slow. The 
Hungarian may be an exception, being fighter, speedier, and giving 
greater proof of Eastern blood. Every part of the continent, however, 
following the example of England, has been diligently engaged in the 
improvement of its breed, andthe German and Prusi an horses are now 
better proportioned and have considerable endoran t . but are still defi- 
cient in speed. The Prussian, German, and the reater part of the 
French cavalry are procured from Holstein. The; a - e of a dark, glossy, 
bay color, with small heads, large nostrils, and full - ; eyes, the fire and 
clearness of which seem to denote the inward spirit of the annual. They 
are beautiful, active, and strong. 

The Swedish, Finland, and Norwegian Hor^ Of the Swedish 
horses, Clarke, in his " Scandinavia," says, that the) a re small, but beau- 
tiful, and remarkable for their speed and spirit. ' r i riose of Finland he 
describes as yet smaller, not more than twelve hands high, beautifully 
formed and very fleet. The peasants take them fr< m the forests when 
they are wanted for travellers. Although apparen wild, they are un- 
der perfect control, and they trot along with ease at the rate of twelve 
miles an hour. 

The following story is told of one of the Norwegian horses. Hi* 



master had been dining at a neighboring town, and when it was time 
to return, had exceeded so much, that he could not keep a firm seat in his 
saddle. The horse regulated himself, as well as he could, according to 
the unsettled motion of his rider, but, happening to make a false step, 
the peasant was thrown, and hung with one foot entangled in the stirrup, 
the horse immediately stopped, and twisting his body in various direc- 
tions, endeavored to extricate his master, but in vain. The man was 
severely hurt, and almost helpless ; but the shock had brought him to his 
senses. The horse looked at him as he lay on the ground, and stooping, 
laid hold of the brim of his hat, and raised his head a little; but the hat 
coming off, he fell again. The animal then laid hold of the collar of his 
coat, and raised him by it so far from the ground, that he was enabled 
to draw his foot out of the stirrup. After resting awhile, he regained 
the saddle, and reached his home. Grateful to his preserver, the man 
did, what every good feeling bid him, — he cherished the animal until it 
died of old age. 

The Iceland Horse, is small, strong, and swift. The island abounds 
in troops of horses, which Jive upon the mountains, where they obtain 
only a scanty living. A few are usually kept in the stable, but when the 
peasant wants more, he catches as many as he needs, and shoes them 
himself, and that sometimes with a sheep's horn. 

The Flemish and Dutch Horses are large, and strongly and beauti- 
fully formed. The English are indebted to them for some of the best 
blood of their draught horses. 

The French Horse. France contains, like England, numerous 
breeds of horses, and considerable attention has lately been paid to their 
improvement ; but they are far inferior, it is said, to the English, in 
beauty, fleetness, and strength. The provinces of Auvergne and Poitou, 
produce good ponies and galloways ; but the best French horses are bred 
in Limousin and Normandy. 

The Spanish Horse. Spain was early celebrated for her breed of 
horses. The Andalusian charger and the Spanish jennet are familiar to 
all readers of romance. The subjugation of so great a portion of the 
peninsula to the Moorish sway, by introducing so much of the Barbary 
blood, mainly contributed to the undisputed excellence of the Spanish 
horse. One breed, long in the limbs, and graceful in all its motions, was 
the favorite war horse of the knight ; while another race, carrying the 
esquire, although inferior in elegance, possessed far more strength and 
endurance. The Spanish horse of the present day is not much unlike 
the Yorkshire half-breed; perhaps with flatter legs and better feet, but far 
inferior figure. 

The Italian Horses were once in high repute, particularly the Nea- 

Eolitans ; but like every thing else in those mismanaged countries, they 
ave sadly degenerated. One circumstance has mainly contributed to 
this falling off in reputation and value, viz. that the breed has been kept 
up by occasional intermixture not of Eastern but of European blood. A 
few of the Neapolitan horses, from their superior size and stateliness, are 
well adapted for the carriage. 

The English Horse. The earliest record of the horse in Great 
Britain, is contained in the history given by Julius Csesar of his invasion 
of that island. The British army was accompanied by numerous war- 
chariots, drawn by horses. What kind of horse the Britons then 



possessed, it would be useless to enquire ; but from the cumbrous struc- 
ture of the car, and the fury with which it was driven, they must have 
been both active and powerful. By the introduction of the Roman 
cavalry, the English horse received its first cross. Several centuries # 
passed by and we have no record of the value or character, improvement 
or deterioration of the animal. 

Soon after the time of Alfred the Great, some attention appears to 
have been paid to the improvement of the horse, by Athelstan, his son. 
and the second in succession to him. This was about the year 930. In 
A. D. 1000, it was decreed, and from this decree something may be gath- 
ered of the relative value of the horse, that if a horse were destroyed or 
negligently lost, the compensation should be at thirty shillings ; a fnare 
or colt, twenty shillings; a mule or young ass, twelve shillings: an 
thirty pence ; a cow, twenty-four pence ; a pig, eight pence ; and it 
-trangely follows, a man, one pound. 

About this time, or a little before, laws were passed, which fixed 
value of a foal, not fourteen days old, at fourpeuce ; at one year and a 
day, it is estimated at forty-eight pence, and at three years sixty pence. 
It was then to be tamed with the bridle, and brought up either a- a 
palfrey or a serving horse ; when its value became one hundred and 
twenty pence; and that of a wild unbroken mare, sixty pence. 

In those days the buyer was allowed time to ascertain whether the 
horse was free from three diseases. He had three nights to prove him 
for the staggers : three months to prove the soundness of his lungs ; and 
one year to ascertain whether he was infected with the glanders. For 
-very blemish discovered after the purchase, one third of the money was 
to be returned except it should be a blemish of the ears or tail. 

It was also decreed, " whoever shall borrow a horse, and rub the b 
<o as to gall the back, shall pay four-pence ; if the skin is forced into 
rlesh, eight pence ; if the skin be forced to the bone, sixteen pence." 

With William the Conquerer, about A. D. 1050, came a marked im- 
provement in the British horse. In the reign of Henry I., A. D. 1121, 
the first Arabian horse, or at least the first on record, was introduced 
Forty years afterwards, Smithfield was celebrated as a horse market 
From this time, until Henry VIII., the English horse advanced l 
- by slow degrees. 

In the time of this last monarch, an English treatise on the management 
of horses and cattle was written by Sir A. Fitzherbert, Judge of the Com- 
mon Pleas, and was the first of the kind produced. The learned Judge 
shared the common fate of those who have to do with the horse. H^ 
thus writes : " Thou grasyer, that mayst fortune to be myne opinion <>i 
-iidytion to love horses, and young coltes and foles to go anion*, 
cattle ; take heed that thou be not beguiled as I have been an hui 
tymes and more. And first, thou shalt know that a good horse ha* 
54 properties ; viz. 2 of a man, 2 of a badger, 4 of a lion, 9 of r :n ox 
a hare, 9 of a fox, 9 of an asse, and 10 of a woman." Later writers have 
pirated from Sir A., but have not improved upon him. The following 
description of the horse is well known. " A good horse should have 
three qualities of a woman ; a broad breast, round hips and a Long mane 
— three of a lion; countenance, courage, and fire — three of a bullock; 
the eye, the nostril, and joints — three of a sheep : the nose, gentleness, 
and patience — three of the mule ; strength, constancy, and foot — three 
of a deer ; head, legs, and short hair — three of a wolf* throat, neck, and 




hearing — three of a fox; ear, tail, and trot — three of a serpent; memory, 
sight, and turning — and three of a hare, or cat; running, walking, and 

The tyrannical edicts of Henry VIII. caused the number of horses to be 
much diminished, and for a long time little improvement of the breed was 
made. About the time of Oliver Cromwell, a South-Eastern horse wm 
brought into England. This beautiful animal was called the White 
Turk, and his name, and that of his keeper will long be remembered. 
Shortly afterwards appeared the Helmsley Turk, introduced by Villiers, 
the first Duke of Buckingham. He was followed by Fairfax's Morocco 
barb. These horses speedily effected a considerable change in the charac- 
ter of the English breed, so that Lord Harleigh, one of the old school, 
complained that the great horse was fast disappearing, and that horsea 
were now bred light and fine, for the sake of speed only. 

At the Restoration, a new impulse was given to the cultivation of 
the horse, by the inclination of the court to patronize gaiety and dissi- 
pation. The races at Newmarket were restored, and as an additional 
spur to emulation, royal plates were now given at each of the principal 
courses. Charles II. sent his master of the horse to the Levant to purchase 
brood mares and stallions. These were principally Barbs and Turks. 

Terms commonly made use of to denote the external parts of the Horse, 

From that period to the middle of the last century, the system of im- 
provement was zealously pursued ; every variety of Eastern blood wa? 
occasionally engrafted on the English, and the superiority of the engraft- 
ed, above the very best of the original stock, began to be evident. Still 
tome imagined that the speed and stoutness might possibly be increased : 
and Mr. Darley, in the latter part of the reign of Queen Anne, had re- 
course to the discarded and despised Arabian. He had much prejudice 




to contend with, and it was some time before the Darley Arabian attract- 
ed notice. At length the value of his stock produce began to be recog- 
nized, and to him the English are greatly indebted for a breed of horses 
of unequalled beauty, speed and strength. 

This last improvement now furnishes all that can be desired ; nor is 
this true of the thorough-bred or turf horse only ; it is, to a very mate- 
rial degree, the case with every description of horse. By a judicious 
admixture and proportion of blood, the English have rendered their 
hunters and hackneys, their coach, nay, even their cart horses, much 
stronger, more active and more enduring than they were before the in- 
troduction of the race horse. 

For a better understanding of our future observations, we give on the 
previous page an outline of the horse with the terms commonly made lue 
of to denote his external parts. 




A The Head. 

/; The posterior maxillary or under jaw. 

b The superior maxillary or upper jaw. Opposite to the latter is a 
foramen through which pass the nerves and blood-vessels which 
chiefly supply the lower part of the face. 
c The orbit, or cavity containing the eye. 
d The nasal bones, or bones of the nose. 

The suture dividing the parietal bones below, from the occipital bones 
/ The inferior maxillary bone containing the upper incisor teeth. 
B The Seven Cervical Vertebrse, or bones of the neck. 
C The Eighteen Dorsal Vertebras, or bones of the back. 
D The Six Lumbar Vertebrae, or bones of the loins. 
E The Five Sacral Vertebras or bones of the haunch. 
F The Caudal Vertebrae, or bones of the tail, generally about fifteen 
G The Scapula, or shoulderblade. 
H The Sternum or fore-part of the chest. 

I The Costae or ribs, seven or eight articulating with the sternum, and 
called the true ribs, and ten or eleven united together by cartilage, 
called the false ribs. 
J The Humerus, or bone of the arm. 
K The Radius, or bone of the fore-arm. 

L The Ulna, or elbow. The point of the elbow is called the Olecranon 
M The Carpus or knee, consisting of seven bones. 
N The metacarpal bones. The larger metacarpal or cannon or shank 

in front, and the smaller metacarpal or splent bone behind. 
g The fore pastern and foot, consisting of the Os SufTraginis, or the up- 
per and larger pastern bone, with the sessamoid bones behind arti- 
culating with the cannon and greater pastern; the Os Coronae, or 
lesser pastern; the Os Pedis or coffin bone ; and the Os Naviculare. 
or navicular, or shuttle-bone, not seen, and articulating with the 
smaller pastern and coffin bones. 
h The corresponding bones of the hind-feet. 
O The Haunch, consisting of three portions, the Ilium, the Ischium, and 

the Pubis. 
P The Femur or thigh. 
Q, The stifle joint with the Patalla. 

R The Tibia, or proper leg bone — behind is a small bone called the fibula. 
S The Tarsus or hock, composed of six bones. The prominent part is 

the Os Calcis or point of the hock. 
T The Metatarsals of the hind leg. 

English writers describe several varieties of the horse which are found 
in Great Britain. We shall briefly notice these, and begin with the 

Roadster or Hackney. This horse is used by the farmer to ride over 
his grounds, and by the man of business on his journies. The following 
cut represents the old English hackney or road horse. 





The present road horse is said to be a much superior animal to the 
portrait here given. In describing a good road horse, the Editors of the 
Library of Useful Knowledge dwell with much emphasis upon the im- 
portance of the maimer in which he brings down his feet to the ground. 
He should not, indeed, carry his legs too high, say they, but the main 
question is, does he dig his toe into the ground ? if the shoe, after having 
been on a week or a fortnight, is not unnecessarily worn at the toe, and 
you feel him put his foot flat on the ground, do not scruple to buy him, 
nay, esteem him a u choice gifted hackney.'" 

Every horse, however, is liable to fall, and therefore comes the golden 
rule of riding, " never trust to your horsed Always feel his mouth lightly. 
You will thus be able to give the animal assistance immediately, before he 
is too much off his centre, and when a little check will save him. By 
this constant gentle feeling, you will likewise induce him to carry his head 
well, than which few things are more conducive to the beautiful, safe and 
easy going of a horse. 

The hackney should be a hunter in miniature, with these exceptions. 
His height should rarely exceed fifteen hands and an inch. He will be 
sufficiently strong and more pleasant, for general work, below that stand- 
ard. He should be of a more compact form than the hunter : more bulk 
according to his height, for he has not merely to stand an occasional, 
although severe burst, but a great deal of every -day work. 

It is of essential consequence that the bones beneath the knee should be 
deep and flat, and the tendon not tied in. 

The pastern should be short, and although oblique or slanting, yet far 
less so than that of the race horse, and considerably less than that of the 
hunter. There should be obliquity enough to give pleasant action, but 
not enough to render the horse incapable of the wear and tear of constant. 
and sometimes hard work. 

The foot is a matter of the greatest consequence in a hackney. It 



should be of a size corresponding with the bulk of the animal, neither 
too hollow, nor too flat ; open at the heels ; and free from corns and 

The fore legs should be perfectly straight. There needs not a mo- 
ment's consideration to be assured that a horse, with his knees bent, 
will, from a slight cause, and especially if he be over-weighted, come 

The back should be straight and short ; yet sufficiently long to leave 
comfortable room for the saddle between the shoulders and the huck with- 
out pressing on either. Some persons prefer a hollow-backed horse. 
It is generally an easy one to go. It will canter well with a lady ; but it 
will not carry a heavy weight, or stand much hard work. 

The road horse should be high in the forehead, round in the barrel, 
and deep in the chest ; the saddle will not then press too forward, but 
the girths will remain, "without crupper, firmly fixed in their proper place. 

The points of shape essential to be attended to in the choice of a 
hackney, are — the shoulders, and the fore legs and feet : because a horse 
whose shoulders are properly formed and placed, is not liable to fall 
down ; and because his soundness depends chiefly upon his legs and feet. 
The shoulders should not be too upright, but should slope backwards from 
the shoulder points to the withers. It is desirable, if the horse is intend- 
ed to carry a man of much weight, that the shoulders should be rather 
thick than thin ; 'but it is essential that they should not be too large at the 
points. A horse whose shoulders are good, stands, when in his natural 
position, with his fore legs in a line perpendicular to the ground ; it is 
therefore very desirable that the purchaser should see him in the stable, 
and before he has been moved ; for he will then find him in his natural 
position, in which it may be difficult to place him after he has been once 
disturbed. Another mode of ascertaining whether the shoulders are 
properly placed is, by allowing the horse to walk past you, and to ob- 
serve whether he places his fore foot more forward than the shoulder 
point when he puts it on the ground. A horse whose shoulders are 
properly formed, will always do so; one whose shoulders are upright, 
cannot. The fore quarters of a horse intended to be used as a hackney, 
constitute an essential point ; his carcass should be round, and his ribs 
deep. A horse's fore leg, of the proper form, should be flat, and as large 
under the knee as it is just above the fetlock. The pastern should be so 
joined to the leg at the fetlock, that the horse should neither turn his feet 
out or in; but it is less objectionable that a horse should turn his feet a 
little outwards, provided it is not so much as to make him hit his fetlocks, 
than that he should turn them inwards. 

The FARMER'S HORSE is an animal of all work; to be ridden 
occasionally to market or for pleasure, but to be principally employed 
for draught. He should be higher than the road-horse ; about fifteen 
hands and two inches may be taken as the best standard. A horse with 
a shoulder thicker, lower, or less slanting than would be chosen in a 
hackney, will better suit the collar; and collar-work will be chiefly 
required of him. A stout compact horse should be selected, yet not a 
heavy cloddy one. Some blood will be desirable, but the half-bred 
horse will generally best suit the farmer's purpose. He should have 
weight enough to throw into the collar, and sufficient activity to get over 
the ground. 



The COACH HORSE. This animal has fully shared in the prog re.- 1 
of improvement, and is as different from what he was fifty years ago, as 
is possible to conceive. The clumsy-barrelled, cloddy-shouldered, round- 
legged, black family horse, neither a coach nor a dray -burse, but some- 
thing between both, as fat as an ox, and, with all his pride and prancing 
at first starting, not equal to more than six miles an hour, and knocking 
up with one hard day's work, is no more seen : and we have, instead 
of him, an animal as tall, deep-chested, rising in the withers, slanting in 
the shoulders, fiat in the legs, with even more strength, and with treble 
the speed. 

There is a great deal of deception, however, even in the best of these 
improved coach-horses. They prance it nobly through the streets ; and 
they have more work in them than the old clumsy sluggish breed ; but 
they have not the endurance that conld be wished, — and a pair of poor 
post horses would, at the second day, beat them hollow. 

The knee-action, and high lifting of the feet in the carriage-horse i> 
deemed an excellence, because it adds to the grandeur of his appear- 
ance; but, as has already been stated, it is necessarily accompanied 
by much wear and tear of the legs and feet, and this is very soon appa- 

The principal points of the coach-horse are, substance well placed, a 
deep and well proportioned body, bone under the knee r and sound, open, 
tough feet. 

Heavy Draught Horses. The Cleveland horses have been known 
to carry more than seven hundred pounds, sixty miles in twenty-four 
hours, and to perform this journey four times in a week ; and mill horses 
have carried nine hundred and ten pounds two or three miles. 

Horses for slower draught, and sometimes even for the carriage, are 
produced from the Suffolk Punch, so called from his round punchv 
make, and descended from the Norman stallion and the Suffolk cart- 
mare. The true Suffolk, like the Cleaveland, is now nearly extinct. It 
stood from fifteen to sixteen hands high, of a sorrel color ; was hirst 
headed, low shouldered and thick on the top ; deep and round chested ; 
long backed ; high in the croup ; large and strong in the quarters : full in 
the flanks ; round in the legs ; and short in the pasterns. It was the 
very horse to throw his whole weight into the collar, with sufficient 
activity to do it effectually, and hardihood to stand a long day's work 





The present breed possesses many of the peculiarities and good quali- 
ties of its ancestors. It is more or less inclined to a sorrel color ; it is a 
taller horse ; higher and finer in the shoulders ; and is a cross with the 
Yorkshire half or three-fourths bred. 

The excellence, and a rare one, of the old Suffolk, (the new breed has 
not quite lost it,) consisted in nimbleness of action, and the honesty and 
continuance with which he will exert himself at a dead pull. Many a 
good draught horse knows well what he can effect ; and after he has at- 
tempted it and failed, no torture of the whip will induce him to strain his 
powers beyond their natural extent. The Suffolk, however, would tug 
at a dead pull until he dropped. It was beautiful to see a team of true 
Suffolks, at a signal from the driver, and without the whip, down on 
their knees in a moment, and drag every thing before them. Brutal wa- 
gers were frequently laid as to their power in this respect, and many a 
good team was injured and ruined. The immense power of the Suffolk 
is accounted for by the low position of his shoulders, which enables him 
to throw so much of his weight into the collar. 

Although the Punch is not what he was, and the Suffolk and Norfolk 
farmer can no longer boast of ploughing more land in a day than any one 
else, this is undoubtedly a valuable breed. 

The Duke of Richmond obtained many excellent carriage horses, with 
strength, activity, and figure, by crossing the Suffolk with one of his best 
hunters. The Suffolk breed is in great request in the neighboring coun- 
ties of Norfolk and Essex. Mr. Wakefield, of Barnham in Essex, had 
a stallion for which he was offered four hundred guineas. 




The Clydesdale is a good kind of draught horse, and particularly for 
farming business and in a hilly country. It derives its name from the 
district on the Clyde, in Scotland, where it is principally bred. The 
Clydesdale horse owes its origin to one of the Dukes of Hamilton, wh< 
crossed some of the best Lanerk mares with stallions which he had 
brought over from Flanders. The Clydesdale is larger than the Sul" 
folk, and has a better head, a longer neck, a lighter carcass, and deeper 
legs ; strong, hardy, pulling true, and rarely restive. 

The Heavy black Horse, is the last variety it may be necessary to 
notice. It is bred chiefly in the midland counties, from Lincolnshire to 
Staffordshire. Many are bought up by the Surry and Berkshire fann- 
ers at two years old, — and being worked moderately, until they are four, 
earning their keep all the while, they are then sent to the London mar- 
ket, and sold at a profit often or twelve per cent. 

The Dray Horse should have a broad breast, and thick upright 
shoulders, (the more upright the collar stands on him the better ;) a low 
forehead, deep and round barrel ; loins broad and high, ample quarters, 
thick fore-arms and thighs, short legs, round hoofs, broad at the heels, 
and soles not too flat. The great fault of the large dray-horse is his 

The Cavalry Horse. The English cavalry horses were formerly 
large and heavy ; but a considerable change has taken place in the cha- 
racter of their war-horses — lightness and activity have succeeded to bulk 
and strength ; and for skirmishing and sudden attack the change is an 
improvement. It is particularly found to be so in long and rapid marches, 
which the lighter troops scarcely regard, while the heavier horses, with 
their more than comparative additional weight to carry, are knocked up. 
There was, however, some danger of carrying this too far ; for it was 
found that in the engagements previous to, and at the battle of Waterloo, 
the heavy household troops alone were able to repulse the formidable 
charge of the French guard. 




The Race Horse. There is much dispute with regard to the origin 
of the tliorough bred horse. By some, he is traced through both sire and 
dam, to Eastern parentage: others believe him to be the native horse, 
improved and perfected by judicious crossing with the- Barb, the Turk, 
or the Arabian. 


Whatever may be the truth as to the origin of the race-horse, the 
strictest attention has for the last fifty years been paid to pedigree. In 
the descent of almost every modern racer, not the slightest flaw can be 

The racer is generally distinguished by his beautiful Arabian head : 
his fine, and finely-set on neck ; his oblique, lengthened shoulders ; — 
well bent hinder legs ; his ample, muscular quarters ; his flat legs, rather 
short from the knee downwards, although not always so deep as they 
should be : and his long elastic pastern. 

The racer, however, with the most beautiful form, is occasionally a 
very sorry animal. There is sometimes a want of energy in an appa- 
rently faultless shape, for which there is no accounting ; but there are 
two points among those just enumerated, which will rarely or never de- 
ceive — a well placed shoulder, and a well-bent hinder leg. 

The Darley Arabian was the parent of our best racing stock. He 
was purchased by Mr. Darley's brother, at Aleppo, and was bred in the 
neighboring desert of Palmyra. The figure here given of him is sup- 
posed to be an accurate delineation. It contains every point, without 
much shew, which could be desired in a turf horse* 





The immediate descendants of this invaluable horse, were the Devon- 
shire or Flying Childers; the Bleeding or Bartlett's Childers, who was 
never trained ; Almanzor and others. 

The two Childers were the means through which the blood and fame 
of their sire were widely circulated, and from them descended another 
Childers, Snap, Sampson, Eclipse, and a host of excellent horses. 

The Devonshire, or Flying Childers, so called from the name of 
his breeder, Mr Childers of Carr-House, and the sale of him to the Duke 
of Devonshire, was the fleetest horse of his day. The following is said 
to present a true portrait of him. 





He was at first trained as a hunter, but the superior speed and cour- 
age which he discovered, caused him to be soon transferred to the turf. 
Common report affirms that he could run a mile in a minute, but there 
is no authentic record of this. Childers ran over the round course at 
Newmarket (three miles, six furlongs and ninety-three yards,) in six 
minutes and forty seconds; and the Bacon course, (four miles, one fur- 
long and one hundred and thirty-eight yards,) in seven minutes and 
thirty seconds. 

Eclipse was got by Mask, a grandson of Bartlett's Childers. Of the 
beauty, yet peculiarity of his form, much has been said. The very great 
size, obliquity, and lowness of his shoulders were the objects of general 
remark — with the shortness of his fore-quarter* ; his ample and finelj 
proportioned quarters, and the swelling muscles of his fore arm and 
thigh. Ofhis speed no correct estimate can be formed, for he never met 
with an opponent sufficiently fleet to put it to the test. 


He was bred by the Duke of Cumberland, and sold at his death to 
Mr. Wildman, a sheep salesman, for-seventy five guineas. Col. O'Kel- 
iy purchased a share of him from Wildman. In the spring of the fol- 
lowing year, when the reputation of this wonderful animal was at its 
height, O'Kelly wished to become the sole owner of him, and bought the 
remaining share for one thousand pounds. 

Eclipse was what is termed a thick winded horse, and puffed and 
roared so, as to be heard at a considerable distance. For this or home 
other cause he was not brought on the turf, until he was five years old. 

O'Kelly aware ofhis horse's powers, had backed him freely on his first 
race, in May 1769. This excited curiosity, or perhaps, roused suspi- 
cion, and some persons attempted to watch one of his trials. Mr. John 
Lawrence says that " they were a little too late," but they found an old 
woman who gave them all the information they wanted. On enquiring, 
whether she had seen a race, she replied "that she could not tell wheth- 
er it was a race or not ; but that she had just seen a horse with white 
legs running away at a monstrous rate, and another horse a great way 




behind him, trying to run after him ; but she was sure he would never 
catch the white legged horse, if he ran to the world's end." 

The first heat was easily won, when O'Kelly observing that the rider 
had been pulling at Eclipse during the whole race, offered a wager that 
he would distance the horses in the next heat. This seemed a thing so 
highly improbable, that he immediately had bets to a large amount. 
Being called on to declare, he replied " Eclipse first, and the rest no 
where!" The event justified his prediction: all the others were dis- 
tanced by Eclipse with the greatest ease, or, in the language of the turf, 
they had no place. 

In the spring of the following year, he beat Mr. Wentworth's Buce- 
phalus, who had never before been conquered. Two days afterward-, 
he distanced Mr. Strode's Pensioner, a very good horse : and in August 
of the same year he won the greatest subscription at York. No horse 
daring to enter against him, he closed his short career of seventeen 
months, by walking over the Newmarket course for the king's plate, on 
October the 18th, 1770. He was never beaten, nor ever paid forfeit; 
and won for his owner more than twenty-five thousand pounds. 


Wellesley Arabian. This is the very picture of a beautiful wild 
horse of the desert, his precise country was never determined, although 
it is known that he was a horse of foreign extraction. He is evidently 
neither a perfect Barb, nor a perfect Arabian, but from a neighbouring 
province, where both the Barb and Arabian would expand to a mor« 
perfect fullness of form. This horse has been erroneously selected as 
the pattern of a superior Arabian, and therefore we have introduced 
him ; few, however, of his produce were trained who can add much to 
his reputation. 

It has been imagined that the breed of racing horses has lately very 
considerably degenerated. This is not the case. Thorough-bred horses 
were formerly fewer in number and their performances created greater 





wbnder. The breed has now increased twenty fold, and superiority is 
not so easily obtained among so many competitors. If one circumstance 
could more than any other, produce this degeneracy, it would be the 
absurd and cruel habit of bringing out horses too soon, and the frequent 
failure of their legs before they have come to their full power. Child- 
ers and Eclipse did not appear until they were five years old ; but ma- 
ny of our best horses and those, perhaps, who would have shown equal 
excellence with the most celebrated racers, are foundered and destroyed 
before that period. 


The Hunter, is derived from horses of entire blood, or such as arc 
but little removed from it, uniting with mares of substance, correct 
form, and good action. In some instances hunters are derived from 
large mares of the pure breed propagating with powerful stallions of 
the old English road horse. This favorite and valuable breed is a happy 
combination of the speed of the Arabian, with the durability of the na- 
tive horse. More extended in form, but framed on the same principles, 
he is able to carry a considerable weight through heavy grounds with a 
swiftness equalled only by the animal he pursues, and with a persever- 
ance astonishing to the natives of every other country. Hence the ex- 
treme demand for this breed of horses in every European country, the 
English racing stallions being now sent to propagate in the eastern 
climes, from whence some of them were originally brought. 

Galloways and Ponies. A horse between thirteen and fourteen 
hands in height is called a Galloway, from a beautiful breed of little 
horses once found in the south of Scotland, on the shore of the Solway 
Frith, but now sadly degenerated, and almost lost, from the attempts of 
the farmers to obtain a larger kind, and better adapted to the purpose of 





Dr. Anderson thus describes the Galloway : There was once a breed 
of small elegant horses in Scotland, similar to those of Iceland and Swe- 
den, and which were known by the name of Galloways ; the best of 
which sometimes reached the height of fourteen hands and a half. One 
of this description I possessed, it having been bought for my use when a 
boy. In point of elegance of shape it was a perfect picture; and in dis- 
position was gentle and compliant. It moved almost with a wish, and 
never tired. I rode this little creature for twenty-five years, and, twice 
in that time I rode an hundred and fifty miles at. a stretch, without stop- 
ping except to bait, and that for not above an hour at a time. It came in 
at the last stage with as much ease and alacrity as it travelled the first. 
I could have undertaken to have performed on this beast, when it was in 
its prime, sixty miles a day for a twelve month running, without any 
extraordinary exertions. 

The Welsh Posey is one of the most beautiful little animals that can 
be imagined. He has a small head, high- withers, deep yet round barrel, 
short joints, flat legs, and good round feet. He will live on any fare, and 
can never be tired out. 

The Highland Poney is far inferior to the Galloway. The head is 
large, he is low before, long in the back, short in the legs, upright in the 
pasterns, rather slow in his paces, and not pleasant to ride, except in the 
canter. His habits make him hardy, for he is rarely housed in the sum- 
mer or the winter. The Rev. Mr. Hall, in his Travels in Scotland, says, 
" that when these animals come to any boggy piece of ground, they first 
put their nose to it, and then pat on it in a peculiar way with one of their 
fore feet, and from the sound and feel of the ground, they know whether 
it will bear them. They do the same with ice, and determine in a minute 
whether they will proceed." 





The Shetland Poxey, called in Scotland Sheltie, an inhabitant of the 
extreme northern Scottish isles, is a very diminutive animal, sometimes 
not seven hands and a half in height, and rarely exceeding nine and a 
half. He is often exceedingly beautiful, with a small head, good temper- 
ed countenance, a short neck, fine towards the throttle, shoulders low 
and thick, (in so little a creature far from being a blemish,) back short, 
quarters expanded and powerful, legs flat and fine, and pretty round feet. 
They possess immense strength for their size, will fatten on any thing, 
and are perfectly docile. One of them nine hands, or three feet in height, 
carried a man of twelve stone, forty miles in one day. 

The Irish Horse is generally smaller than the English. He is stinted 
in his growth, for the poverty and custom of the country have imposed 
upon him much hard work, at a time when he is unfit for labor of any 
kind. For this reason, too, the Irish horse is deficient in speed. There 
is, however, another explanation of this. The Irish thorough-bred horse 
is not equal to the English. He is comparatively a weedy, leggy, worth- 
less animal, and very little of him enters into the composition of the 
hunter or the hackney. 

For leaping, the Irish horse is unrivalled. Jt is not, however, the leap- 
ing of the English horse, striding, as it were, over a low fence, and stretch- 
ed at his full length over a higher one ; it is the proper jump of the deer, 
beautiful to look at,difficult to sit, and both in height and extent unequalled 
by the English horse. 

There are very few horses in the agricultural districts of Ireland exclu- 
sively devoted to draught. The minute division of the farm renders it 
impossible for them to be kept. The occupier even of a tolerable sized 
Irish farm, wants a horse that shall carry him to market, and draw his 
small car, and perform every kind of drudgery — a horse of all work ; 
therefore the thorough draft horse, whether Leicestershire or Suffolk, is 
rarely found. 



The American Horse. In the extensive territory and varied climate 
of the Western Continent, several breeds of horses are found. Our limits 
will permit us to notice briefly, only the following. 

Wild Horse. Troops of wild horses which are of Spanish descent, are 
found in several parts of South America. Some of these troops are 
supposed to contain several thousands. They appear to be under the 
command of a leader, the strongest and boldest of the herd, and whom 
they implicitly obey. In the thinly inhabited parts of South America, it 
is dangerous to fall in with any of their troops. 

The manner in which these horses are taken, is interesting and curi- 
ous. This is generally accomplished by the Guacho, or native inhabitant 
of the plains, who uses for this purpose the lasso, a strong plaited thong, 
of equal thickness, half an inch in diameter, and forty feet long; made 
of many stripes of green hide, plaited like a whip-thong, and rendered 
supple by grease. It has at one end an iron ring, above an inch and a 
half in diameter, through which the thong is passed, and this forms a 
running noose. 

When the Guacho wishes to take a wild horse, he mounts one that has 
been used to the sport and gallops over the plain. One end of his lasso 
is affixed to his saddle-girth ; the remainder, he coils carefully in his left 
hand, leaving about 12 feet belonging to the noose end in a coil, and a 
half of which he holds in his right hand. He then swings this long noose 
horizontally around his head, the weight of the iron ring at the end of the 
noose assisting in giving it by a continued circular motion, a sufficient 
force to project it the whole length of the line. 

Thus equipped, the Guacho, as we have remarked, gallops over the 
plain. As soon as he comes sufficiently near his prey, the lasso is 
thrown round the two hind legs, and as the Guacho rides a little on one 
side, the jerk pulls the entangled horse's feet laterally so as to throw 
him on his side, without endangering his knees, or his face. Before 
the horse can recover the shock, the rider dismounts, and snatching his 
poncho, or cloak, from his shoulders, wraps it round the prostrate ani- 
mal's head. He then forces into his mouth one of the powerful bridles 
of the country, straps a saddle on his back, and bestriding him, removes 
the poncho ; upon which the astonished horse springs on his legs, and 
endeavors by a thousand vain efforts, to disencumber himself of his 
new master, who sits quite composedly on his back, and by a discipline 
which never fails, reduces the horse to such complete obedience, that he 
is soon trained to lend his whole speed and strength to the capture of his 

Canadian Horse. This horse is found principally in Canada and the 
northern states. He is supposed to be of French descent, and many 
of the celebrated American trotters are of this breed. This species of 
horse is generally small, but remarkably compact. He will keep in good 
condition, and even grow fat on indifferent fare. 

Conestoga Horse. This horse is found in Pennsylvania and the mid- 
dle States. He is generally long in the leg, and light in the carcass, — 
sometimes rising seventeen hands, used principally for the carriage ; 
but when not too high, and with sufficient substance, useful for hunting 
and the saddle. 

English Horse in the United States. The horses generally found in the 
United States, are the descendants of English importation. Until 





within a few years little attention has been paid to the raising of first 
rate horses. This is particularly true of New England. A deeper in- 
terest, however, is beginning to be felt on this important subject, and 
many valuable horses are to be found in all parts of the country. More 
attention has for years been paid to the rearing of good horses in Vir- 
ginia, Kentucky, and other southern states. Importations of the best 
English blood have at different times been made which has been diligent- 
ly and purely preserved. 

Our limits forbid even the mention of the names of distinguished 
horses, which from time to time have been imported into the country, 
and to which we are indebted for the finest horses of the present day. 
Nor shall we attempt an enumeration of the valuable horses which have 
been bred in our own country ; but content ourselves with present- 
ing to our readers the following portrait of the celebrated American 
Eclipse, named after his English ancestor Eclipse, when only five 
months old, from the promise which he then gave of peculiar strength 
and speed. 


This was a sorrel horse, with a star, and the near hind foot white, fif- 
teen hands three inches high, possessing a large share of bone and muscle, 
and excelling all horses of his day in the three great essentials of speed, 
stoutuess, and ability to carry weight. He was foaled in the year 181 4. 
His pedigree is traced through the celebrated English horse, Messenger, 
Eclipse; up to the distinguished Godolphin Arabian, of which we have 
given a particular account, in a previous page. 




5^ ^|P*> 


This celebrated horse is a bright bay, with black legs, standing 15 
hands high ; his superior blood, symmetry and action excel those of 
every other trotting stallion. He is allowed by the best judges in 
Norfolk [Eng.] to be the fastest and best bred horse ever sent out of that 


The general criteria of the qualities of the horse, observes Loudon, art- 
derived from inspection and trial. His outward appearance aaumg 
judges affords a pretty just criterion of his powers, and a moderate trial 
usually enables the same judgment to decide on the disposition to exercise 
such powers. 

Color as a criterion of mental and personal qualities, is laid much 
stress on by many persons : and notwithstanding the adage, that " a good 
horse cannot be of a bad color;" long experience has shown that, in 
general cases, certain tints are usually accompanied by certain qualities 
of person or disposition. As a general rule, dark colored horses are 
certainly the best; but black, as the darkest of all, seems to form an ex- 
ception to this rule. Light shades appear unfavorable to strength and 
durability ; they are also accompanied frequently with iritability, and 
perverseness of temper. Something like a general law in the animal 
economy seems to prevail to make white a distinctive mark of weakness. 
Age, which is the parent of weakness, brings with it white hairs> both in 
man and in horses, and most other quadrupeds. The hair formed, after 
a wound has robbed a part of its original covering, is often white, be- 

* Bellfounder now stands on Long Island. 



cause the new formed surface is yet in a state of debility. It is likewise 
a fact, well known among the observant, that the legs and feet when 
white, are more obnoxious to disease, than those of a darker tone. The 
Arabs remark that light chesnut horses, have soft tender feet. It is the 
observance of these peculiarities, that has, at length, guided our taste and 
formed our judgment of beauty. With the English, much white on the 
legs is considered as a deformity, and is expressively called, foul marked ; 
whereas pied markings in other parts are reckoned beautiful. In 
Africa, however, Capt. Lyon iuforms us, a superstitious dependence is 
placed on horses with legs and feet stockined with white. It does not 
appear that climate has the same influence on the color of horses, as on 
other domesticated animals. In all latitudes, in which the horse can 
live, he is black or white, indiscriminately ; but as he cannot endure ex- 
treme rigour, it is not necessary he should vary. 

The criteria of action. are derived from a due consideration of the form 
generally, and of the limbs particularly ; as well as from seeing the horse 
perform his paces in hand. 

The criteria of hardihood are derived from the form of the carcass, which 
should be circular or barrelled ; by which, food is retained, and strength 
gained, to perform what is required. Such horses are also generally 
good feeders. 

The criteria of spirit, vigor, or mettle, as it is termed, are best deriv- 
ed from trial. It should always be kept in mind, that a hot fiery horse 
is as objectionable as a horse of good courage is desirable. Hot horses 
may be known by their disinclination to stand still ; by their mettle being 
raised by the slightest exercise, especially when in company. Such 
horses seldom last long, and under accident are impetuous and frighten- 
ed in the extreme. A good couraged horse, on the contrary, moves 
with readiness as well alone as in company : he carries one ear forward 
and one backward ; is attentive and cheerful; loves to be talked to, and 
caressed, even while on his journey ; and if in double harness, will play 
with his mate. Good couraged horses are always the best tempered, 
and, under difficulties, are by far the most quiet, and least disposed to 
do mischief. 

The criteria of a horse peculiarly adapted to the labors of agriculture, are 
thus given by Culley. His head should be as small as the proportion 
of the animal will admit ; his nostrils expanded, and muzzle fine; his 
eyes cheerful and prominent ; his ears small, upright, and placed near 
together ; his neck, rising out from between his shoulders with an easy 
tapering curve, must join gracefully to the head; his shoulders, being 
well thrown back, must also go into his neck (at what is called the points) 
unperceived, which perhaps facilitates the going much more than the 
narrow shoulder ; the arm, or fore thigh should be muscular, and taper- 
ing from the shoulder, to meet a fine, strait, sinewy, and bony leg ; the 
hoof circular, and wide at the heel; his chest deep, and full at the girth ; 
his loins or fillets broad and straight, and body round ; his hips or hooks 
by no means wide, but quarters long, and the tail set on so as to be near- 
ly in the same right line as his back ; his thighs strong and muscular ; 
his legs clean and fine boned ; the leg-bones not round, but what is called 
lathy or fiat." 

The criteria, relative to the age and the essential characteristics of a 
good horse, may not improperly form a part of the present outline. In 



old horses, the eye-pits are generally deep ; though this mark is very 
uncertain, as it also occurs in young horses that are descended from 
aged stallions. But the most certain criterion is that derived from the 
teeth, the number of which amounts to forty ; namely, twenty-four 
grinders or double teeth, (which in fact afford no certain guide,) and 
sixteen others, viz. four tushes or tusks, and twelve fore-teeth : these 
last are the surest guides for discovering the age of a horse. As mares 
usually have no tusks, their teeth are only thirty-six. A colt is foaled 
without teeth ; in a few days he puts out four, which are called pincers, 
or nippers ; soon after appear the four separaters, next to the pincers ; 
it is sometimes three or four months before the next, called corner teeth, 
push forth. These twelve colt's teeth, in the front of the mouth, con- 
tinue, without alteration, till the colt is two years or two years and a half 
old. which makes it difficult, without great care, to avoid being imposed 
on during that interval, if the seller find it his interest to make the colt 
pass for either younger or older than he really is : the only rule you have 
then to judge by is his coat, and the hairs of his mane and tail. A colt 
of one year has a supple, rough coat, resembling that of a water- 
spaniel, and the hair of his mane and tail feels like flax, and hangs like a 
rope untwisted : whereas a colt of two years has a flat coat, and straight 
pars like a grown horse. 

At about two years and a half old, sometimes sooner, sometimes later, 
according as he has been fed, a horse begins to change his teeth. The 
pincers which come the first, are also the first that fall ; so that at three 
years he has four horse's and eight colt's teeth, which are easily known 
apart, the former being larger, flatter, and yellower, than the other, and 
streaked from the end quite into the gums. 

These four horse pincers have in the middle of their extremities, a 
black hole, very deep ; whereas those of the colt are round and white. 
When the horse is coming four years old, he loses his four separaters, or 
middle teeth, and puts forth four others, which follow the same rule as 
the pincers. He has now eight horse's teeth and four colt's. At five 
years old he sheds the four corner, which are his last colt's teeth, and is 
"called a horse. 

During this year, also, his four tusks (which are chiefly peculiar to 
horses) come behind the others ; the lower ones often four months be- 
fore the upper; but whatever may be the common opinion, a horse that 
has the two lower tusks, if he has not the upper, may be judged to be 
under five years old, unless the other teeth show the contrary ; for some 
horses that live to be very old never have any tusks at all. The two 
lower tusks are one of the most certain rules that a horse is coming five 
years old, notwithstanding his colt's teeth may not be all gone. 

It is not an unfrequent practice of jockies aud breeders, in order to 
make their colts seem five years old, when they are but four, to pull out 
their last colt's teeth ; but if all the colts teeth be gone, and no tusks ap- 
pear, the purchaser may be certain this trick has been played : another 
artifice they use is to beat the bars every day with a wooden mallet, in 
the place where the tusks are to appear, in order to make them seein 
hard, as if the tusks were just ready to cut. 




Figure 1 of the annexed engravings of the horse's teeth, represents 
them at 2 years and and a half old ; fig. 2, at 3 years old ; fig. 3, at 4 years ; 
fig. 4, at 5 years ; and fig. 5, at 6 years. 

No.l. No. 2. No. 3. 



When a horse is coming six years old, the two lower pincers fill up, and 
instead of the holes above mentioned, show only a black spot. Betwixt 
six and seven the two middle teeth fill up in the same manner ; and be- 
tween seven and eight the corner teeth do the like ; after which it is said 
to be impossible to know certainly the age of a horse, he having no longer 
any mark in the mouth. In this case recourse can only be had to the 
tusks, and the situation of the teeth. 

With respect to the tusks, the purchaser must with his finger feel the 
inside of them from the point quite to the gum. If the tusk be pointed 
rlat, and have two little channels within side, he may be certain the horse 
is not old and at the utmost only coming ten. Between eleven and 
twelve the two channels are reduced to one, which after twelve entirely 
disappears, and the tusks are as round within as they are without; he 
has no guide then but the situation of the teeth. The longest teeth are 
not always a sign of the greatest age, but their hanging over and pushing 
forward, as also their meeting perpendicularly, is a certain token of 

Many persons, whilst they see certain little holes in the middle of the 
teeth, imagine that such horses are but in their seventh year, without 
regard to the situation the teeth take as they grow old. 

When horses are young, their teeth meet perpendicularly, but grow 
longer and push forward with age ; besides, the mouth of a young horse 
is very fleshy within, in the palate, and his lips are firm and hard : on 
the contrary, the inside of an old horse's mouth is lean both above and 



below, and seems to have only the skin upon the bones. The lips are 
soft and easy to turn up with the hand. 

All horses are marked in the same manner, but some naturally and 
others artificially. The natural mark is called begue ; and some "igno- 
rant persons imagine such horses are marked all their lives ; because 
for mauy years they find a little hole, or a kind of* void in the middle of 
the separaters and corner teeth : but when the tusks are grown round, 
as weli within as without, and the teeth point forward, there is room to 
conjecture, in proportion as they advance from year to year, what the 
horse's age may be, without regarding the cavity above mentioned. 

This artificial manner is made use of by dealers and jockies. who 
mark their horses after the age of being known, to make them appear 
only six or seven years old. They do it in this manner : they throw 
down the horse to have him more at command, and, with a steel graver, 
like what is used for ivory, hollow the middle teeth a little, and the cor- 
ner ones somewhat more : then fill the holes with a little rosin, pitch, 
sulphur, or some grains of wheat, which they burn in with a bit of hot 
wire, made in proportion to the hole. This operation they repeat from 
time to time, till they give the hole a lasting black, in imitation of nature ; 
but notwithstanding this fraudulent attempt, the hot iron makes a little 
yellowish circle round the holes like that which it would leave upon 
ivory ; they have therefore another trick to prevent detection, which is 
to make the horse foam from time to time, after having nibbed his 
mouth, lips, and gums with salt, and crumbs of bread dried and pow- 
dered with salt. This foam hides the circle made by the iron. 

Another thing which they cannot accomplish, is to counterfeit young 
tusks, it being out of their power to make those two crannies above men- 
tioned, which are given by nature ; with files they make them shorter or 
flatter, but then they take away the shining natural enamel, so that one 
may always know, by these tusks, horses that are past seven, till they 
come to twelve or thirteen. The figures prefixed to these remarks on 
horse's teeth, will illustrate the preceding hints : being drawn from the 
teeth themselves, at the various ages therein specified. 

With regard to the circumstances indicating a sound horse, it may be 
observed, that where a horse is free from blemish, the legs and thighs are 
well shaped ; the knees straight ; the skin and shanks thin : the back 
sinews strong and firm. The pastern joints should be small and taper. 
and the hock lean, dry, and not puffed up with wind. With respect to 
the hoof itself, the coronet ought to be thick, without any tumour or 
swelling ; the horn bright, and of a grayish color. The fibres of a 
strong foot appear very distinctly, running in a direct line from the 
coronet to the toe, like the grain of wood. Such a foot, however, ought 
to be kept moist and pliable, as it is subject to fissures and cracks, by 
which the hoof is sometimes cleft through the whole length of the cor- 
onet. A narrow heel is likewise a great defect ; and, if it do not exceed 
two fingers in breadth, it forms an imperfect foot. A high heel often 
causes a horse to trip or stumble: while a low one with long yielding 
pasterns, is apt to be worn away on a long journey. On the other hand, 
afoot disproportionately large, renders the animal weak and clumsy in 
its gait. 

The head of a horse ought to be small, and rather lean than fleshy : 
his ears should be erect, thin, sprightly, and pointed ; the neck arched 



towards the middle, tapering gradually towards the head ; the shoulders 
I rather long ; the withers thin, and enlarged by degrees as they extend 
downwards, yet so as to render his breast neither too gross nor too nar- 
row. Such are the principal marks by which the best form and propor- 
tion of that useful animal may be determined, without reference to the 
deviations from those general rules which characterize the cart-horse, 
and which have been already noticed. 

Nicking is an operation performed for the purpose of making a horse 
carry an elegant artificial tail. To such an operation some farmers have 
a strong objection, on account of the suffering it causes, to the animal, 
and a belief of its injurious effects, especially in relaxing the muscles 
about the hinderparts. The former objection has more weight than the 
latter; since those tendons, muscles, nerves, arteries &c. which are sepa- 
rated in nicking, are always cut in docking, an operation often made, 
and never to the permanent injury, or weakening of the horse. 

Several methods for nicking horses have been adopted by different 
persons. The following, however, it is believed has the sanction of the 
most experienced.* 

Having provided a convenient stall, pulleys, halter and manger, you 
may proceed to secure the horse, by putting a twitch on his upper lip, 
but not so high, as to prevent his breathing ; next make a cord fast to 
the fet-lock of one of his hind legs, and carry it thence, and fasten it to 
the fore leg, above the knee. Thus confined, the horse can do no injury 
to the operator, and his attendants. The tail of the horse is now to be 
closely and neatly platted from the root to the end, at whicfcfpoint it should 
be dubbed or turned over a small stick, and securely tied with a waxed 
string. Being now provided with a sharp knife, and a crooked iron, or 
buck's horn, turn the tail up in a direct line with the back bone, and make 
a transverse incision, immediately across the tail, one and a half inches 
from the root, and deep enough to separate the tendons on each side of 
the under part of the tail, which will be found about a quarter of an inch 
from the, hair on the outer edge ; the incision in the middle may be shal- 
low. Should the horse bleed beyond two gallons, the flow of blood may 
be checked by putting him in the pulleys, or by wrapping the tail up 
moderately tight with a linen rag from the root to the end. Next, at 
the distance of two or two and a half inches from the transverse incision 
make two longitudinally, about three inches in length, which will expose 
the large tendons on each side. Make two other incisions of the same 
kind, commencing about one inch from the second, and in length running 
within about two inches of the end of the tail. Make a transverse incis- 
ion within half an inch of the termination of the longitudinal incisions, 
pretty deep. With the buck's horn, or crooked iron take up the large 
tendons in the second incision, and draw the ends out of the first; 
take up those in the third, and draw the ends out of the second ; and 
at the upper part of the wound cut off the tendons even and smooth. 
Now strain up the tail opposite the second incisions, until the bone slips 
or breaks ; serve the tail opposite the third incisions in the same manner ; 
also the fourth and last, which should be made across. 

The operation being thus performed, the tail of the horse should be 
washed in strong salt and water, after which he may be put in a stall, 
or turned to pasture for two or three days. 

* Mason's Farmer Improved. 



At the end of this time, wash the wound and tail with strong soap 
suds, and place the horse in the pulleys, where he should remain about 
three weeks, or until his wounds have healed. Abstract half a gallon of 
blood each week ; and double that quantity should the tail be much in- 
flamed. Keep the parts clean, by frequently washing with soap suds. 
Twice a week take the tail from the pulleys, and let it remain down du- 
ring the night. Before putting it up again, the horse may be rode a few 
hundred yards. 

Great pains should be taken to have the weights equal, in order to pre- 
vent the tail from permanently twisting, as this would ruin the animal 
in appearauce. During the continuance of the horse in the pulleys, his 
diet should be light, and if practicable consist of green food. His legs 
should be frequently washed or bathed with pot-liquor, in which bacon 
has been boiled. Vinegar, sweet oil, or lard and spirits may be substi- 
tuted. Occasionally the wounds may be washed in copperas water, 
which will accelerate the process of healing. 

Pricking. This operation, which consists in simply dividing the 
great tendons of the tail, is now generally abandoned, having seldom 
been found to accomplish the desired effect. 

Foxing. This consists in depriving a horse of a portion of his ears, 
for the purpose of improving his looks. An easy mode of performing 
the operation is to take a small paint brush, and with paint in contrast 
to the color of the horse, mark the ears of the length and shape desired; 
then place a switch on the horse's nose, at the same time holding up a 
fore foot; with a sharp knife cut the ears in the line made by the paint. 
Wash the wound with salt and water, once a day for a week, after which 
apply sweet oil until healed. Those horses only, which have small, thin, 
delicate heads, are improved by foxing. 

Docking. To perform this operation safely, put a switch on the 
upper lip of the horse, and hold one of his fore legs up well nigh his 
body. Tie a waxed string tight round the tail above where it is to be 
cut off. Lay the tail on a smooth block of wood, and with a sharp knife, 
and mallet, you may easily sever it at a single blow. When this has 
been effected, place a little rosin on the wound, and sear it moderately 
with a hot iron. In a few days remove the waxed string, and to the 
wound apply occasionally a little fresh butter or sweet oil. 

Fattening. To fatten a horse in a short space of time, is justly con- 
sidered a desirable art. Should the animal which you wish to fatten be 
quite poor, commence by subtracting one quart of blood — to be repeat- 
ed once in eight or ten days. If he be in tolerable condition, the bleed- 
ings may consist of two quarts at a time. Commence also giving at 
the same time, the following mash, to be repeated every eight days : flax 
seed, one pint, boiled to a strong tea of one quart; powdered brimstone, 
one table spoonfull ; saltpetre, one tea spoonfull ; bran, one and a half 
gallons, scalding the bran with the tea. After the mash, the horse should 
not drink cold water for eight or ten hours. It is important also to take 
of assafoetida half an ounce, which being wrapped in a clean rag is to 
be nailed to the bottom of the manger, where the animal is fed, and of 
which in a few days he will become remarkably fond. Caution is to be 
exercised in feeding an extremely poor horse, lest you produce a foun- 
der or some other injury ; but at the expiration of three or four days the 
danger will be passed, and the horse may be full fed. It will be well to 




moisten his food occasionally with strong sassafras tea, which tends to 
enrich the blood, and open the bowels. A handfull of salt two or three 
times a week thrown into his water w T ill prove grateful, and serve to 
increase his appetite. Should the object be to fatten a horse in the 
shortest possible space, he should not be rode, nor even led out of the 
stable : but if solidity of flesh be desired, moderate exercise once in three 
days will be of service. Great care should be taken to have his hoofs 
cleaned every morning and evening, and stuffed with clay and salt, or 
fresh cow manure, to keep the feet cool, and prevent the swelling of the 
legs. It is indispensible that the curry-comb and brush should be used 
upon him every day, until he be quite clean. A blanket, as a covering, 
will add to his comfort, and assist in improving his appearance and 

Excessive Fatigue. It is sometimes necessary to require a horse to 
undergo great fatigue. To accomplish this, without injury, requires 
some preparation. Previous to entering him on his journey, a writer* 
remarks, he should be fed plentifully on solid old food, such as corn, 
fodder, hay, or oats, and exercised from five to ten miles a day. He 
should be well rubbed two or three times every twenty -four hours, which 
will have the effect of making his flesh not only firm, but hard. 

Experience has proved, that rainy or drisly weather, is more favorable 
to the performance of an excessive hard ride, than a day that is fair or 
sultry with sunshine ; rain having the effect of keeping a horse cool, ren- 
dering his limbs supple, of moistening and refreshing him. 

On the night previous to his engaging in this laborious undertaking, 
the same writer recommends to feed the horse six quarts of oats or four 
of corn, with as much good hay as he can eat ; in the morning to feed one 
quart of oats or corn only, and offer some salt and water, of which a 
horse is apt to drink but little. At a distance of fifteen or eighteen miles 
give him a bucket of salt and water, with two handfuls of corn meal 
thrown therein, and one quart of oats or corn; at twelve o'clock, and at 
dinner time feed and water him in the same manner. Your horse will 
require nothing more till night. 

The day's ride being performed, turn him into a lot to cool and wal- 
low; after which let him be placed in a stall on a good bed of straw. 
1st. Offer him a bucket of water. 2nd. Remove all dirt and dust from 
his legs and ancles with soap and warm water. 3d. Bathe him from his 
belly to his hoofs with equal parts of vinegar and spirits, to which add a 
little sweet oil, fresh butter, or hog's lard, stewing them all together, and 
make use of the mixture as warm as the hand can bear it. 4th. He must 
be well curried, brushed, and finally polished with a sheep skin or 
woolen cloth. 5th. His feet should be nicely cleaned out and stuffed 
with clay and salt, or fresh cow manure. 6th. He should be fed with 
one gallon of old corn, or one and a half gallons of oats, and six bundles 
of old fodder. Your horse being now in possession of every attention 
and comfort you could offer him, will soon be refreshed, forget his hard 
service, and be again prepared, by the next morning, to obey you, 
whither you may direct his footsteps. If you have more than one day's 
journey to perform with great rapidity, observe the same rules of feeding, 
watering and attention, as directed for the first day, except th*feeding at 
twelve o'clock, which quantity must be doubled. Many elegant and 




high spirited horses have been ruined and rendered useless, by persons 
wanting experience on the above subject, who were disposed to treat 
those faithful animals with every kindness in their power ; yet, being 
under the necessity of performing a long journey in a limited time, and 
not knowing that the will of a heated and fatigued horse should be con- 
trolled, they have permitted him to eat as much as he pleased, or when 
heated to drink as much cold pond or branch water, as his great thirst 
would induce him, which have often been the means of producing cholic. 
founder and other diseases, that too frequently prove fatal in the hands of 
a common farrier, to which title every ostler blacksmith, and every 
blockhead of a servant, who does not even understand the currying of a 
horse, have pretensions. The loss of two or three quarts of blood to a 
horse that has undergone excessive fatigue, will remove the soreness 
and stiffness of his limbs, the natural consequence of violent exertion. 

Treatment on a journey. To perform a long journey with comfort 
and ease to a horse, requires, as in the case of excessive fatigue, several 
<lays previous preparation. A horse which has been kept only at gras*. 
or which is uncommonly fat, or unaccustomed to exercise and fatigue. 
is quite unfit to perform a journey. A horse about half fat is in the best 
condition to bear the fatigue and labor of a journey, especially if for eight 
or ten days previous to setting out, he be fed with old corn, oats, or hay. 
and be moderately exercised. Thus prepared, the following mode of 
treatment is recommended upon the authority of Mason, in his " Farrier 

" 1st. Never permit your horse, while travelling, to drink cold branch, 
well, or pond water, or more than is necessary to wet or moisten his 
mouth. 2nd. Every time you stop to feed, (which will be morning, 
breakfast, and dinner time,) give him a bucket of water made a little salt. 
with about two handfuls of corn meal stirred in it; he will very soon 
grow fond of it, and indeed prefer it to every other drink : it cools the 
system, relieves thirst, and contains considerable uutriment. 3d. When- 
ever you stop for the purpose of breakfasting, let your horse cool about 
ten minutes; then feed with half a gallon of oats or corn and two bun- 
dles of fodder, not forgetting to offer him again the water, meal and salt. 
4th. At dinnertime observe the same treatment, as directed at breakfast. 
5th. At night (having arrived at the place you intend stopping at) have 
your horse turned into a lot, for the purpose of wallowing, cooling, &c. 
6th. With soap and water have all dirt removed from his legs. 7th. Have 
him placed on a good bed of straw, then take of spirits of any kind half a 
pint, of vinegar half a pint, mix them together, and let his legs be washed 
with the mixture until they are dry. 8th. Let him be well curried, brush- 
ed, and rubbed with straw. 9th. Water him plentifully. 10th. Feed 
him with two gallons of oats, or one and a half gallons of corn or homi- 
ny, and eight or ten bundles of fodder. 11th. Let his hoofs be nicely 
cleaned out and stuffed with fresh cow manure : this application keeps 
them tough, moist, and cool. 12th. Change your food as often as possi- 
ble, carefully avoid eating any that is new, or just gathered. Observe 
the above rules to your journey's end, except your horse should prove a 
great feeder, and in that case you may indulge him a little ; but the quan- 
tity I have here recommended, is enough for any common horse when 
travelling. It may not be amiss to remind the young traveller, to inspect 
his horses shoes once a day, and whatever appears amiss about them to 
have immediately rectified. It frequently happens that the skin of 



young horses, unaccustomed to travel, is chafed and scalded by the fric- 
tion of the girth ; the part, washed and cleaned with a little soap and 
water, and then washed with a little salt and water, will immediately 
cure and toughen the skin." 


During the first summer, the foals may be allowed to run with their 
dams until September or October, if the weather continue open and 
mild. They should then be weaned and kept in fold-yards, or paddocks, 
containing open sheds, with low racks and mangers for receiving their 
food ; which ought, at first, to be the sweetest hay that can be procured. 
Where rowen can be commanded, it will furnish a succulent and in- 
vigorating article ; but, both with hay and rowen, bran or oats should be 
given in due proportions, which indeed can only be ascertained by expe- 
rience. When, however, oats form a part of the food, it has been recom- 
mended to bruise or crush them previously in a mill ; which necessarv 
precaution will prevent the distention of the lower jaw veins, which 
would otherwise attract the blood and humors down into the eyes, and 
thus occasion blindness. Further ; by feeding young colts with oats, in 
conjunction with other articles, their limbs become better knit than when 
they are fed only with bran and hay ; while they will also be enabled to 
endure greater severity of weather, and to acquire the vigor requisite to 
their future improvement. It may, indeed, be assumed as an axiom, 
that there is no greater error in breeding any animals, than that too com- 
mon one of stinting them during the early period of their growth. It is 
then that they require the greatest nourishment ; and if it be withheld, 
they will be injured in their constitution, and consequently in their value, 
to a far greater extent than any saving that can be effected in their food ; 
but to no animal does this remark apply more strongly than to the horse. 

It is a common practice, on weaning foals, to put them into warm sta- 
bles during the following winter ; from a notion that they are not, at that 
early age, able to support the cold of an open shed. Whether this may 
be judicious with regard to the more tender breeds of blood cattle, it is not 
our present object to enquire ; but with respect to the cart species, it is 
unquestionably wrong. These, from the nature of their future employ- 
ment, must necessarily be exposed to every vicissitude of weather ; and 
they cannot be too early inured to a certain degree of hardship. They 
should, indeed, be carefully kept from lying out, in the wet, at night ; 
but during the day, they cannot be too much abroad; and dry hovels are 
far to be preferred to warm stables for their nightly shelter. It has been 
even found that young colts, which had shown symptoms of disease while 
kept with all the care usually bestowed on hunters, have recovered when 
removed to a paddock, and that weaned foals have thriven better when 
only sheltered in a rick yard than when housed. 

Colts, thus treated, will have acquired sufficient strength and hardihood 
before the second winter, to be enabled to brave the inclemency of the 
season, without any other food than hay, or any other covering than that 
with which nature has provided them. The largest dray horse3 are thus 
reared in the Lincolnshire marshes, in England : yet if they can be allow- 
ed the shelter of a straw-yard, with the addition, to their hay, of unthrash- 



ed oat-straw, or some of the succulent roots, but especially carrots, it 
will be of material benefit ; but they should be daily turned out into a 
field, as exercise is not merely conducive to their general health and 
growth, but particularly requisite in strengthening the sinews of their 
liinbs. and giving firmness to their feet. This, indeed, is attended with 
additional trouble ; for, in severe seasons, or when the pasture is quite 
bare, it becomes uecessary to feed them in the pasture to which they are 

The following summer the colts should be allowed the range of the best 
pastures, though they are too frequently turned on the worst : and in 
autumn they should be taken in, for the purpose of being broke to labor. 
The process of training horses for the saddle is one of considerable nice- 
ty : for those intended for the plough, it is much more simple ; but for 
both, the chief and best means are, gentleness and patience. The horse 
is an animal of much observation: capable of great attachment, and cf 
equally strong resentment ; if treated with kindness he becomes docile : 
but severity generally fails of its object, and renders him intractable. 
There is certainly much difference in their natural temper, some requir- 
ing much more care and time to reduce them to obedience than others; 
but even the most restive may be rendered manageable by mild usage. 

From the moment of its being weaned, the foal should he accustomed 
to the halter, and to be wisped over and occasionally tied up : but this 
should be done by the same person who feeds it. and that care should 
never be entrusted to lads, who will probably teaze the animal and teach 
it tricks, or to any hasty, ill-tempered man, who would be likely to ill- 
treat it. The cok will thus early become accustomed to be handled, and 
will consequently occasion much less trouble, than if he had been previ- 
ously neglected. After being a day or two in the stable, a bridle should 
be put on ; but with a small bit at first, instead of the large one usually 
employed by horse breakers, and which by the horse r s champing on it 
with impatience, sometimes occa-ions the mouth to become callous. He 
should then be led about, and accustomed to obey the rein in turning and 
stopping, which he will very soon learn ; and, after a few days he should 
be completely harnassed, and out into a team among steady cattle. Care 
should, however, be taken, neither to whip him nor to force him to draw, 
but leave him quietly to walk with the other horses, and in a very short 
time he will imitate them and begin to pull. It may then be as well to let 
some one mount him, even if he should not be intended to be commonly 
ridden, as it will render him the more docile ; but this had better be done 
while he is in the team, as the other horses will prevent him from plung- 
ing. Let no violence be used ; for such is his power of observation, that 
while he will readily learn every thing that he is taught, he will also re- 
collect many things that might be wished forgotten : thus, if flogged for 
starting at any particular object, he will only start the more on meeting it 
again, for he will remember the chastisement it occa